US 3169376 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1965 w. B. CUNNINGHAM SUBTERRANEAN TUNNEL LINER INSTALLATION 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 25, 1961 INVENTOR. WESLEY B. QUNN\NGHAM ATTO 2 N E-VS Feb. 16, 1965 w. B. CUNNINGHAM SUBTERRANEAN TUNNEL LINER INSTALLATION 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. 25. 1961 INVENTOR. WESLEY B. QuNmNe-HAM A' ORNEYS Feb. 16, 1965 w. a. CUNNINGHAM 3,169,376
SUBTERRANEAN TUNNEL LINER INSTALLATION Filed Aug. 25, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,169,376 SUBTERRANEAN TUNNEL LINER INSTALLATION Wesley B. Cunningham, 2 fe Iorris St, Charleston, W. Va. Filed Aug. 25, 1963, Ser. No. 133,893 4 Claims. (5. 61- 9;)
This invention pertains to an improved subterranean tunnel liner, and to the installation thereof.
It has been heretofore known and is conventional in the art to provide underground conduit of certain types and construction with an outer metallic lining which is inserted into the ground prior to the installation of the conduit per se. In the usual practice, the tunnel liner comprises a string or series of annular metallic elements which are fabricated at a distant mill or factory and shipped to the excavation site in a form such that they are available for immediate utilization. The individual sections of the string are then installed by known means into the ground. The known means generally require the utilization of jacks, either hydraulic or manual, and manual excavation in advance of the string of lining elements. The present invention contemplates the fabrication of their liner sections at the excavation site, improvements in the construction of the lining elements, and the installation of the liner using apparatus specifically adapted to decrease the time and effort involved in installation. This apparatus, and the method associated therewith, is closely related to the apparatus and method of installing underground conduits per se as shown, described, and claimed in my co-pending United States application Serial No. 708,325 now United States Patent No. 3,005,314.
Among the principal objects and advantages of the present invention are the provision of an improved tunnel lining means, and the facilitation of the installation of the improved lining means. Additional objects of the invention of importance will become apparent from a consideration of the following specification when read in conjunction with the annexed drawings in which:
FIGURE 1A is a perspective view of one of the tunnel liner elements of this invention at a first stage of manufacture;
FIGURE 13 is a perspective view of the element of FIGURE 1A, as an intermediate stage of manufacture;
FIGURE 1C is a perspective view of said element at a third stage of manufacture;
FIGURE 2 is an exploded perspective view showing the component elements of a section of the tunnel liner;
FIGURE 3 shows certain of the elements of FIGURE 2 in an assembled state;
FIGURE 4 is a vertical cross-sectional view through a subterranean installation involving tunnel lining elements in accordance with the teachings of this invention;
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged, fragmentary sectional view taken on the section line 55 of FIGURE 4, looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged perspective view of the switch means utilized in the installation of the liner of this invention;
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the valve and switch means, together with the thrust means utilized in forcing the tunnel lining elements into the ground, the thrust means being shown in an evacuated or inactive position;
FIGURE 8 is a view similar to FIGURE 7; but showing the thrust means in an expanded, active position;
FIGURE 9 is a cross-sectional view of a completed installation of the tunnel liner and conduit per se, and illustrating the finishing of the installation;
FIGURE 10 is an enlarged, vertical crosssectional view ild fi'lb Patented Feb. 16, 1965 taken substantially on the section line Ill-1i) of FIG- URE 9, looking in the direction of the arrows; and
FIGURE 11 is a perspective view of a portion of one of the lining elements, including the herein provided support means for the conduit per so.
As will be noted in the drawings, the tunnel liner is composed of a plurality of sections denoted generally therein by character of reference S, the sections S being formed of a string or series of individual liner elements 20, and additional elements described below. Referring primarily to FIGURES 1A through 1C, it will be noted that the elements 20 initially comprise flat, rectangular plates of steel or the like which may be transported to the excavation site in this flat condition, thereby providing a very high weight-to-bulk ratio in transit as compared to the conventional annular elements mentioned above.
