US 3169580 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 16, 1965 J. w. BATEMAN WELL CLEANER AND WASHER Filed May 29, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. J WATE/W/V Il 114 .1E Il Fling. I zii!!! I nllfi l in it!! Il 514:5 I il! il l i ATTORNEY J. w. BATEMAN 3,169,580
2 Sheets-'Sheet 2 INVENTOR. J IM 5A TEAM/v L 0 4 H W ATTORNEY Feb. 16, 1965 WELL CLEANER AND WASHER Filed May 29, 1963 United States Patent O 3,169,536 WELL CLEANER AND WASER Ii. W. Bateman, 5435 Summer-dale, Compton, Calif.v Filed May 29, 1963, Ser. No. 284,216 7 Claims. (Si. 165-147) This invention relates to a tool for testing, washing and cleaning wells, particularly oil wells.
The slotted liners of 'oil wells, under various conditions of operation of the well, require to be kept at maximum cleanliness for most efficient well operation. The bailable area, i.e., the inside of a liner or casing, requires mechanical cleaning, as do the slots of the casing. The formations in which liners are sunk vary considerably and to varying degrees, cause clogging of the liner slots as well -as entry of sand, mud and silt of the formation into the bailable area.
The present invention has for an object lto provide a tool both for cleaning the liner slots and iiushing or washing out compacted particles of formation material from the liner.
Another object of the invention is to provide a tool of the character referred to that operates automatically to wash out bridges of compacted material encountered by the tool as the same is going into the well.
A further object of the invention is to provide a ltool as above characterized, that provides fora straight-through ow of washing fluid without the need for rotational movements of a portion of the tool.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a tool, as indicated, in which the pressure of the cleaning or washing iuid is retained at a high p.s.i. to render such operations rapid and ei'llcient.
This invention also has Jor its objects to provide such means that are positive in operation, convenient in use, easily installed in a working position and easily disconnected therefrom, economical of manufacture, relatively simple, and of general superiority and serviceability.
The invention also comprises novel details of construction and novel combinations and arrangements of parts,.
which will more fully appear in the course of the following description and which is based on the accompanying drawings. However, said drawings merely show, and the following description merely describes, preferred embodiments of the present invention, which are given by way of illustration or example only.
In the drawings, like reference characters designate similar parts in the several views.
FIG. l is a side elevational view of one form of tool according to the invention in operative position in-a well casing and shown in the process of encountering casingbloclting compacted material in the casing.
FIG. 2 is a broken and enlarged vertical sectional view of the tool as in FIG. 1.
FlG. 3 is -a similar view showing said tool in washing position.
FiG. 4 is a vertical sectional view of a modification and shown in washing position.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of the lower portion of FIG. 4 with the tool in normal lowering position.
The liner or casing 19 is quite conventional, the same being provided with slots 11 for the passage of pumping uid to the formation outside the casing and passage of oil from the formation into the casing. The present tool combines an elongated casingor well-itting slot-cleaning section 12, as in FIGS. l', 2 and 3, or an elongated casingor well-fitting slot-cleaning section 12a, as in FIGS. 4 and 5, and m elongated casingor well-fitting washing section 13 below the section 12 or above the section 12a, the sections forming a further elongated casingor well-fitting body when combined.
. @,id` Patented Feb. 16, 1965 rice The section 12 is shown as a hollow barrel 15 that is adapted for attachment to V*the lower end of a string of hollow drill pipe or tubing nand has its lower threaded end 1d connected to a coupling 17 on the upper end of the washing section 13. lt will be clear that the hollow of the barrel 15 constitutes a passage 18 for pressure iluid from above to operate the washing section. The barrel 15 is substantially diametrically smaller than the inside of the casing lil, thereby deiining an annular passage 19 for iiuid entering the casing 1G through the slots 11 and above the washing section for flow upwardly to the top of the well.
VThe section 12a is shown as having a similar barrel 15 and inner passage i3. Said barrel 15 has an upper end 20 with a longitudinal bore 21 that opens into the passage 13, said end 2li being operatively engaged with the lower end or the Washing section 13, .as will be later described.
