|Publication number||US3169766 A|
|Publication date||Feb 16, 1965|
|Filing date||Sep 18, 1959|
|Priority date||Sep 18, 1959|
|Publication number||US 3169766 A, US 3169766A, US-A-3169766, US3169766 A, US3169766A|
|Inventors||John M Ernst|
|Original Assignee||American Mach & Foundry|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (13), Referenced by (13), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
J. M. ERNST BOWLING PIN Feb. 16, 1965 Filed Sept. 18, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR.
JOHN M.ERNST J. M. ERNST Feb. 16, 1965 BOWLING PIN 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 18, 1959 United States Patent 3,169,766 BOWLING PIN John M. Ernst, Shelby, Ohio, assignor to American Machine & Foundry Company, a corporation of New Jersey Filed Sept. 18, 1959, Ser. No. 340,912 6 Claims. (Cl. 273-82) The present invention relates to bowling pins and more particularly to a composition bowling pin having improved wear and impact resisting characteristics and provided with a replaceable base for prolonging pin life.
Most pins used in the game of bowling have heretofore been basically of wood construction. However, with the sources of suitable wood stock being systematically depleted, the industry has been turning, more and more, to the possible utilization of new materials for construction of bowling pins. However, heretofore the main drawbacks to plastic pins were that such pins were not acceptable since they did not yield scores comparable to traditional wooden pins and their useful life was not as long. Some objection was even raised that such pins did not sound like the wooden pins.
The present invention is characterized by the provision of a novel bowling pin having a separate plastic body, head and base portions, in the general shape of a conventional bowling pin. In the preferred form of the present invention the hollow sections of the body portion of the pin are connected, the internal shape of the body portion thus resembling two end-to-end frusto-conical members; the frustums abutting adjacent the neck area of the formed pin. The pin thus produced in either the preferred embodiment and in disclosed modifications thereof are provided with a decreasing moment of inertia from the point of minimum diameter of the pin so formed to the uppermost extremity of the head thereof. In this way, the material cross-section of the formed pin through the neck of the pin is subjected to a minimum of abuse inflicted by shock and vibration resulting from impact of a ball striking the pin; the neck generally being the weakest portion of a bowling pin. A decrease in vibration in the neck area materially strengthens pins so produced since vibrations induced by impact by balls and other pins are the major cause of pin damage during play. To complete the pin, the top and base portions of the pin are formed separately and are secured to the body portions by tongue and groove, threads, spin welding, or by homogeneous bonding, using; for example, heat, pressure and/or a suitable solvent. This arrangement produces a pin which simulates a conventional wooden pin and has a substantially longer pin life.
One of the parts of a bowling pin most susceptible to rapid deterioration due to the striking of one pin against another, against parts of the bowling alley, and being hit by bowling balls is the butt end and especially the edges thereof. Therefore, in the present invention there is provided a replaceable pin butt or base. The replaceable base is preferably formed of plastic material which includes a shank extending into a recess in the pin to be' provided with the base. The base also includes an outer frusto-conical disk preferably formed integrally with the shank, the outer edges of the disk forming extensions of the sides of the pin. The base is preferably constructed of material having high chip-resistant and abrasion-resistant characteristics Means is provided for mechani- "ice cally locking the base into the pin recess, thus providing a pin having a tough, hard but easily replaceable base.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a plastic pin which in play, sounds and scores like conventional wooden pins and has a longer, useful life.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a plastic pin composed of a plurality of sections having internal recesses to provide the pin with characteristics of wooden pins.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a plastic pin having a replaceable base.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a plastic pin having a minimum moment of inertia adjacent its neck whereby the pin is provided with improved vibration characteristics to prolong pin life.
It is an object of a modified form of the present invention to provide a plastic pin having a plurality of separate internal recesses.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a plastic pin having a plurality of connected internal recesses, said recesses having the general shape of two end-to-end frustroconical members abutting adjacent the neck area.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a replaceable base for a bowling pin, the base having means for locking the base in position at the butt end of the pin.
