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Publication numberUS3168382 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 2, 1965
Filing dateApr 6, 1961
Priority dateApr 6, 1961
Publication numberUS 3168382 A, US 3168382A, US-A-3168382, US3168382 A, US3168382A
InventorsChambers Worthy L, Wolter Gilbert R
Original AssigneeSunbeam Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hair drier improvements
US 3168382 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 2, 1965 w. L. CHAMBERS ETAL 3,168,382

HAIR DRIER IMPROVEMENTS 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 6, 1961 9 9 f gNl Elvrozes:

1965 w. L. CHAMBERS ETAL 3, 6

HAIR DRIER IMPROVEMENTS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 6. 1961 Feb. 2, 1965 w. L. CHAMBERS ETAL 3,168,382

HAIR DRIER IMPROVEMENTS Filed April 6, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 United States Patent 3,168,382 HAIR DRIIER MPROVEMENTS Worthy L. Chambers, Wilmette, and Gilbert R. Welter,

Elrnhurst, Ill., assignors to Sunbeam Corporation, Chicago, lll., a corporation of Illinois Filed Apr. 6, 1961, Ser. No. 101,241 1 Claim. (1. 34-99) This invention relates to improvements in hair driers, and more particularly, to an improved hair drier cap and methods of making the same and an improved air hose connector for hair driers.

The cap of the instant invention is an improvement over caps of the type illustrated in copending Hair Drier patent application Serial No. 653,336, filed April 17, 1957, by Ivar Jepson, now Patent No. 3,006,079, issued October 31, 1961, and assigned to the same assignee as the instant invention. Since its introduction into the commercial market the cap of said copending patent application has performed its purposes admirably. At the time the cap was introduced the hair stylings or coifiures then in vogue were of the feather cut type which were not very voluminous. The cap was generally conical-shaped and facilitated the drying of such coitfures. The cap size was adjustable by adjusting means disposed along the apex of the cone shape. Since the coifiures then in vogue were not very voluminous and did not require relatively large hair setting instruments it was not necessary for the cap to be very wide and deep.

Hair stylings have radically changed recently and now the bouffant type of hairdo which occupies a relatively large volume and requires larger hair setting instruments is considered to be fashionable. This new type of hair styling and its necessary larger hair setting instruments require a cap which is larger than those of the prior art. Therefore, it would be desirable to provide a hair drier cap which is wider and deeper and better suited to the new hair fashions.

Home hair drier devices conventionally comprise a cap and a heater-blower unit which are interconnected by an air hose. The heater-blower unit can be positioned on a convenient surface such as a table or the like and preferably the hose is made relatively long and flexible so that the housewife is afforded a limited amount of freedom of movement to perform other tasks while she is sitting at the table. However, it may be necessary for the housewife to momentarily leave the table, as for instance to answer the telephone or the like. For this reason, it would be desirable to provide a connector for quickly disconnecting and connecting the air hose with respect to either the cap or the heater-blower unit.

Some prior art hair drier caps and air hose connectors have the disadvantage that they comprise a relatively large number of separate and distinct parts which increase their material and manufacturing costs. For instance, some prior art caps comprise several separate pieces of cap material which must be individually fabricated and then assembled into a cap shape by a plurality of distinct operations such as several stitching operations. Likewise, some prior art air hose connectors comprise a plurality of separate parts which must be individually fabricated and then assembled by a plurality of assembling operations. Therefore, it would be desirable to provide a hair drier cap and air hose connector which require a minimum number of separate parts and manufacturing operations whereby they are low cost and easy to fabricate. Also, since some air hoses are difficult to connect to the cap while it is on the users head, it would be desirable to provide an air inlet opening structure in the cap which would make it easy for the user to connect the air hose thereto while the cap is on the users head.

It is one object of the invention to provide an improved 3,lh8,382 Fatented Feb. 2, 1965 hair drier cap and air hose connector and methods of manufacturing the same.

It is a further object of the invention to provide an improved hair drier cap which is better suited for current hair stylings than are prior art caps.

It is a further object of the invention to provide an improved air hose connector in hair driers which can be quickly disconnected and connected with respect to either the hair drier cap or the heater-blower unit, and preferably the cap.