In the figures referred to, it will be noted that the element 2% initially comprises a flat blank shown in FIGURE 1A. By previously known means (not shown), the blank 20 is provided with a pair of upstanding flanges 22, 24, extending along the full length of its side edges, thus to reach the stage of manufacture shown in FIG- URE 1B. The blank is then rolled or bent to an annular form as shown in FIGURE 10, and the end edges 26, 28, thereof are secured to one another by means such as tack welds 36. These operations on the initially fiat blank of material shown in FIGURE 1A may be readily performed at the construction site by well known, portable means, which form no part of the invention. The individual liner elements 20, when completed, and ready for fabrication into a tunnel section S are shown in FIGURE 2, and will be seen therein to comprise cylindrical tunnel sections having rigidifying, inwardly extending flanges 22 and 24.
Referring to FIGURE 2, it will be noted that a plurality of the elements 20 are utilized in forming a section S of the string of lining elements to be forced into the ground. The precise number of elements 2.0 which is utilized in the formation of section S is dictated by the composition of the earth into which the section is to be forced, that is, in soft earth or the like, a greater number of elements 20 may be joined into a single section S than in the case of a more resistant type of terrain such as shale or rock.
The construction of the liner sections S is specifically shown in FIGURES 2, 3, 7, and 8, wherein it will be noted a typical section S is composed of a plurality of the individual elements 20 secured in a coaxial string by means such as the illustrated tack welds 32, it being understood that other types of welding could be readily substituted. Secured by such means to a leading end of the section S is a forward liner element 34 having a flange 36 bearing against the flange 22 of the next adjacent liner element 2%. Forward liner element 34 differs from the elements 2% in that its forward or outer end portion is of a reduced diameter as at 38, and an annular, internal flange 40 is fixedly secured thereto at a selected distance from said end. The internal flange 40 comprises a part of the means for individual, sequential movement of the sections S into the ground, and hence, is reinforced by a plurality of inwardly projecting gussets 42. The opposite or trailing end of the section S is provided with a terminal liner element 44 having a flange 46 at its inner end bearing against the flange 24 of its next adjacent liner element 20 to which it is secured by the welds 32. The terminal liner element 44 has an annular, internal flange element 48 fixed thereto at a location spaced inwardly a selected distance from its end edge and is reinforced by inward gussets S9. Thereby, there is provided on the liner element 44 an open end portion 52. The terminal liner element 44 is of substantially constant diameter throughout its length, and therefore, the open end portion 52 is adapted to slidably receive the diminished or constricted end 38 of a next adjacent, forward liner element 34.
In the case of the initial section S of the series of liner sections, the leading end element 34 is replaced by a specially designed cutting blade 54 shown in FIGURE 4.
. Blade 54 is of heavy metal and includes a beveled cutting edge 56 and an interior flange 58. The flange 58 abuts against the flange 22 of the adjacent liner element 20 of the section, and the leading end element is fixedly secured in this position by any selected means, for example, the tack welds 32.
With further reference to FIGURE 4, the process of installation of the liner sections S of liner elements in accordance with this invention involves the excavation of a vertical bore in the earth to provide a work shaft including a forward wall W suitably shored by conventional means 60 such as planks orthe like, and a rear wall not shown in the drawings. After installing the initial section of liner into the ground in the desired horizontal direction by conventional means including pre-excavation and jacking, a second section S is lowered into the vertical bore and its leading end element 34 is telescoped into the terminal liner element 44 of the initial element. The trailing section of string of sections S is provided with anchoring means A which serves to prevent any retrogressive movement thereof.
Refering once againto FIGURES 2, 7, and 8, it is to be noted that the telescoping of the forward element 34 into the terminal element 44 positions the flanges 4t) and 48 in spaced relationship relative to one another. Interposed between these flanges is an annular, expandable tube or gland 62 having an inwardly radiating valve .fitting 64 thereon. A tube shield 66 (formed in a preferred embodiment of Neoprene or the like) is provided, and comprises an annular, fiat body portion 63 from the side edges of which extend resilient arms 70, 72 having outwardly turned end edges 75, 76, the arms 70 and 72 embracing 'thefianges40 and 48. Turned edges 75, '76, aid in positioning-the shield about the flanges. Thus, in FIGURES 7 and 8, it is seen that a substantially closed chamber C is provided between each section S, and that the expandable tube 62 is enclosed in said chamber. shield 66 has a slot 74 therein through which the valve fitting 64 extends and which permits movement of the shield in one direction relative to the valve fitting.