Said sections 12 and 12a are each provided with a plurality of `similar slot-cleaning units 22 that, as shown best in FlGS. l and 3, are variously radially oriented. A preferred distribution of said units is spirally yalong the length of the barrel 15 so that the slot-cleaning blades 23 thereof may extend into similarly distributed slots 11 in the casing. Patent No. 2,464,669 discloses such units 22, each of which includes the mentioned blade 23 and a spring 24 that biases the blade so the same projects through a slot 11 ialiffned therewith, and may tilt during transition movement from one slot to the next, as shown in the upper portion of FlG. 3. It will be noted that the passage 18 does not open into the units 22, enclosing tubes 25, keeping the flow in said passage from spilling out around the blades 23.
The cleaning section 13 is shown as having an externally threaded quill 26, and a fitting 27 on the upper end of said quiil and connected to the mentioned coupling 17. When the slot-cleaning section is provided at the lower end of the cleaning section, said coupling connects with the lower end of a drill or tube string. Holes 28 in said tting 27 communicate the interior passage 37 oi' the quill with the mentioned annular passage 19. One or more (preferably two) packing cups 29 are mounted on the upper portion ot the quill and, similarly, two packing cups 30 are mounted on the lower portion. Said cups seal against the inner surface of the casing 10 and define between them an annular chamber 31 within said casing and around the quill.
An elongated tube 32 extends coaxially of the quill 26 and, at its upper end, is in communication with the passage 15 of the upper cleaning section 12'. The lower end of said tube 32 extends into and is in sealing engagement with a cylinder tube 33. A packing gland 34 secures the tube 32 to the iitting 27, as adjusted vertically.
The lower end of tube 33 is connected to the upper end of a chamber tube 35, the latter, in turn, being connected to and in communication with a cross tube 36 that extends across the longitudinal passage 37 ot the quill and opens into the annular chamber 31 between the upper and lower packing cups 29 and 3i).
A tube 38 extends downwardly from said cross tube 36, the sam-e constituting a cylinder for a hollow plunger 39 that is closed at its top end and has ports 40 near said end that are in communication with the interior of the charnber tube 35 when the quill 26 and plunger 39 are relatively longitudinally displaced, as can be seen from a comparison of FIGS. 2 and 3. A spring 41 biases the plunger 39 to a position where its'closed end is flush or under flush with the cross tube 36. A retainer cap 42 having ports 43 limits the retraction of said plunger.
T" ne lower end or" the plunger is provided with a cap fitting 44 having ports 45 that constitute'tbe discharge of fluid received by way of the passage 18 when the ports 455 are open to the interior chamber' of tube 35. c
In the form of the invention shown in FlGS. 4 and 5, the cap fitting 44 is replaced by an extension 45 of the and plunger extension 45, the interior of the plunger 39 is open to the passage 18V of said section. It will be clear that the passage 1S of section 12a is open to the interior of the casing for discharge of ushing or washing uid and that such uid and the material displaced thereby may circulate upwardly through an annular passage 52 between the casing and the section 12a.
FIG. 1 shows a bridge of compacted material 53 and how the same is encountered by the titting 44, as the tool is lowered in the casing. A similar relationship is had between the lower end of the barrel 15 of the section 12a. In either case the washing ow circulates upwardly, entering the ports 43 of fitting 42.
Operation Y When the form of FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 is being lowered into the casing, as in FIG. 2, pressure iiuid from above Hows into the annular space 31 by way of the passage 1S, tubes 32 and 33, chamber tube 3S and cross tube 36. This flow flushes outwardly through the slots 11 that are Vopen to said space 31 both upwardly and downwardly through the formation around the casing. The upward portion of this ow re-enters the casing above the upper packing cups 29 and proceeds upwardly through the annular passage 19. The downward portion re-enters the casing below the lower packing cups 36, enters the passage 37 in the quill through the ports 43 of the tting 42, and joins the flow to the passagel 19 by way of the ports 28 in the tting 27. Simultaneously, the blades 23 are cleaning the slots 11. This condition maintains during downward progress of the tool until the tting 44 encounters an obstruction such as the bridge 53 of compacted material. FIG. 1 shows this position.