Other objects and features of the invention will appear as the description of the particular physical embodiment selected to illustrate the invention progresses. In the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this specification, like characters of reference have been applied to corresponding parts throughout the several views which make up the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal section view of a bowling pin embodying a preferred form of the present invention and provided with a replaceable base element.
FIG. 2 is a view taken along line 22 in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a detailed view of the bottom member of a- FIG. 1.
FIG. 6 is a view taken along line 66 in FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is a top view of the locking member for the replaceable base element. A
FIG. 8 is a side elevation partly in section of the looking member of the replaceable base element.
FIG. 9 is a front elevation of the locking member for the replaceable base element. 1
FIG. 10 is a top view of a bowling pin bottom provided with a modified form of replaceable base.
FIG. 11 is a view taken along line 11-11 in FIG. 10.
FIG. 12 is a longitudinal sectional view of a bowling pin embodying a modified form of the present invention.
FIG. 13 is a longitudinal sectional view of a bowling pin embodying another modified form of the present invention.
FIG. 14 is a longitudinal sectional view of a bowling,
Referring to FIGURE 1, a bowling pin 10 embodying the preferred form of the present invention comprises a Patented Feb. 16, 1965 I leum Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
body member or section 12, a top member orsection 141 1 and a bottom member or section 16. Members 12, 14 and 16 are preferably formed of plastic using any suitable process, such as injection or compression molding. With regard to the type of plastic, 1 have found that satisfactory results are obtained by using an isotactic, highdensity polyolefin, including homopolymers and copolymers preferably with a Shore D scale hardness of at least 60. An example of the latter is a copolymer of polyethylene and butene commercially available under the trade name Marlex 5000 produced by the Phillips Petro- An example of the former is polypropylene, commercially available under the trade name Pro-fax produced by the. Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware. Another example of a suitable homopolymer is a polyethylene resin commercially available under the trade name Marlex- 6000 produced by the Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartl'e'sville, Oklahoma.
Members 12, 14 and 16, are each molded into substantially the shape of corresponding portions or a conventional bowlingpin. Member 12 is provided with an internal recess 18, extending completely through member 12'; Recess 18 includes an inverted. frusto-conical recess 19' adjacent the top portion of member 12, recess 19 forming an upper marginal edge or rim all around the top portion of member 12. Recess 19 abuts on a generally cylindrical recess 28 adjacent the neck portion of member 12. Recess 28, in turn, adjoins an upright frustoconical recess 21 which, in turn, abuts on a generally cylindrical recess 22 through the bottom portion ofmember 12, forming a lower marginal rim or edge 13 therearound. Recesses 19-22 are contiguous forming a continuous recess through theeutire length of member 12.
Top member 14' is provided with a substantially semispherical recess 24 which forms a marginal rim or edge 26 therearound' adapted to be positioned in abutting sup- .ported relationship on the upper marginal edge ll of member 12.
Bottom member 16 is likewiseprovided withan internal upper recess 28 having the general shape of an inverte'd frustrum of a cone. Recess 28 forms a marginal rim, or edge 29' around the upper portion of member 16 andadapts member 16 to be positioned in abutting supporting relationship under the lower marginal rim 13 of member 12.
In forming pin 10, members 12, 14- and 16 are brought into abutting axially aligned relationship, as set forth hereinabove, and are joined together inany suitable mannet. This is done by Welding the adjacent surfaces of members 12. and 14 and 14am; 16 byfspin Welding, or by heat sealing using; heat and pressure. The latter method is preferred. The joining of members 12, 14 and 1'6 together produces a plastic pin 10 having a central internal bore, which has sound and scoring characteristicsclos'ely approximating those of a conventional-wooden bowling pin;
I have foundthat dueto the. Wear and tear to which bowling pins are subjected, the butt end'which supports the. pin in standing position on an alleytendsto round off, or be damaged otherwise by striking against other pins or parts of the alley in such a way that' it is necessary to trim oil a portion of the pin in order to provide a suitable support base. This is objectionable and, therefore, bowling pins made in accordance with the inventionare so formed that they may be provided with .a readily removable base. In this manner, Wear-and tear on the base of the pin itself is minimized and its life is tremendously increased.