Means is. provided for sequential, automatic expansion of the tubes 62, in a string of the sections S, the means comprising, generally speaking, switch, valve, and control mechanisms embodying the principles of construction andoperation set forth in the beforementioned patent with such modification as necessary and desirable to adapt the same for use in the specific environment herein provided. The means include, referring again to FIGURES 7 and 8, a cylinder 78 which is suitably mounted in each section adjacent to the leading element 54 thereof. This cylinder has opposite, centrally apertured end walls 80, 82 through which rod ends 84, 8:6 of a double valve 90 are slidably I extended. Inlet and outlet fluidpressure pipes 92, 94 respectively are connected to the fittings 96 and 98 in the side of 'the cylinder 78 and the valve 90 has laterally spaced plungers 100 which control the communication of the fittings with theinterior of the cylinders. Flexible hose 102, including tube fitting 1G4 and valvefitting 1%,
extends between and connects the side wall of the cylinder with the expandable. gland 62. The plungers 19d 7 control: the communication of the fittings 96 and 98 with the hose 102so as to control the expansion and contraction of the gland 62. As previously stated, it is intended The tand an abutment means Iii locked on the rod by nut 112 to bias the valve to the position shown in FIGURE 7.
,Rod end 86 constitutes the armature of an electromagnet having coil means 114 thereabout. Energization of coil 114 (through suitable circuitry not fully shown) is effective to move the valve against the resistance of the spring 108 to the position of FIGURE 8.
Pipe 9?. is connected to a source of fluid pressure such as an air compressor, hydraulic pump, or the like. As seen in FiGURE 5, a pipe hanger 115 is utilized as support and positioning means for the pipes 92 and 94.
When the coil 114- is energized, the fitting 96 is placed in open communication with hose 102 and fluid pressure is thereby communicated to the gland 62 which is expanded. Since the string of sections is anchored against any retrogres sive movement, this results in movement of the adjacent leading section into the ground. In order to provide for sequential movement of the various sections S in a string of such sections, each of the expansion assemblies is provided with a control means 116.
Control means 116 (FIGURE 6) comprises a limit switch mechanism mounted in a housing 118 affixed by means of an arm 12$) to an 'L-shaped bracket 122 including arms 124 and 126. The arm 126 is fixed by bolt means to a flange 24 of a pro-selected one of the elements Zti. Located within the housing 118 is a fixed electrical contact 128 (FIGURES 7 and 8), and a movable contact arm 13% is located partially within and partially without the housing, and provides the connection with the aforementioned circuit for the electromagnetic coil 114. The contact on the movable contact arm 130 is normally urged to meet the contact 103 by spring means 132 (FIGURE 7) in which location the coil 114 is energized to move the valve to its FIGURE 8 location in which fluid under pressure is transmitted throughthe valve to rapidly expand the tube 62.
Fixed to a gusset on the flange 48 of the element 44 is one end of a chain or cable 134 of predetermined length. The opposite end of the chain 134 is connected to the outwardly projecting end of the contact arm 13%). Thus, upon advance of the section S carrying the former end of the chain responsive to the expansion of the tube 62, tightening of the chain 134 is effective to break the circuit by moving the arm 13% against the resistance of the spring 132 out of contact. This, in turn, de-energizes the coil 114i and permits the valve to return to its FIGURE 7 location wherein the tube is evacuated.
Means, not shown, but of the type described and shown in the aforesaid patent, are utilized in eifectuating the sequential operation of the expansion means interposed between each of the sections S of the liner.
It will be understood by. those skilled in the art that excavation within the liner takes place from time to time. In this connection by reason of the fact that excavation takes place after movement of the sections, the worker is protected from cave-ins and other dangers without the necessity for shoring of the tunneling by conventional means.
