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Publication numberUS3167448 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 26, 1965
Filing dateAug 23, 1961
Priority dateAug 23, 1961
Also published asDE1444093A1
Publication numberUS 3167448 A, US 3167448A, US-A-3167448, US3167448 A, US3167448A
InventorsHirshfeld Julian J
Original AssigneeMonsanto Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process of treating fabrics with ethylene carbonate and article produced therefrom
US 3167448 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 26, 1965 J. J. HIRSHFELD 3,167,448

PROCESS OF TREATING FABRICS WITH ETI-IYLENE CARBONATE AND ARTICLE PRODUCED THEREFROM Filed Aug. 23, 1961 NA PPED FABRIC COMPOSED OF. FIBERS OF AT LEAST 809/0 ACRYLONITRILE.

IMPREGNATE NAP WITH AQUEOUS ETHYLENE CARBONATE AND SILICONE RESIN EMULSION.

DRY TO EVAPORATE WATER AND CURE THE SILICONE RESIN.

FIG. I.

ETHYLENE CARBONATE BOND k mmymmwm NAP rV/ /?\-FABRIC F l INVENTOR.

JULIAN J. HIRSI-IFELD 3,167,448 Patented Jan. 26., 1965 Deiaware Filed Aug. 23, 1961, Ser. No. 133,299 16 Claims. (Cl. 117138.8)

This invention is concerned with the treatment of the raised surface of woven, non-woven and knitted synthetic fabrics to prevent distortion of the raised surface due to normal wearing and laundering conditions. More specifically, this invention is concerned with preventing the matting, shedding and pilling of the nap of acrylic fabrics after subjecting these fabrics to normal laundering and wearing conditions, as well as preserving a soft hand.

In the past the raised surfaces of fabrics composed of synthetic fibers have been stabilized by the use of salts which were toxic and corrosive; therefore, special and expensive production equipment was necessary to apply these salts, usually as a solution, to the raised surface of the fabrics. Some of the salts were the pure metal halides such as zinc chloride, lithium bromide and water soluble thiocyanates. These salts were very corrosive to the standard finishing mill equipment. In addition. these salts gave the fabrics a harsh hand which was very undesirable and affected the color to such an extent that the fabrics were unacceptable. While this harsh or crisp hand could be softened, this entailed additional chemical and physical treatments which added to its cost.

An object of this invention is to provide a method by which the nap of synthetic fabrics are stabilized against normal wearing and laundering conditions.

Another object of this invention is to provide a stabilizing agent to prevent excessive matting, pilling and shedding of the nap of synthetic fabrics.

Another object of this invention is to provide a stabilizing agent for the nap of synthetic fabrics which gives a soft hand.

Another object of this invention is to provide a stabilizing agent for the nap of synthetic fabrics which does not deleteriously affect the color.

Another object of this invention is to provide a stabilizing agent for the nap of acrylonitrile fabrics which renders the fabrics free of excessive matting, pilling and shedding under normal laundering conditions as well as normal wearing conditions.

Another object of this invention is to provide permanent stability of high pile fabrics against matting, pilling and shedding.

Other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the hereinafter detailed description.

The objects of this invention are generally accomplished by applying an aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate to the nap or raised surface of synthetic fabrics, either woven, non-woven or knitted. Thiscompound is applied by the conventional padding method. In addition to the ethylene carbonate, a silicone emulsion is also padded into the fabrics. The use of the silicone' emulsion results in an acceptable soft hand when used in conjunction with the ethylene carbonate. In addition an anti-static agent such as Aston 108, which is a polyamine resin such as diethylenetriamine crossed-linked with polyethylene glycol diiodide or an epoxy resin, may be used inv conjunction with the silicone emulsion and ethylene carbonate which will give excellent protection against static electricity. Also, the fabric maybe treated with the above agents and a water repellent-agent such as Phobotex F.T.C., a melamine derivative, which will not afiect the hand or color and will give excellent resistance to water penetration. The use of these additional agents give additional useful properties to the fabrics without affecting the hand and color.