FIGURES 3-9 disclose a preferred form of an easily replaceable butt or base which may be detachably attachably'attached' to bottom member 16. This member is provided with a lower recess 30 adapted to receive a plastic base member 32. Recess 30 assumes. the general shapeof a cylinder 34 capped by an elongated slot 36.
Slot 36 extends completely through member ldsuch that recess 28, slot 16 and cylindrical recess'34 are contiguous forming a continuous opening through the entire of member 16 as shown best in FIGURE 3. Also slot 36 is countersunk adjacent'recess 28 and cylindrical recess 34 is provided with outwardly extending peripheral slots 38 for reasons set forth hereinbelow.
Base member 32, adapted to be received into recess 30 of member 16, is preferably of plastic material having high chip and abrasion resisting characteristics. I have found that cellulose acetate butyrate yields satisfactory results. Base member 32- is produced by any suitable process, such as: the molding process.
Base member 32 is: formed withv a shankportion 40 a and a frusto-conical disk section 42. Formed on top of disk section 42 adjacent opposite sides of theperiphery of shank 40 are protuberances 44'. Base 32 is also provided with aninternal recess 46, generally'cylindrical in shape, and having a shoulder 48 formed therearound ad- *42 forms the bottom of pin 10.
To maintainbase 32 in recess 30, there is provided a lock member 50 formed of rigid material; such as, plastic,
metal or wood. Member Stl'has agenerally cylindrical body portion 52 dimensioned to fit snugly in and be coextensive with recess 46 of base 32. Body portion 52 is provided with a base flange 54 adapted to fit into, shoulder 48 forming the bottom of base 32 andthefinished pin 10. Lock member 59 is also provided with a neck section 56, generally cylindrical which tapers out into an elongated top section 58, of the same width as the diameter of neck section 56. i
In operation, base 32 is positioned in recess 30 of a pin 10 to be furnished with a replaceable base as described hereinabove. Next lock member 56 is inserted into base 32; by positioningbody portion 52 in recess 46 of base 32. As body portion 52 is inserted into recess 32, neck section 56 and top section 58 of memberfitl are aligned for passage into elongated slot as of member 16. Lock member 50 is then positioned in. base 32 withfiange 54 thereof flush against shoulder 48 and body portion 52 filling substantially the entire of recess 46 of base 32. This urges neck section 56 into elongated slot 36 with top section58 passing therethrough andinto recess 28 as shown in FIGURE 1', the taperedsect-ions 5) connecting neck 56 and top 58 positioned inithe upper countersunk portion of slot 36.
To physically lock b ase 32 into bottom section 16, lock member 56 is then rotated such that top 58 thereof is out ner wrench which is utilized to rotate lock member 59 preferably ninety degrees in either direction to-position top 58 thereof transversely of slot 36, thereby maintaining base 32 in position in pin 10. When. it i desired to replace base 32', due to wear thereofthrough use, lock member is again rotated to position topsection 58 in alignment. with slot 36. Lock member 50 and base 32 then extracted from pin 10 and base 32 replaced byafresh base which is relocked in position in bottom 16 as described above, thereby providing pin 14} with a newbase to extend its usable life. 7
.FiGURES l0 and I1 disclose a-rnodified form of re placeable base designated 12s. The top and body sectious of the pin are constructed preferably in like manner to members 12 and 14 of pin 10. Bottom section 116 may be formed of similar material and by similar method to bottom member 16 of pin 10. However, section 116 is provided with an upper internal, cylindrical recess 120. Separating recess 118 and 120 are four transverse segments 122 spaced by slots or openings 124, segments 122 being formed preferably integrally with the rest of bottom section 116.
Base member 126, adapted to be inserted into bottom section 116 is preferably of plastic material having high chip and abrasion resisting characteristics, such as, cellulose acetate butyrate. Base member 116 is produced by any suitable process, such as; a molding process.