It is a further object of the invention to provide im proved methods of manufacturing hair drier caps which require a minimum number of parts and fabricating operations whereby the cap and the cost of manufacturing the same is reduced.

It is a further object of the invention to provide an improved air hose connector which has a minimum number of parts and can be readily fabricated with a minimum number of manufacturing operations.

It is a further object of the invention to provide an improved air inlet opening structure in a hair drier cap so that the user can easily connect an air hose thereto while the cap is on the users head.

Briefly, in the preferred form of the invention the cap is formed from two nested sheets of flexible impervious material which have integral forward and side flaps which correspond to the forward and side portions of the cap, with the remainder of the sheets comprising the crown and rear portions of the cap. Preferably the sheets are formed from plastic material and the sheets and flaps are seamed or sealed to each other by heat joining their edges together to form an air manifold therebetween. The hose connector is likewise a plastic part which has integral portions which provide latch means, latch biasing means or latch retaining means which can be formed by molding. Additionally, the cap is provided with an air inlet opening structure so that the hose connector can be easily connected to the cap while it is on the users head.

The features of the invention which are believed to be novel are set forth with particulan'ty in the appended claim. The invention itself, however, both as to its organization and operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.

In the drawings,

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one form of improved hair drier cap;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the cap illustrated in FIG. 1 taken along the section line 22 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a view of the material of the hair drier cap laid out fiat to illustrate the method of manufacturing the n;

FIG. 4 is a broken-away side elevational View of one form of improved air hose connector;

FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along the section line 5-5 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a side elevation view of another form of air hose connector;

FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along the section line 77 of FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a side elevation view of another form of air hose connector;

FIG. 9 is a sectional view along line 99 of FIG. 8; and

FIG. 10 is a sectional view along line Ill-10 of FIG. 9.

Referring first to FIGS. 1 and 2, in one form of the invention the improved hair drier cap comprises a crown portion 1, two opposite side portions 2, a forward portion 3, and a rear portion 4. The cap is fabricated from two nested sheets 5 and 6 of impervious flexible material. The sheets 5 and 6 are spaced with respect to each 5 other to define a manifold 7,therebetween. The sheets and 6 are preferably coextensive with each other and are sealed to each other in a manner to be described hereinafter so that the manifold 7 extends throughout the crown portion 1, the side portions 2, the forward portion 3, and the rear portion 4.

The inner sheet 6 has a plurality of air distributing apertures 8 formed therein to direct drying air from; the manifold 7 onto the cap users hair. The drying air enters the manifold 7 from an air hose 9 by a connector 1d connected to the rear portion 4 of the cap. The improved connector 10 will be described hereinafter. The drying air is exhausted from inside the cap after it has picked up moisture from the air by way of an outlet or exhaust opening 11 formed in the forward portion 3 of the cap. The exhaust opening 11 is formed in both sheets 5 and 6 of the cap, whereas an inlet opening for the connector 10 is formed only in the outer sheet .5 of the cap.

The bottom edge of the cap has adjusting means to fit the cap snugly on the cap users head so that none of the drying air will escape from beneath the bottom edge and blow on the cap users face or neck to cause discomfort, The adjusting means comprises a plurality of pleats 12 formed in the bottom edges of the side and forward portions 2 and 3, respectively. These pleated edges have an inner elastic band 33 stitched or otherwise connected thereto. Preferably the inner'surface of band 13 is lined or surfaced with a soft material so as to cause no discomfort when the bottom edge of the cap is drawn tightly about the cap users head.