Upon completion of the installation, the valve assemblies and expansion means may be removed from the liner. In FIGURE 11, it will be noted that a conduit support is provided for use with the liners, the conduit support comprising an arcuate element fixed to the liner at selected locations,
The conduit support comprises a base plate 136 from which projects a perpendicular support 138 which is centrally slotted as at .140. The support is secured to the base or lower portionof the elements 2% by welding'or other suitable means, and when a group of these elements have been installed into the liner, they collectively form channel receiving conduits 142 which are customarily formed of concrete, terra cotta, or the like. Upon completion of installation of the conduit elements 142 in a string within the liner, the remaining space between the elements 142 and the liner sections S is filled with an aggregate material as shown in FIGURES 9 and 10.
Having described and illustrated this invention including the formation of the conduit sections and the method and apparatus used in installing the same in some detail, it should be understood that said description and illustration has been offered merely by Way of example, and that the invention is to be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In an apparatus for use in a system for the installation of subterranean tunnel lining elements arranged in an end-to-end string, the apparatus being of the type adapted for movement of the lining elements in one-byone sequential order, the apparatus including expandable, annular tubes interposed between said lining elements, fluid pressure means operatively interconnecting the tubes for eflecting the expansion thereof, and valve means operatively connected to each of the tubes and to the fiuid pressure means; that improvement which comprises: each lining element having a pair of ends, annular, inwardly directed flanges on each lining element arranged adjacent said ends thereof, the expandable tubes being disposed between said flanges, and an annular tube shield comprising a flat, annular body portion having a pair of resilient arms extending from its sides and fitting about said flanges whereby an expansion chamber is provided for said tube.
2. The improvement of claim 1, wherein the arms of said tube shield include outwardly turned end edges to aid in positioning the same about said flanges.
3. A subterranean tunnel lining comprising a string of coaxialiy aligned sections, each of said sections comprising: a plurality of individual tunnel liner elements, said elements including an annular body portion having side edges, inwardly extending flange means on the side edges of the body portions, said elements being fixedly secured to one another in a coaxial series; a forward liner element for each section in the series, including a leading end edge, the leading end edge being of a reduced diameter, a reinforced flange projecting inwardly from the forward liner element and spaced a selected distance inwardly from the leading edge thereof, and a terminal liner element for each section in the series, the terminal liner element being of a diameter such that it is adapted to telescopically receive the leading edge of the forward liner element of an adjacent section in the series, the terminal liner element including an outer end, and a reinforced flange projecting inwardly from the terminal liner element a selected distance from the outer end thereof; inflatable tube expansion means interposed between the last-named flanges on said forward and terminal liner secd tions; and a resilient tube shield comprising a flat annular body portion having a pair of resilient arms, the resilient arms being fitted about said flanges on said forward and terminal liner elements whereby an expansion chamber is provided for said tube.
4. In an apparatus for use in a system for the installation of subterranean tunnel lining elements arranged in an end-to-end string, the apparatus being of the type adapted for movement of the lining elements in one-by-one sequential order, the apparatus including expandable, annular tubes interposed between said ends of said lining elements, fluid pressure means operatively interconnecting the tubes for effecting the expansion thereof, and valve means operatively connected to each of the tubes and to the fluid pressure means; that improvement which comprises:
(a) said string being comprised of a plurality of lining elements, each lining element having a pair of open ends including one constricted end whereby the lining elements are telescopically received together;
([9) annular, inwardly directed flanges on each lining element arranged adjacent the ends thereof;
(0) expandable tube means disposed between said lining elements and said flanges thereof;
(d) an annular tube shield comprising a flat, annular body portion having a pair of resilient arms extending radially from its sides and fitting about said flanges to provide an expansion chamber;
(e) the arms of said tube shield including outwardly turned end egdes to aid in positioning the same about the flanges; and
(f) the shield having a slotted opening for connection with the fluid pressure means to permit relative movement of the sections.
References (Iited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 34,474 2/62 Bail 61-45 734,265 7/03 Hough 285-97 1,803,665 5/31 Dennis 28597 1,948,707 2/34 Gilman 61-85 2,837,787 6/58 Wright 20-74 2,841,297 7/58 Washabaugh 6l45 2,869,329 1/59 Jourdain 6153.72 3,005,314 10/61 Cunningham 61-42 EARL J. WITMER, Primary Examiner.
WILLIAM I. MUSHAKE, JACOB L. NACKENOFF,