Base member 126 is formed with a cylindrical body section 128 and adapted to be positioned in and to substan- I tially fill the entire of recess 120. Member 126 is further provided with a frusto-conical bottom section 136. When in position in section 116, the outer periphery of section 130 forms a continuation of the bottom edges of section 116 and the bottom portion of section 116 forms the bottom of the finished pin.
Base126 is further provided with a cylindrical top section 132 dimensioned to fit snugly between segments 122. The upper section of top 132 is provided with four outstanding extensions 134 adapted to fit through slots 124. In operation, base 126 is positioned in recess 120 of bottom 116 of a pin to be furnished with a replaceable base. Base 126 is sopositioned that extensions 134 are aligned with slots 124. Base 126 is then positioned in recess 120 with the top of body section 128 flush against the bottom of segments 122, section 128 substantially filling the entire of recess 120. This urges neck section I 132 into position between segments 122, extensions 134 passing through slots 122 and into recess 118 as shown in FIGURE 11.
To physically lock base 126 into bottom section 116, base 126 is then rotated such that extensions 134 of top 132 are moved out of alignment with slots 122. To accomplish this, base 126 is preferably provided with an elongated slot 136 adapted to accommodate a flat turning key which is utilized to rotate base 126 preferably fortyfive degrees in either direction to position extensions 134 mid-way between slots 122, thereby ensuring maintainence of base 126 in position in bottom 116. When it is desired to replace base 126 due to wear thereof through use, base 126 is again rotated to position extensions 134 in alignment with slots 122. Base 126 is then extracted from bottom 116 and base 126 replaced by a fresh base which is re-locked in position in bottom 116 as described above, thereby providing a pin with a new base to extend its usable life.
FIGURE 12 discloses a modified form of the present invention. Bowling pin 210 comprises a body member 212, a top member 214 and a base member 216. Members 212, 214 and 216 are formed preferably of plastic using any suitable process; such as the molding process. With regard to the type of plastic, I have found that satisfactory results are obtained by using an isotactic, highdensity polyolefin, including homopolymers and copolymers preferably with a Shore D scale hardness of at least 60. An example of the latter is a copolymer of polyethylene and butene commercially available under the trade name Marlex 5000 produced by the Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. An example of the former is polypropylene, commercially available under the trade name Pro-fax produced by the Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware. Another example of a suitable homopolymer is a polyethylene resin commercially available under the trade name Marlex 6000 produced by the Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
Members 212, 214 and 216 are each molded into.sub stantially the shape of corresponding portions of a conventional bowling pin. Member 212 is provided with an internal recess 218, extending completely through member abuts on a cylindrical recess 220 adjacent the neck portion of member 212. Recess 220, in turn, adjoins an upright frusto-conical recess 221 which, in turn, abuts on a cylindrical recess 222 through the bottom portion of member 212. Recesses 219-222are contiguous forming a continuous recess throughthe entire length of member 212.
Top member 214 is provided with a substantially semispherical recess 224' and is further provided with .a marginal flange or tongue 226, adapted to be received in a marginalperipheral groove 228 formed in the top of mem' ber 212.
Base member 216 is likewise provided with an internal recess 229 having the general shape of the lower portion of a sphere. Member 216 is preferably formed with an upstanding shank portion 230 adapted to be fitted into the lower portion of recess 222 ofmember 212. Member 216 also includes a frusto-conical disc 232 preferably formed integrally with shank 230 which" forms the base or butt portion of pin 210. Members 212,214 and 216 are joined by any suitable means; using for example, heat, pressure and/ or a suitable solvent. Joining members 212, 214 and 216 as described hereinabove thus produces a plastic pin 210 having an internal recess or chamber 208 therethrough adapting pin 210 to simulate a conventional wooden pin.