The adjusting means also comprises drawstring means for the bottom edge of the rear portion 4. The drawstring means comprises a drawstring passageway 14 formed in the bottom edge of the rear portion 4 in a manner to be described hereinafter. A pair of drawstrings 15 are disposed in the passageway 14. When the drawstrings are loosened the bottom of the cap can be fully opened. Tightening of the drawstrings will draw the bottom edge of the cap snugly about the cap users head. When the cap is fully opened it will very easily pass over the large boulfant type of hairdos which are currently popular 'as well as the relatively large hair setting instruments-which are required for this type of hairdo. Additionally, since the cap is relatively wide and deep it is admirably suited to the drying of current hair stylings and provides sufficient space for the same and their larger hair setting'instruments. The drawstrings 1% extend throughout the length of passageway 14. One end of one drawstring is anchored adjacent the corresponding end of the passageway by means such as stitching 16, and the opposite end of the other drawstring is similarly anchored at the other end of the passageway 14. The stitching 16 is preferably disposed through the opposite ends of the elastic band 13 so that when the free ends of the drawstrings are pulled to shorten the passageway 14 to tighten the cap about the cap users head the elastic band 13 is also simultaneously tensioned. The free ends of the drawstrings extend out of theircorresponding ends of the passageway 14 through suitable means such as eyelet openings 17 formed at the opposite ends of the passageway 14 in the outer sheet 5. The eyelet openings 17 are illustrated in FIG. 3, and FIG. 3 should now be referred to in connection with a description of the methods of manufacturing the cap.

FIG. 3 shows the two sheets 5 and 6 of the cap laid out fiat during one stage of the cap manufacturing process.

Parts which correspond to those parts illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 are given identical reference numerals. The sheets 5 and 6 are preferably coextensive with each other and are superimposed. Both sheets are preferably precut into an octagonal shape. That is to say, both sheets have generally isosceles trapezoidal-shaped forward flaps which correspond to the forward portion 3 of the cap. The generally isosceles trapezoidal-shaped forward flaps are tapered in a forward direction. Both sheets also have a pair of opposite side flaps which correspond to the sides 2 of the cap. The side flaps are generally triangular shaped and right angled. They extend from the rear portions of the forward flaps and taper rearwardly into merged relationship with the rear of the sheets which corresponds to the rear portion 4 of the cap. The sheets are placed one'upon the other and then their corresponding outer edges are sealed to each other by applying heat thereto. The heat-sealed edges provide a heat-formed seam 20 which extends continuously about the eight sides of the octagonal-shaped sheets. The two sheets which are thus sealed with respect to each other provide the manifold 7 therehetween which extends throughout the central or crown portion 1 of the two sheets, the forward portion 3, the side portions 2, and the rear portion 4. Inasmuch as the central portion 1, the rear portion 4, the forward flaps 3, and the side flaps 2 are integral with each other the number of separate pieces required to fabricate the cap is held. to a minimum and the manufacturing process is greatly simplified over those of the prior art.

The forward and side flaps have their adjacent seamed edges heat sealed to each other to form the seams 21 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. Preferably the opposite sides of the forward flaps and the adjacent sides of the side, flaps are disposed with respect to each other at an obtuse angle as illustrated in FIG. 3. This provides a cap which is greatly enlarged over some of those of the prior art. In particular, the cap has a substantially increased volume in the front top and side areas thereof to receive the currently popular bouifant type hair styles.

The drawstring passageway 14 is provided by forming a heat seam 22 between the sheets 5 and 6 adjacent to the rear edge 20 of the two sheets in slightly spaced relationship with respect thereto. Additionally, the side portions 2 of the cap have their lower parts isolated from the manifold 7 so that drying air is not blown directly on the cap users ears. This is accomplished by forming a pair of heat seams 23 between the two sheets 5 and 6 in the side portions 2. The heat-fonmed seams 23 extend from the seams 21 across the triangular-shaped side flaps to the heat-formed seam 22. The heat-formed seams 23 thereby prevent any air in the manifold 7 from entering the lower part of the side portions 2 where they might be directed against the cap users ears and possibly cause discomfort. For this reason also, the apertures 8 in the side portions 2 are spaced slightly above the seams 23.

An inlet aperture which is bounded by an annular member 35 is formed in the. rear portion 4 for receiving the connector 10 slightly above the seam 22. In this position of the connector 10 the hose 9 will hang downwardly and rearwardly from the cap without having any tendency to pull the cap off the users head. The two sheets 5 and 6 which define manifold 7 will become infiated when a not shown blower unit which is connected to the opposite end of hose 9 is turned on. In order to prevent the two sheets 5 and 6 from ballooning to too great a degree the central portions of the two sheets are joined together by a heat formed connection indicated generally by reference numeral 24.