More specifically, the synthetic fabrics were mapped and then treated with an aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate in the range of a 0.05 percent solution to a 50 percent solution with the preferred solution being a 0.5 percent to a 2.0 percent solution. Along with the ethylene carbonate solution an aqueous non-ionic silicone emulsion of the general formula S1O Li. J.

with R and R being generally aliphatic radicals and n being from 1 to oowere added to improve the hand of the treated and napped synthetic fabric. An aqueous emulsion of the silicone of from 0.2 percent to 5 percent may be used with the preferred being a 1 percent to a 2 percent emulsion. More than a 5 percent emulsion may be used, but there is no improvement in the hand above the 5 percent emulsion and only increases the cost. The napped and treated fabrics were then heated in a conventional fabric drying apparatus, such as a chain dryer, to evaporate the water and to cure the softening agent-the silicone; in addition, this stabilizing compound, ethylene carbonate, is concentrated at the points of intersection of the fibers in the nap to form a durable bond between and among themselves. The period of time the fabrics were heated ranged from 5 minutes to 60 minutes, with the preferred being 20 minutes, at a temperature of 240 F. to 300 F., with the preferred temperature being 280 F. If an aqueous ethylene carbonate solution is used alone. then the exact temperature is immaterial as long as the fabrics so treated are dried; however, the temperature must not go to the degradation point of the acrylic fibers, 350 F. The napped fabrics were then withdrawn from the drying apparatus, and it was found that the hand was of acceptable softness and the color was unaffected. The stabilizing compound and softening agent were added onto the nap by the conventional padding method which is known in the textile field. Other agents such as water repellents and anti-static agents may have been added to the original padding bathwhich would have resulted in giving the mapped fabric, not only stability to laundering and wearing, but a softhand and permanent anti-static and water repellent properties.

While this application has been generally directed to synthetic fabrics, it is'especially useful in the stabilizing of the nap of fabrics made from fibers of acrylic polymers. The polymeric materials, which may be employed in the practice of the present invention, are polyacrylonitrile, copolymers, including binary and ternary polymers containing at least percent by weight of acrylonitrile in the polymer molecule, ora blend comprising polyacrylonitrile or copolymers comprising acrylonitrile with from 2 to 50 percentof another polymeric material, the blend having an overall polymerized acrylonitrile content of at least 80 percent by weight. While the preferred polymers employed in the instant invention are those containing at least 80 percent of acrylonitrile, generally recognized as the fiber-forming acrylonitrile polymers, it will be understood that the invention is likewise applicable to polymers containing less than 80 percent acrylonitrile. The acrylonitrile polymers containing less than 80 percent acrylonitrile are useful in forming films, coating compositions, molding operations, lacquers, etc., in all of which applications the alleviation of undesirable color is extremely important.

For example, the polymer may be a copolymer of from 80 to 98 percent acrylonitrile and from 2 to 20 percent 7 tion.

of another monomer containing the C linkage and copolymerizable with acrylonitrile. Suitable mono-olefinic monomers include acrylic, alpha-chloroacrylic and methacrylic acids; the acrylates, such as methylmethacrylate, ethylmethacrylate, butylmethacrylate, methoxymethyl methacrylate, beta-chloroethyl methacrylate, and the corresponding esters of acrylic and alpha-chloroacrylic acids; vinyl chloride, vinyl fiuoride, vinyl bromide, vinylidene chloride, l-chloro-l-brmo-ethylene; methacrylonitrile; acrylamide and methacrylarnide; alpha-chloroacrylamide; or monoalkyl substitution products thereof; methylvinyl ketone; vinyl carboxylates, such as vinyl acetate, vinyl chloroacetate, vinyl propionate, and vinyl stearate; N-vinylimides, such as N-vinylphthalimide and N-vinylsuccinimide; methylene malonic esters; itaconic acid and itaconic esters; N-vinylcarbazole; vinyl furane; alkyl vinyl esters; vinyl sulfonic acid; ethylene alpha, betadicarboxylic acids or their anhydrides or derivatives, such as diethylcitraconate, diethylmesaconate, styrene, vinyl naphthalene; VinyLsubstituted tertiary heterocyclic amines, such as the vinylpyridines and alkyl-substituted vinylpyridines, for example, 2-vinylpyridine, 4-vinylpyridine, Z-methyl-5-vinylpyridine, etc.; l-vinylimidazole and alkylsubstituted l-vinylimidazoles, such as 2-, 4-, or S-methyll-vinylimida'zole, and other C=C containing polymerizable materials.

The polymer may be a ternary or higher interpolymer, for example, products obtained by the interpolymerization of acrylonitrile and two or more of any of the monomers, other than acrylonitrile, enumerated above. More specifically, and preferably, the ternary polymer comprises acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, and 2-vinylpyridine. The ternary polymers preferably contain from 80 to 98 percent of acrylonitrile, from 1 to percent of a vinylpyridine or a l-vinylimidazole, and from 1 to 18 percent of another substance such as methacrylonitrile or vinyl V chloride.