As the tool proceeds in a downward direction, the prog-V ress of the plunger 39 is arrested by the bridge 53, causing the spring 41 to become compressed to the position of FIG. 3. Now, the plunger 39 closes off the cross tube 36 so that no How reaches the space 31. The iiow of pressure uid now proceeds from the chamber tube 35 through the ports 49 of the plunger and into the hollow interior of said plunger. Since the same discharges through ports 45 in the fitting 44 directly against the bridge 53, the latter, underthe full force and pressure of the washing uid, erodes the bridge so that the return 110W, by way of ports 43, proceeds as above described to remove the particles washed off the bridge. This washing condition maintains until the bridge 53 is washed away. Then, instantly, under bias of the spring 41, the tool restores itself to the normal position of FIG. 2.
It will be seen that, as obstructions are encountered, the full force of the washing fluid is brought to bear on the obstruction automatically, and that upon removal of the obstruction, the tool automatically returns to normal operating condition, since the spring 41 returns the plunger 39 to its projected position of FIG. 2.
When the tool, as in FIGS. 4 and 5, is lowered in the casing 10, the slot-cleaning section 12a cleans the casing slots 11 and the pressure flow from above enters space 31 and flows both upwardly and downwardly to return as before described, to the top of the well. j
When compacted material, such as a bridge S3, is encountered by the lower end of section 12a, downward movement of the tool continues causing the plunger extension 46, against the bias of spring 49, to telescopically project from the position of FIG. 5 to the position of FIG. 4 wherein the ports 4S in the end of said plunger extension are open to the passage 13 of section 12a. Spring 41 in the washing section is also compressed and, as before described, the pressure flow from above enters ports 4@ of the plunger 39 and proceeds through the hollow thereof and of its extension 46 to the mentioned passage 18 of section 12a. Thus, a pressure flow is created for washing away the bridge 53, the flow being one that is direct and having the full force of the initial pressure. The return iiow follows the annular passage 52 to the ports 43. Thereafter the flow is as described in connection with the form of FIGS. l, 2 and 3.
The springs 41 and 49 may compress and expand simultaneously or one may do so ahead of the other. It is only when both springs are compressed that the bridgewashing operation occurs and both springs expanded that the tool is in its normal operating position. It will be clear that the operation is automatic, as before described.
While the foregoing has illustrated and described what is now contemplated to be the best mode of carrying out the invention, the constructions are, of course, subject to modification without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Therefore, it is not desired to restrict the invention to the particular forms of construction illustrated and described, but to cover all modifications that may fall within the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described this invention, what is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A tool for washing away obstructions of compacted material in a well casing, said tool comprising:
(a) an elongated casing-fitting section provided with longitudinally spaced packer cups and adapted to be connected to a hollow string from above and to a plunger yfrom below, and further provided with an axial passage [adapted to receive la iiow `of pressure `fluid `from said string, the passage having at least one bnanch, each such branch terminating in a discharge port permitting the pressure fluid to ow into the casing ybetween said packer cups,
(b) a resiliently biased hollow plunger connected to said body normally closed to said passage and having a downwardly directed end with ports open to the casing below the mentioned body, and
(c) means connected to both the said plunger and the said passage -for opening the plunger to said passage and thereby closing the discharge of the elongated body to the casing, said means becoming operative upon arresting the downward movement of the plunger against the bias thereon, as the tool is being lowered in the casing.
2. A tool according to claim 1 in which (a) the elongated casing-fitting section -is provided with an axial tube in which the plunger is disposed and `across which tube extends a discharge passage for said fluid,
l(b) the upper end 4of the plunger being movable to a position extending across said discharge passage to close the same Vwhen the lower end of the plunger encounters an obstruction and is retracted sufficiently from its normal discharge position, and
(c) port means in said plunger and an enlarged chamber in the axial passage effecting communication of the `chamber and the plunger hollow upon such retraction.