The particular disposition of the inlet and exhaust openings for the cap could be reversed or be placed in still other positions. However, the illustrated arrangement is preferred inasmuch .as it is believed to provide maximum user convenience and freedom of movement without interference from the hanging hose 9. Inasmuch as the inlet opening is disposed in the rear portion of the manifold 7 a plurality of air passageways or conduits are formed in the cap to insure equal distribution of air to the various portions of the cap. The passageways or conduits are provided in the crown portion of the cap by heat forming a plurality of laterally spaced and forwardly extending seams 25, 26 and 27 between the sheets 5 and 6. These seams 25 to 27 also assist in preventing exaggerated inflation or ballooning of the various cap portions.

Although heat-formed seals or seams are utilized in fabricating the cap, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that stitchings can be utilized in practicing the invention. However, the heat-formed seals or seams provide an easy method of manufacture and, therefore, are preferred. For this reason in the preferred form of the invention the sheets 5 and 6 are constructed from plastic material which can be readily sealed with respect to each other by the application of heat. Although in the preferred method the sheets 5 and 6 are precut into octagonal shape, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the invention does not necessarily have to be practiced in this manner. That is to say, the octagonal seam 20 could be formed in superposed sheets which are not precut into octagonal shape and then the excess material could be trimmed off. Also, the two nested sheets do not necessarily have to be octagonally shaped or coextensive with each other in all respects. For instance, the bottom part of the inner sheet 6 which is disposed in the side portions 2 below the seams 23 could be omitted. However, they are not omitted for the reason that they contribute to the strength of the cap and using identical sheets may provide manufacturing cost advantages inasmuch as they can then be simultaneoulsy precut in a single cutting operation. The exhaust opening 11 formed in the forward portion 3 through the two sheets 5 and 6 is preferably bounded by a washer 28 which is captive between the two sheets by virtue of two heat-formed seams 29 and 30 formed about the washer 28. Additionally, the washered exhaust opening 11 is bounded by a spaced heat-formed seam 31 which traverses the forward portion 3. The seam 31 prevents undue ballooning of the forward portion 3.

The heat-formed seams or seals 20, 22 to 27, and 29 to 31 can be formed in a single operation by positioning the two superposed sheets 5 and 6 and the sandwiched washer 28 between closing dies which have heated raised portions formed thereon which correspond in contour to the heat-formed seals or seams. The seams 21 can be formed with these seams but it is more convenient to do this after these seams are formed since the portions 2 and 3 must be turned towards each other to form seams 21. The manifold to hair airdistributing apertures 8 will have been preformed in the inner sheet, and the same is true for the aperture 11 in both sheets and the inlet aperture in the outer sheet 5 although aperture 11 could be cut out after the sheets are joined together.

The inlet aperture in outer sheet 5 is bounded by an annular member 35 having an apertured frame or cage 36 formed thereon. Frame or cage 36 extends from adjacent the outer sheet 5 into manifold 7 towards the sheet 6 to retain the two sheets in spaced relationship in the area of the inlet aperture. The annular member 35 may be cemented to the outer sheet 5. However, preferably member 35 is formed from a plastic material which can be heat seamed to the outer sheet 5 simultaneously with the formation of the heat scams or seals 20, 22 to 27, and 29 to 31. Protrusion of the frame or cage 36 between the superposed sheets 5 and 6 will not interfere with formation of the heat-formed scams or seals inasmuch as the plastic material of the two sheets has a limited amount of elasticity. The apertured frame or case 36 performs the function of spacing the air inlet opening in the outer sheet 5 from the cap users head so that an air hose can be easily connected thereto while the cap is on the users head.

Turning now to FIGS. 4 and 5, one form of improved hose connector of the instant invention will now be described. The connector comprises a collar having a movable thumb actuated latching member 37 formed integrally therewith. Latching member 37 is generally elongated and extends lengthwise of collar 10. The inner end of latch member 37 has a stepped or catch portion 38 formed thereon which will latch itself on a shoulder 39 formed on annular member when the inner end of collar 10 is inserted into annular member 35. A similar catch portion 40 is integrally formed on collar 10 opposite to catch portion 38. The catch portion 38 is intended to be movable whereas this does not have to be true with the catch portion 40 although two diametrical latches 37 could be provided. Additionally, the shoulder 39 extends continuously about the annular member 35 so that the collar 10 is free to rotate within annular member 35 even in latched position.