Referring to FIGURE 13 a bowling pin embodying another modified form of the present invention is comprised of a body member 312, a top member 314 and abase member 316. Members 312, 314 and 316 are formed preferably of plastic, using any suitable process, such as, the molding process. With regard to the type of plastic, I have found that satisfactory results are obtained by using an isotactic, high-density polyolefin, includinghomopolymers and copolymers preferably with. a Shore D scale hardness of at least 60. An example of the latter is a copolymer of polyethylene and butene commercially available under the trade name Marlex 5000 produced by the Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. An example of the former is polypropylene, commercially available under the trade name Pro-fax produced by the Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware. An-
other example of a suitable homopolymer is a'polyethyl ene resin commercially available under the trade name Marlex 6000 produced by the Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
Members 312, 314 and 316 are each molded into substantially the shape of corresponding portions of a conventional bowling pin. Member 312 is provided with internal recesses 318 andv 320 adjacent its base and head portions respectively. In the preferred embodiment, the recesses 318 and 320 assume the general shape of a cylinder capped by a hemisphere; this hemispheric portion of recesses 318 and 320 being opposed but separate as shown in FIGURE 13. Thus, members 312 have an internal recess at the head and base portions, but are solid adjacent the neck area.
Top member 314 is provided with a substantially hemispherical internal recess 322 and is further provided with a flange or peripheral shank 324 which is positioned in recess 320 of member 312, thereby joining members 312 and 314. Sections 316, are also in turn provided with internal recess 326, which in this modification, resembles a paraboloid. Likewise, member 316 is provided with a flange or peripheral shank 328 which is fitted into recess 318 thereby joining members 312 and 316. As shown in FIGURE 13, recesses 320 and 322 and 318 and 326 are contiguous to form separate internal chambers in pin 310, extending from body member 312 into head member 314 and from body member 312 into base member 316, respectively.
Members 312 and 314 are fixed in position as shown in FIGURE 13 by inserting shank 324 of member 314 into recess 320 of member 312 and suitably joining the two members together as by welding the adjacent surfaces;
This can be done by spin welding or by heat sealing using heat and pressure. The latter is preferred. In like manner shanks-328 of member 316 are inserted into recess 7 318 of member 312 and thesetwo parts suitably joined as by welding,de'scribed above. Joining members 314" and 316 to member 312 thus'pr'oducesa plastic pin having internal chamberswhich provide pin 310 with the charac teristics'of a ccnventional bowling pin.
FIGURE 14 discloses a bowling pin '41: embodying a modified form of 'thejg'res'ent invention. Pin 410 comprises a body section 412, a top sectionf414 and a base section 416. Sections 412, 414 and 4161are formed pref erably of plastic using any suitable proces'sjsuch as, the molding process. With regardrto the type of plastic, I have found that satisfactory results are obtained by using an isotactic, high-density polyoleiin, including homopolymers and copolymers preferably with a- Shore D scale hardness of at least 60. Ari example of the latter is a co polymer of polyethylene and butene commercially available under the trade name MarIexSOOO produced by the PhillipsPetroleum Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 7 An example of the former is polypropylene, commercially available under the trade name Pro-fax produced by the Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware. An-
other example of a suitable homopolymer is a" polyethylene resin commercially available under the trade name Marlex 6000 produced by the Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
Sections 412, 414 and 416 are each molded into substantially the shape of corresponding portions of a conventional wooden bowling pin. Section 412 is provided with an upper internal recess 418 and a lower internal recess 420. Recess418 assumes the general shape of the lower portion of a sphere 422 capped by a cylinder 423, which, in turn capped by an inverted frustrumof a cone 424. Recess portion 424 is, in turn capped by a recess having the general shape of a cylinder 425, somewhat larger in diameter than cylinder 423. Cylinder 425 is capped by an upstandingfrusto-conical recess 426, which is in turn capped by a third cylindrical recess 427 extending through the top of section 412 for accommodating top section 414 therein.