3. The combination with a tool according to claim 1 of (a) a cleaner section for cleaning the slots of slotted well casing in which the tool operates, having an upper end and a lower end and provided with a longitudinal passage open at the lower end,
(b) resilient means connecting said cleaner section and the lower end of the plunger, and
(c) port means in said ends `of the plunger and open to the passage in the cleaner section upon relative movement of the plungerV and section when the latter is arrested by an obstruction in the casing.
4. A casing-washing tool comprising:
(a.) an elongated casing-tting body having longitudinally spaced packers and having `an internal pressure `fluid passage, the passage having at least yone branch lterminati-11g i-n a discharge port, thereby to discharge `pressure -uid between said packers, and having a llower end,
(b) resiliently biased means normally closing the flow path of such uid outwardly from the lower end of the body,
(c) means to `close the path of said discharge between the packers and open the resiliently biased means t-o the path of said iiow upon relative endwise movement of said body rand resiliently biased means, and
(d) `an elongated casing-slot cleaner connected to `and above Ithe elongated casing-titting body and provided with a laterally-confined ow lpassage for pressure uid flow to said body.
5. A casing-washing tool comprising:
(a) an elongated casing-fitting body having longitudinally spaced packers and having an internal pressure fluid passage, the passage having at least one branch terminating in Ia discharge port, thereby to discharge ,pressure iiuid between said packers, and having a lower end,
(b) resiliently biased rneans ynormally closing the tiow path of such fiuid outwardly from the lower end of the body,
(c) means to close the path of said discharge between the packers and open the resiently biased means to the path lof said ow upon relative endwise movement of said body rand resiliently biased means,
(d) an elongated casing-slot cleaner disposed below the elongated casing-fitting body, having a longitudinal bottom-open flow passage adapted to communicate -with the elongated casing-fitting body, and connected to the said body, and
(e) addition-al means for controlling the dow of pressure fluid t-o said slot cleaner, which normally close the ow path thereof to the said passage in said cleaner and which open the said ow path when the slot cleaner encounters su'icient resistance when lowered into 1a well.
6. A tool -for Washing away obstructions in a well casing, said tool comprising:
(a) a well-fitting washer section provided with longitudinally spaced packer cups, adapted to be :connected to a hollow string from above and to `a plunger -from below, and lfurther provided with an axial passage adapted yto .receive a ow of pressure fluid from said string, the passage having iat least Ione branch, each such branch terminating in a discharge port t-o discharge said `duid into the casing between Vsaid packer cups, the axial passage being further adapted to deliver pressure duid to a plunger.
(b) 1a resiliently biased hollow plunger attached to the Washer section and extending below, lthe plunger being movable between a closed position and an open position and inthe latter position capable o receiving pressure duid into the hollow thereof, the plunger being normally biased into the closed position, the plunger further having a downwardly directed end -with ports open to the casing, and
(c) :selective means `connected to both the said section and the said plunger adapted to move the said plunger between the said open and the closed positions and being Ifurther adapted to close the .aforementioned aXial passage when the plunger is in the open position, upon said plunger end encountering an obstruction :of material in the casing.
7. The combination with a tool according to claim 6 of (a) :a cleaner section for cleaning the slots of slotted well casing in which the tool operates, said cleaner section being positioned above and connected to the said tool and adapted to be connected to the hollow string from above, and being further provided with a passage communicating between a hollow string so Iattached and said tool, whereby pressure duid from above is directed into said tool.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES EATENTS 1,36ae53 11/2o stumpf 166-266X 1,474,639 11/23 raniday 166147X 1,664,283 3/28 Boynton 166*226X 1,845,442 2/32 nsbinson 15*1o4.3 1,889,772 12/32 Campani 166-152 2,128,716 8/38 smith 166-152 2,426,164 8/47 ereurennan 166-150X 2,433,828 1/48 Gassen 175-321 2,574,141 11/51 Brown 166-43X 2,671,511 s/54 Mater 166-152X 2,838,118 6/58 yCollins 166-146 CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner,
CHARLES A. WILLMUTH, Examiner.