Portions 10' of collar 10 contiguous to the latch memf ber 37 have a reduced thickness. The collar 10 is constructed from a plastic molding compound and the integral reduced portions 10 thereby provide means for biasing the latch member 37 in a radially outward direction into latched position when collar 10 is inserted into annular member 35. That is to say, the reduced portions 10' will permit inward flexing of the latch member 37 by finger pressure, and when the finger pressure is released, the reduced portions 10' due to their natural resiliency will return the latch member 37 to its position illustrated in FIG. 5.

V The hose 9 is also preferably constructed from a plastic molding compound. It is preferably reinforced throughout the length thereof by a spiral spring 41 so that when the hose is bent the air supply will not be cut off. The

I spring 41 is positioned in a spiral internal groove formed in a spiral external ridge 42 formed on hose 9. The internal surface of collar 10 has a spiral groove 43 formed therein so that hose 9 can be positioned in collar 10 by threading the ridges 42 in the grooves 43. The plastic hose 9 pro vides additional biasing means for the latch member 37 and this additional biasing means is reinforced by the resiliency of spring 41. Although not so illustrated, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the spring 41 could be encapsulated in plastic and joined to the plastic of hose 9 by heat sealing the two plastics together. In view of the biasing action of hose 9 on the latch member 37, it is clear that the reduced portions 10' could be cut away. This would leave the latch member 37 disposed in a lengthwise through notch in collar 10 with the latch member 37 being connected to collar 10 solely at its rear portion. However, reduced portions 10' are preferred for the additional reason that they serve as retaining means for the latch member 37 with respect to its collar 10.

It will now be obvious from the foregoing description that the connector of FIGS. 4 and 5 is provided by a uni tary member having integral molded latch means and latch biasing means whereby the number of parts are reduced over those required by connectors of the prior art. Apertured cage or frame 36 is provided for several reasons. It serves as a means for spacing the inner sheet 6 from the inner edges of the connector 10 so that there is no danger of tearing of the inner sheet 6 by connector 10 when it is inserted into the apertured member 35. Additionally, it provides means for spacing the apertured member 35 from a support surface or the cap users head so as to facilitate snap action movement of collar 10 into the apertured member 35. If cage or frame 36 were not provided then the annular member 35 would have to be carefully held away from the support surface or cap users head in order to snap connector 10 into closed position. However, with the illustrated structure, the frame 36 can be bottomed against a support surface or the cap users head and the connector 10 merely snapped into the annular member 35. Spacing of the inner sheet 6 from the outer sheet 5 also insures that the air supply is not cut off by the inner sheet blocking off the inlet opening in the outer sheet.

Referring now to FIGS. 6 and 7, illustrated therein is another form of connector of the instant invention. Parts which correspond to those illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5 will be given similar reference numerals. In this form encased of connector, the collar 10 has two latch members 37' which are intended to be movable. Opposite sides of col- Iar 10 are cut away to provide a'pair of lengthwise extending elongated through notches 44. The latch members 37' are disposed in notches 4'4 and retained therein by integral members 10" which extend across the notches 44. Thus, members 10" form a latch retaining function similar to that provided by the reduced portion 10 in the other form of connector. Howevergin the second form of connector the radially outward biasing means for the latches 37' is provided solely by the hose 9. Although both latch members 37' are shown as being movable, it will be obvious to those. skilled in the art that one of them could be relatively fixed similar to the latch 40 of the other form of connector.

Referring now to FIGS. 8 to 10, illustrated therein is a third form of hose connector. It is similar to the second connector except that it employs a spring to bias the latches radially outward instead of relying on the bias of the hose 9 and additional latch retaining means are provided. More particularly, the opposite sides of the collar 10 have lengthwise extending notches 51. Integral portions 52 of collar 10 retain thelatches 53 in position. However, they are assisted in this by cooperative lengthwise extending shoulders 54 and 55 formed on the opposite sides of the notches 51 and latches53 respectively. Also, the inner ends of the latches have tabs or the like 56 which enter grooves 57 formed in the blind ends of the notches 51. The latches 53 are biased radially outward by a'spring 58. The spring 58 is generally U-shaped and its opposite ends are bent over and inserted into grooves 59- formed on the inner faces of the latches so as to retain the spring in operative position.