The polymer may also be a blend of a polyacrylonitrile or of a binary interpolymer of from 80 to 99 percent acrylonitrile and from 1 to 20 percent of at least one other C=C containing substance with from 2 to 50 percent of the weight of the blend of a copolymer of from 10 to 70 percent of acrylonitrile and from to 90 percent of at least one other C=C containing polymerizable monomer. Preferably, when the polymeric material comprises a blend, it will be a blend of a copolymer of 90 to 98 percent acrylonitrile and from 2 to 10 percent of another monomer-olefinic monomer, such as vinyl acetate, which is not receptive to dyestuff, with a sufficient amount of a copolymer of from 10 to 70 percent of acrylonitrile and from 30 to 90 percent of a vinylsubstituted tertiary heterocyclic amine, such as vinylpyridine or l-vinylimidazole, to give a dyeable blend having an overall vinyl-substituted tertiary heterocyclic amine content of from 2 to 10 percent, based on the weight of the blend.

The following examples are cited to illustrate the inven- They are not intended to limit it in any way. Unless otherwise noted, percentages as expressed in the examples indicate percent by weight. 7 r

. Example 1 A swatch of nappedfabric composed of synthetic, linear acrylonitrile polymers was padded with an aqueous solu- Example 2 Example 3 A swatch of napped acrylic fabric composed of fibers of a blend of 88 percent or one copolymer of 94percent acrylonitrile and 6 percent vinyl acetate and 12' percent of another copolym er composed of 5 0 percent acrylonitrile and percent methyl vinyl pyridine was padded with a 0.50 percent aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate. The

swatch was then placed in a drying oven and heated for' 20 minutes at 220 F. It was then removed and allowed to cool, after which the swatch was laundered five consecutive times under normal laundering conditions. There was no appreciable change in the soft hand which would affect its commercial acceptability-and the color was not affected. In addition there was no excessive amount of matting, pilling or shedding.

Example 4 A swatch of napped fabric composed of fibers of 92 percent acrylonitrile and 8 percent vinyl acetate was padded with a 0.25 percent aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate. 1 The swatch was then placed in a drying oven and heated for 20 minutes at 220 F. It was then removed and allowed to cool, after which the swatch was laundered five consecutive times under normal laundering conditions. The hand remained very soft and the color was not affected. In addition there was no excessive amount of matting, pilling or shedding.

Example 5 A swatch of napped fabric composed of fibers of 92 percent acrylonitrile and 8 percent vinyl acetate was padded with a 0.10 percent aqueous solution of. ethylene carbonate. The swatch was then placed in a drying oven and heated for 20 minutes at 220 F. It was then removed and allowed to dry, after which the swatch was laundered. five consecutive times under normal laundering conditions. The hand remained very soft and the color was not affected. :In addition there was no exces .sive amount of matting,pilling' or shedding.

Example 6 percent of sodium bisulfate, a catalyst. The swatch was then placed in a drying oven and heated for 20 minutes at 220 F. The temperature was then raised to 280 F. for ten minutes to cure the silicone. It was then removed and allowed to cool, after which the swatch was laun dered for five consecutive times under normal laundering It was then removed and allowed to cool, after conditions. The hand remained very soft and the color was not affected. In addition there was no excessive amount of matting, pillingor shedding.

Example 7 A swatch of napped fabric composed of fibers of 92 percent acrylonitrile and 8 percent vinyl acetate was padded with an aqueous solution composed of 0.5 percent ethylene carbonate, 2.0 percent silicone resin and 0.2 7

percent sodium bisulfate, a catalyst. The swatch' was then placed in a drying, oven where it was heated for 20 minutes at 220 F. The temperature of the oven was then raised to 280 F. for minutes to cure the silicone resin. It was then removed from the oven and allowed to cool, after which the swatch was laundered five consecutive times under normal laundering conditions. The hand remained very soft and the color was not affected. In addition there was no excessive amount of matting, pilling or shedding.

With the stabilizing compound of this invention, it is possible to treat napped fabrics composed of acrylic fibers so that they may be laundered many times and their hand, color and physical properties, such as matting, pilling and shedding will not be appreciably changed from their original conditions.

Many modifications of the above will be obvious to those skilled in the art without a departure from the inventive concept.

I claim:

1. An article composed of the napped fabric of fibers of synthetic linear acrylonitrile, ethylene carbonate as a bonding agent at the point of intersection of the fibers in the nap and a silicone resin as a softening agent.

2. The article of claim 1 in which the fabric is composed of fibers of at least 80 percent acrylonitrile and up to 20 percent of another copolymerizable mono-olefinic monomer.

