US 3174458 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Y marked fish.
United States Patent O 3,174,458 IDENTIFICATION F SCALY TELESTS Louis Levy, Encino, and Carol A. De Fusco, Reseda,
Calif., assignors to Rexall Drug and Chemical Company, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of Delaware Filed June 24, 1963, Ser. No. 290,246 3 Claims. (Cl. 119-3) This invention relates to a method of providing scaly teleosts with identifying indicia and to teleosts processed thereby.
In connection with environmental studies of fish, it is frequently desirable to mark individual fish in order that they can be readily identified periodically during the course of the study. Heretofore, such marking has been effected by the application of bands to the fins or tail of the fish. Such bands can fall off during the study with a result that identification of the fish becomes impossible thereafter.
The marking of small living creatures, such as turtles, with paint or other means has been extensively carried out to prepare highly salable commodities. Heretofore, there has been no means available to provide similarly It is apparent that a means whereby fish may be marked with permanent indicia would be desirable in yielding a commodity with a high degree of sales appeal.
It is a primary object =of this invention to provide a method of imparting identifying indicia to scaly teleosts where the indicia are permanent and the marking process has no adverse effects on the fish.
Other objects and the advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description.
It has now been found that identifying indicia can be imparted to scaly teleosts by a process comprising removing scales in a predetermined pattern from an area of the surface of the teleost and applying in the resulting scalereceiving sockets scales of a contrasting shade taken from another area of the same teleost.
The method of the invention is applicable to those classes of fish known as teleosts (bony fish) and to such teleosts having scales. Throughout the specification and in the claims, the term scaly teleost is used to refer to the particular class of fish to which the present invention is applicable. Among the scaly teleosts to which the method of the invention is applicable are the goldfish (Carassius auratus), carp (Cyprinus Carpio), blue acara (Aequedens latfrons), blackspot barb (Barbus flamentosus) and guppy (Lebstes retculatus).
The individual scaly teleosts which are adaptable to the method of this invention should have scales of at least two contrasting shades. The goldfish is a particularly useful species, since goldfish are commonly available with scales of both the predominant shade of orange with areas of scales of black, white or other shade contrasting with orange.
In carrying out the method of this invention, the scaly teleost is preferably anesthetized by being placed in a container of water containing a dissolved anesthetic agent ofthe class suitable for anesthetizing fish. Tricaine methanesulfonate at a concentration of 50 to 100 milligrams per liter is the anesthetic agent of choice.
The anesthetized scaly teleost is then placed on one side in a shallow dish partially filled with the aforementioned anesthetic solution. A magnifying lens is used to enable the operator to obtain a clear view of the area of the surface of the teleost to which the identifying indicia is to be applied. Scales are then removed in the desired pattern from the exposed area of the surface of the fish and are discarded, thereby yielding a plurality of scalereceiving sockets in the desired pattern. Scales are then removed in sequence from another area of the surface of the same teleost having a shade which contrasts with the ice shade of the scales initially removed from the first area. Such scales of the contrasting shade are then inserted into the scale-receiving sockets, being trimmed along their edges With fine scissors if necessary to insure proper size before insertion. When all of the scale-receiving sockets are filled with scales of the contrasting shade, the process is complete and the so-marked teleost is returned to its normal environment.
The aforementioned process is carried out either by removing all scales in the desired pattern before replacement of any, or alternately, by inserting a new scale in each scale-receiving socket immediately after removal of each scale. The latter procedure is preferable since it enables the operator more effectively to control the desired pattern.
To insure the optimum degree of retention of the transplanted scales, it is desirable that adjacent scales not be removed; that is, each scale-receiving socket should be surrounded by scales which are not removed.
It has been found that the transplanted scales become firmly set within 24 hours and remain in their new position for the life of the fish. The process has no adverse effects on the fish. It has also been found that it is not necessary to replace any scales in the area of contrasting shade, since normal scale regeneration processes will regenerate such scales rapidly.
The best mode contemplated by the inventors for carrying out their invention will now be set forth as follows:
Example The example is described with reference to the drawing which illustrates a scaly teleost marked in accordance with the invention. A scaly teleost 1 of the species Carassius auratus (goldfish) having an area on its side of predominantly orange scales 2 and, elsewhere, scales 3 of a white shade, is anesthetized by being placed in Water containing 60 milligrams per liter of tricaine methanesulfonate.
The anesthetized sh is then placed under a lens in a shallow dish containing a small amount of the above aqueous anesthetic solution with the orange side in the upward position. In sequence, nonadjacent orange scales are removed with tweezers and replaced with white scales 4 from the same fish in a pattern forming the letter A. The edges of the white scales are trimmed slightly with fine scissors before insertion.
The fish is then returned to its normal environment of water. Examination in 24 hours reveals'that the transplanted White scales 4, which are in the pattern of the letter A against an orange background, have commenced to become firmly attached. Periodic examination thereafter reveals that the transplanted scales are permanently in place with no adverse effect upon the goldfish.
Sealy teleosts marked in accordance with the method of this invention are permanently identifiable throughout their life span. Thus, this invention provides a positive and permanent means of identifying individual fish which is of great value in the execution of carefully controlled environmental studies thereof. In addition, the method of the invention presents limitless possibilities of marking scaly teleosts with indicia of various types to yield fish having a high degree of sales appeal.
The subject matter which the applicants regard as their invention is particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed as follows.
1. A method of imparting identifying indicia to a scaly teleost having scales of at least two contrasting shades which comprises removing a plurality of scales in a predetermined pattern from an area of the surface of said teleost to yield a plurality of empty scale-receiving sockets and inserting into said sockets scales of a contrasting shade removed from the same teleost.
2. A method of imparting identifying indicia to a scaly teleost having scales of at least two contrasting shades which comprises removing a scale from a lirst area of the surface of said teleost comprising scales of one predominant shade to yield an empty scale-receiving socket, removing a scale from a second area of the surface of said teleost having a shade which contrasts with the shade of the scales occupying said rst area, inserting the scale removed from said second area into said socket, and repeating said sequence of steps in the pattern of the desired indicia.
3. A method of imparting identifying indicia to a sealy teleost having scales of at least two contrasting shades 4 which comprises removing a plurality of scales in a predetermined pattern frorn a first area of the surface of said teleost comprising predominantly scales of one shade to yield a plurality of empty scale-receiving sockets in said rst area, each such scale-receiving socket being separated from each other such scale-receiving socket in said first area by scales, and inserting into each of said sockets in said first area scales of a contrasting shade removed from a second area of the surface of said teleost.
No references cited.
SAMUEL KOREN, Primary Examiner.
ALDRICH F. MEDBERY, Examiner.