While there has been shown and described several embodiments of the invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the' art that changes and modifications may be made without departing from the invention, and that it is intended by the appended claim to cover all such changes and modifications asfall within the true spirit :and

' scopeof the invention.

tegral side flaps and an integral rear portion, the forward and side flaps and the central and rear portions of the nested sheets being aligned with each other, a continuous seal extending about, the outer edges of said two sheets for defining an air distributing manifold therebetween, a joint formed between the adjacent side edges of the sealed forward and side flaps for connecting them together, the aligned forward flaps comprising the forehead part of said cap and said manifold extending into said forehead part, apertures formed in all the mentioned flaps and portions of theinner one of said sheets for distributing drying air from said manifold to a cap users hair, said sheets being constructed from plastic material, said seal and joint being formed by heating said outer and side edges. together, and another heat formed seal on each side of the 'cap and joining the side flaps together along a line extending from the rear of said cap to said joint, said' cap having a band disposed along its head receiving opening for sealing said cap along the hair line of a user of said cap, said another heat formed seal being disposed above said band whereby said manifold is positioned above and spaced from the ears of a user of said-cap, and still. further heat formed seals in the crown porti'onof said cap, said last mentioned seals being continuous and spaced from each other and extending from the rear to the front of said cap to subdivide the crown portion intoforwardly extending manifold passageways. 7

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 735,790 Meerza. Aug. 11, 1903 1,111,417 Tyler Sept. 22, 1914 2,259,362 Young Oct. 14, 1941 2,305,658 Andersen Dec. 22, 1942 2,481,407 Fluegel Sept. 6, 1949 2,516,907 Penfold Aug. 1, 1950 2,677,196 Mitchell May 4, 1954 2,755,106 Brennan July 17, 1956 2,782,527 Schweitzer Feb. 26, 1957 I 2,899,216 Brock Aug. 11, 1959 2,951,714 Carlberg Sept. 6, 1960 3,044,183 Mauch July 17, 1962 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,205,302 France Aug. 17, 1959 1,223,640 France Feb. 1, 1960

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3250551 *Dec 26, 1963May 10, 1966Donald A DraudtOne piece, quick detachable connector
US3277909 *Jul 23, 1964Oct 11, 1966Finkel Outdoor ProdUmbrella notch
US3330048 *Jun 14, 1965Jul 11, 1967Oster Mfg Co JohnHair dryer
US3335502 *Jun 17, 1963Aug 15, 1967Sunbeam CorpHair dryer cap
US3383700 *Nov 26, 1965May 14, 1968Ronson CorpPortable hair dryer
US3418726 *Dec 19, 1966Dec 31, 1968Westinghouse Electric CorpHair dryer
US3428341 *Dec 27, 1966Feb 18, 1969Emerson Electric CoFlexible duct coupling for air diffusing system
US3668704 *Jul 13, 1970Jun 13, 1972John H HaugerProtective headgear
US3726021 *Jun 30, 1970Apr 10, 1973Sunbeam CorpHair dryer
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US3929143 *Aug 14, 1974Dec 30, 1975Raymond Lee Organization IncCoiffure hood
US4017937 *May 14, 1975Apr 19, 1977National Union Electric CorporationHose coupling for a suction cleaner
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US4906032 *Oct 6, 1988Mar 6, 1990Hohman Fredric JTail pipe coupling device
US8893400 *Dec 17, 2010Nov 25, 2014TechnofirstHair dryer having a passive silencer system
US20120266484 *Dec 17, 2010Oct 25, 2012TechnofirstHair dryer having a passive silencer system
Classifications
U.S. Classification34/99, 285/7, 285/319, 2/174, 132/212
International ClassificationF16L37/00, A45D20/00, A45D20/18, F16L37/096
Cooperative ClassificationA45D20/18, F16L37/096
European ClassificationF16L37/096, A45D20/18