3. The article of claim 2 in which the fabric is composed of fibers of 94 percent acrylonitrile and 6 percent vinyl acetate.

4. The article of claim 2 in which the fabric is composed of fibers of a blend of 88 percent of one copolymer of 94 percent acrylonitrile and 6 percent vinyl acetate and 12 percent of another copolymer of 50 percent acrylonitrile and 50 percent methyl vinyl pyridine.

5. An article composed of the napped fabric of fibers of synthetic linear acrylonitrile and ethylene carbonate used as a bonding agent at the point of intersection of the fibers in the nap.

6. A method of stabilizing the nap of fabrics composed of fibers of synthetic linear polymers of acrylonitrile, comprising impregnating the napped fabric with an aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate and a silicone resin in which the ethylene carbonate as a bonding agent is used in an amount of from 0.05 percent to 50 percent by weight of the solution, drying said fabric and curing the silicone resin by heating said fabric at a temperature of from 240 F. to 300 F. for 5 to 60 minutes.

7. The method of claim 6 in which the napped fabric is treated with an aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate.

8. The method of claim 6 in which the fabric is composed of fibers of at least 80 percent acrylonitrile and up to 20 percent of another copolymerizable mono-olefinic monomer.

9. The method of claim 8 in which the fiber is composed of 94 percent acrylonitrile and 6 percent vinyl acetate.

10. The method of claim 8 in which the fiber is composed of a blend of 88 percent of one copolymer of 94 percent acrylonitrile and 6 percent vinyl acetate and 12 percent of another copolymer composed of 50 percent acrylonitrile and 50 percent methyl vinyl pyridine.

11. The method of claim 7 in which the fabric is composed of fibers of at least percent acrylonitrile and up to 20 percent of another copolymerizable monomer.

12. The method of claim 11 in which the fibers are selected from the group consisting of a fiber of 94 percent acrylonitrile and 6 percent vinyl acetate and a blend of 88 percent of one copolymer of 94 percent acrylonitrile and 6 percent vinyl acetate and 12 percent of another copolymer composed of 50 percent acrylonitrile and 50 percent methyl vinyl pyridine.

13. A method of stabilizing the nap of fabrics composed of fibers of at least 80 percent acrylonitrile and up to 20 percent of another copolymerizable mono-olefinic monomer, comprising impregnating the napped fabric with an aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate in which ethylene carbonate acts as a bonding agent at the point of intersection of the fibers in the nap to form a durable bond, with the amount of ethylene carbonate being 0.5 percent to 2.0 percent by weight of the solution, and drying said fabric.

14. A method of stabilizing the nap of fabrics composed of fibers of at least 80 percent acrylonitrile and up to 20 percent of another copolymerizable mono-olefinic monomer, comprising impregnating the napped fabric with an aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate, in the range of a 0.05 percent to a 50 percent solution, with ethylene carbonate acting as a bonding agent at the point of intersection of the fibers in the nap to form a durable bond, and a silicone resin emulsion in the range of 0.2 percent to 5 percent solution, drying said fabric and ouring the silicone resin by heating said fabric to 280 F. for 10 minutes.

15. The method of claim 13 in which the aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate is a 1 percent solution.

16. The method of claim 14 in which the aqueous solution of ethylene carbonate is a 1 percent solution and the silicon resin is 1 to 2 percent emulsion.

Dennett Mar. 11, 1952 Jones et al Feb. 7, 1956

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2588365 *Nov 10, 1949Mar 11, 1952Dow CorningMethod of rendering fabrics waterrepellent and product resulting therefrom
US2734041 *Mar 1, 1954Feb 7, 1956 Compositions of matter comprising
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3399079 *Sep 25, 1964Aug 27, 1968American Cyanamid CoAntistatic fiber blend
US3431159 *Jun 14, 1965Mar 4, 1969David GordonManufacture of mouldings from acrylonitrile copolymers
US3488217 *Feb 29, 1968Jan 6, 1970Du PontProcess for imparting a soft feel to textile fiber and the resulting fiber
US3530214 *Feb 24, 1967Sep 22, 1970Bernard KlebanowMethod for treating textile materials to uniformly set their shape
US4290766 *Sep 22, 1980Sep 22, 1981Milliken Research CorporationChemically sculpturing acrylic fabrics and process for preparing same
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/91, 427/387, 428/96, 8/130.1, 28/162, 26/2.00R
International ClassificationD06M13/232, D06M13/00, D06M15/37, D06M15/643
Cooperative ClassificationD06M15/6436, D06M13/232
European ClassificationD06M13/232, D06M15/643D