recess or chamber 418. r
' Recess 420 assumes the general shape of the upper half of a sphere'428, abutting on an upright frusto-conical recess 429 which, in turn, abuts on a cylindrical recess 43%. Recess 430 adjoins an inverted frusto-conical recess 431, in turn, abutting on a cylindrical recess 432 slightly smaller in diameter thanrecess 43% and extending through the bottom of section 412 for accommodating base section 416 therein. It will be understood that recesses 423-432 arefcontiguous to form a continuous recess or chamber Base section 416 includes an upstanding flange or shank portion 434' which is fitted'into recess 432- adjacent the bottom section 412 Likewise, section 416 includes a frust'o-conical disk 436, preferably formed integrally with member 434, disk 436 forming the base or butt portion of pin 410. Sections 412, 414 and 416 are joined by any suitable means; such as, heat, pressure and/ or a suitable solvent, to form a plastic pin provided with a plurality of internal recesses adapting pin 410 .to simulate a conven- Y tional wooden pin. 7
It will be understood that each of the pins described hereinabove are provided witheither a solid neck area or a neck area in which the internal recess adjacent theneck area is reduced. 'Such an arrangementthus produces pins with minimum moments of inertia adjacent their neck areas providing such pins with minimum vibration characteristics in the neck area. This arrangement substantially increases pin life by reducing pin fractures at the neckthe section most susceptible'to' damage from collision with g It will be understood that refcesses 422 427 are contiguous to form one continuous a ball or other pins. Further, each of the modified embodiments of the invention described hereinabove may be adapted to include a replaceablebase as disclosed in the preferred embodiment. 7
It Will'be appreciated that, if desired, the bowling pins disclosed in FIGURES 12, 13 and 14 maybe provided With readilyremovable and replaceablebase's such as shown in FIGURES 1-11 inclusive.
What I'claim is: 1. A plastic bowling pin comprising separate bo'dy, head and bottom sections, said body section provided with internal' cavities. adjacent the top and bottomthe'reof resembling two cnd-to-end frusto-conical members, said T head and bottom sections each provided with an internal recess, means forjoining said top and'bottom" sections to sa d body section to form abowling pin, said recesses being located in juxtaposition whereby said pin is pro-' yided with internal cavities adjacent the topjand bottom thereof, and a frusto-conical base below the bottom section and having a central internal aperture, a locking element adapted to be received in said aperture andhaving a portion thereof extending into said bottom section, the outer periphery of said frusto-conical base forming a continuation of the bottom edges of said pin when said base is in position, and means for actuating said locking member to removablyinaintain saidbase in position on said bottom'section.
2. A plasticbowling pin comprising separate body, head 7 and bottom sections, said body section provided within- 'ternal cavities resembling two endto-end frusto-conical members adjacent'the top and bottom of said body member, said head and bottom sectio'ns'each provided with an internal recess, said recess being located in juxtaposition whereby said'pin is provided with internal cavities adjacent the top and bottom thereof, means for joining said top and bottom sections to said'body section, a substantially cylindrical base recess in thelower-portion of'said-bottom section, a base including a frusto-conical disk having an movement between said base and said bottom section'upon upstanding shank, said shank being adapted for positioning n said base recess of said bottom section, the outer periphery of said frusto-conical disk forming a continuation of the bottom edges of said pinwlien said base is.p'osi tioned in said base recess, said'b'ase having a central internal aperture, a locking element adapted to be received in said aperture and having aportion thereof extending into said bottom section and means for actuating said locking member to removably maintain said base in position in said base recess. j i
3. The invention as defined in claim '2 wherein said bottom is provided with a second recess in the upper'portion thereof and an elongated slot extending between said upper and lower recesses and wherein said locking adjacent the outer periphery of said lower recess adapted to receive said protuberances when said base is inoperative positionin said bottom section, said protuberances and said elongated apertures coacting to prevent relative rotation of said locking element.
5. The invention as defined in claim 1 in which said plastic sections are formed of a polyolefin selected from the group consisting of a copolymer of polyethylene and butene; a homopolyiner of polyethylene; and ahomo- V polymer of polypropylene.
6. The invention as defined in claim '2 .inwhich said plastic sections are formed of a polyolefin selected from uding pro- 9 the group consisting of a copolymer of polyethylene and butene with a Shore D scale hardness between 60 and 70; a homopolymer of polyethylene and a homopolymer of polypropylene.
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|U.S. Classification||473/119, 273/DIG.120, 273/DIG.400|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S273/12, A63D9/00, Y10S273/04|