US 3169500 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1965 J. Y. COUSTEAU ETAL 3,169,500
METHOD OF NAVIGATION FOR A SUBMARINE BOAT Fig.1
United States Patent I 3,169,500 METHOD OF NAvlorgrg ly FOR A SUBMA RINE Jacques Yves Cousteau, Paris, France, Emile Gagnan, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and Jean Alinat, Nice, France, assignors to La Spirotechnique Filed July 13, 1962, Ser. No. 209,589 Claims priority, application France, July 21, 1961, 868,601, Patent 1,302,625 3 Claims. (Cl. 114.16)
This invention relates to a method of navigation for a submarine boat. It is characterized in that the, axis of the boat is approximately vertical when the boat dives or comes up during some length of time. By approximately vertical, it is meant herein that the axis of the boat is at an angle of 45 atleast from the horizontal, which far exceeds what can be done with a submarine or bathyscaphe without jeopardizing its security. The angle is preferably in the range 6090.
In the instant patent, the bow and stern of the boat are the ends which are respectively fore and aft when she works normally, for instance when she follows the bottom of the sea at a short distance above it; the axis of the boat is the fictitious straight line through the bow and stern.
For the comfort of the operators and the good working of the equipment, the same end of the boat, usually the stern, should preferably be the lower, both when diving and when coming up.
The method according to this invention has the following advantage. The streamlining of submarine craft is usually such that the resistance to advance is minimum when the boat moves approximately along her axis, but considerably greater when she moves at right angles to her axis. The result is that, with a given negative buoyancy, the boat sinks much more slowly when her axis is horizontal than when it is vertical. The same obtains for coming up. This advantage is more or less marked according to the streamlining of the boat and to her orientation with reference to the direction of sinking or coming As described hereafter, this method can be achieved quite simply by providing the boat with two easily releasable ballasts, one at the bow and one at the stern. If it is the stern which is lowest during the dive, the stern ballast is released when she is at the bottom; to come up, the bow ballast is released.
The enclosed figures show, diagrammatically and as an illustration, an embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 1 is an elevation of various positions of the boat during navigation.
FIG. 2 is a vertical section of a boat provided for carrying out the method of the invention.
FIG. 3 shows a suitable battery box for the use of the invention.
On FIG. 1 is shown a boat in various successive positions, denoted by the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G. The bow is in 12, the stern in 14.
In (10A), the boat floats, in readiness for a dive. The rear water-ballasts are then filled with water: the boat tilts with her stern 14 lowest and her how 12 highest, sinks and dives at a sharp angle with the vertical to the bottom; in position (10B), it is diving.
Once the boat has touched the bottom 16, rear ballast is released; this ballast is so calculated that the boats buoyancy is then approximately zero and that she is poised with her axis 12-14 approximately horizontal: this is shown in (10C).
The boat can then easily move, slightly above the bottom, for instance by means of the orientable water nozzles and of the mercury cylinders described in French Patent No. 1,241,757; she is shown in (10D) after having travelice led some distance, and in (1015.) at the end ofits working travel. Y i
In (10E), front (12E) ballast is released. The poise of the boat is therefore altered: its buoyancy becomes strongly positive and she is poised with her axis approximately vertical, bow upwards. (10F) shows the boat in this position and coming up.
In (10G), the boat has emerged.
In the above description, it was said that ballast was released when the boat had touched bottom. It is usually preferable to release ballast a few yards at least above the bottom, so that the impact of the stern on the bottom is milder 'or even disappears; it is then useful that the boat be provided for instance with a sounding device directed rearwards.
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic section of the arrangement of a submarine boat equipped for the method of the invention. The boat is supposed to be in the working position, such as shown in (10D) on FIG. 1.
This boat has two hulls:
A watertight hull 20, thick enough to resist water pressure at the depths for which the boat is designed;
A thin and non-watertight hull 22, inside which water can penetrate and bathe various appliances; the waterballasts or some of them if any may be placed inside this hull.
Ballasts 24 and 26 mentioned above are placed inside the non-Watertight hull or fastened to the latters under surface. The ballasts may be of various types: mercury or lead shot inside tanks, iron pigs held by electromagnets or by clamps, etc.
The operators are of course housed in the watertight hull. They are for instance a pilot 28 and an observer 30' looking through a watertight porthole 32. When diving or coming up, stern downwards, the pilot lies on his back and the observer is standing.
In 34 and 36 are shown containers for which side 38 or 40, normally at the top, must not be at the bottom. They may be batteries with their plugs upwards in normal use, and which must not assume too great a slant.
Containers 34 and 36 are not shown with their tops 38 and 40 in their normal positions, although the boat is in working positions: the tops are really at the top when the boat has a slant intermediary between, on the one hand the slants of the diving and coming up positions (10B, 10F) and, on the other hand, among the slants (10C, 10D, 10E) she offers when she works in normal conditions, that slants (10C on FIGURE 1) which is the most different from the diving and coming-up slants.
It may be seen on FIG. 2 that the slant of containers 34 and 36 is not excessive when the boat is in the working position; the same obtains when the boat is emerged, as her orientation is then almost the same.
To assume the diving or coming up position, the boat shown turns about 70 in the direction of arrow 42, the zenith then being in the direction of arrow 44; containers 34 and 36 then have a slant which is not excessive either.
The batteries are usually the part of the equipment which has most to be designed against strong slants.
The battery box shown diagrammatically as a section on FIG. 3 has an outer shell 46 and an inner shell 48.
The latter contains the battery plates 50, which are bathed If releasable ballasts are added to an existing boat with a low buoyancy, so as to allow the use of the invention, the buoyancy should be increased; for instance tanks containing light petrol may be placed outside the thick hull.
Variations may be resorted to without overstepping the boundaries of this invention. For instance, the boat may dive and come up bow downwards.
What we claim is: p V
1. The method for submerging a submersible boat from a floating position on the water to a horizontal position at a desired depth under the water comprising the steps of tilting the boat to a sharp 'angle with the vertical and decreasing the buoyancy to sink the boat to the desired depth whereby to produce a fast dive due to the minimum of resistance otfered by the shape of the craft, and then tilting the boat to the horizontal position.
2. The method for submerging a submersible boat from a floating position on the water to a horizontal position at a desired depth under the water and then surfacing the boat to the original floating position comprising the steps of tilting the boat to a sharp angle with the vertical, decreasing the buoyancy to sink the boat to the desired depth, tilting the boat to the horizontal position, tilting the boat to a sharp angle with the vertical, increasing the buoyancy to return the boat to the surface, and tilting the boat to the floating position, whereby the tilting of the craft craft.
3. The method for controlling the submergence and emergence of a submersible boat from a floating position comprising decreasing the buoyancy to sink the boat, shifting ballast to cause the boat to assume a sharp angle to the vertical to accelerate the submergence, releasing bal- 'last when the boat approaches the bottom to effect a substantially zero buoyancy, tilting the boat to substantially a horizontal position while near the bottom, tilting the boat to a sharp angle to the vertical and increasing the buoyancy for rapid ascent and tilting the boat to a generally horizontal floating position when at the surface.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 575,890 Hinsdalc Jan. 26, 1897 1,158,160 Barraja-Frauenfelder Oct. 26, 1915 2,887,977 Piry May 26, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,241,757 France Aug. 16, 1960 OTHER REFERENCES Missiles and Rockets, pages 67-69.