US 3174697 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Mam}! 1965 T. E. BRIDGEWATER IMPELLER 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July so, 1962 Mamh 1965 T. E. BRIDGEWATER 3, 74,697
IMPELLER Filed July 30, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I 5 46 36 United States Patent 3,174,697 IMPELLER Thomas E. Bridgewater, Elmhurst, Ill. Adams Engineering Co., 20 E. Burlington Ave, La Grange, Ill.) Filed July 30, 1962, Ser. No. 213,369 2 Claims. (Cl. 241-275) The present invention relates to a novel crushing apparatus and more particularly to a novel impact crushing apparatus.
An impact crusher of the type contemplated herein includes an upstanding impeller structure onto which material being processed is deposited and which is adapted to accelerate the material and project the material laterally outwardly for engagement with breaker plate means arranged around the impeller. The efiiciency of the apparatus is, in part, determined by the degree to which the impeller is capable of accelerating the material for projecting the material against the breaker plate means with a high impact velocity. In addition the overall efiiciency of the apparatus is affected by the maintenance requirements of the impeller structure.
An important object of the present invention is to provide an impact type crushing apparatus having a novel impeller structure which is constructed for minimizing maintenance costs and for more effectively accelerating material being processed whereby to improve the overall efiiciency of the apparatus.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a simplified partial vertical sectional view showing an apparatus incorporating features of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken along line 22 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along line 33 in FIG. 2;
I FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing a portion of the novel impeller structure of the invention; and
FIG. 5 is an exploded perspective view showing an impeller shoe constructed in accordance with features or" the present invention.
Referring now more specifically to the drawings wherein like parts are designated by the same numerals throughout the various figures, a crushing apparatus incorporating features of the present invention is shown in FIG. 1. The apparatus comprises an upstanding cylindrical housing or shell 12 having a cover 14 removably disposed thereon. An impeller structure In incorporating features of the present invention is mounted on an impeller shaft 18 suitably supported centrally within the housing 12 for rotation about a substantially vertical axis. The impeller which will be described in detail below is adapted to engage material delivered through an opening 20 in the cover 14 and accelerate such material and throw the material laterally outwardly for engagement against breaker plates 22 mounted around the interior of the housing 12. As will be understood, the desired breaking action occurs upon impact of the material being processed against the breaker plates 22.
In order to drive the impeller, an electric motor or other suitable prime mover 24 is mounted adjacent the housing 12. A drive pulley 26 is secured to an output shaft 28 of the motor for driving an endless belt 29 which in turn encircles and drives the pulley 30 secured to the lower end of the impeller shaft 18.
As shown best in FIGS. 2 and 3, the impeller 16 comprises a horizontal disk 32 suitably secured to a hub member 34 mounted on an upper end portion of the impeller shaft 18. A central distributor unit 36 is mounted on the impeller plate 32 for receiving material to be processed directed through the opening 20 and initially accelerating and directing the material outwardly. In addition impeller blade units 38 are mounted on and spaced around the disk 32 for further accelerating the material to be processed and projecting such material outwardly for impingement against the breaker plates 22.
As shown in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, the distributor unit 36 comprises a lower or base disk 40 disposed on the impeller disk 32 and having a ring 42 welded to its lower side for projecting into an aperture in the impeller disk and positively centrally locating the distributor unit with respect to the impeller disk. The distributor unit also includes an upper annular disk 44 spaced vertically above the base disk 40 and having a central opening 46 therein through which material from the inlet opening 20 is adapted to fall. Blade means 43 are secured between and spaced around the disks 4% and 44. These blade means may be welded or otherwise secured to the plate members 46 and 44 so that the central distributor structure 36 may be handled and removed and replaced as a unit.
In the embodiment shown, each of the blade means 48 includes a first upstanding plate member 50 which is generally parallel to and offset rearwardly with respect to the direction of rotation of the impeller from a vertical plane containing the axis of rotation of the impeller structure. In addition each of the blade means includes an intermediate upstanding plate member or section 52 extending from the outer end of the plate member 50 and inclined forwardly therefrom. The outer end edge of each of the intermediate sections 52 substantially abuts an edge of an additional or outer plate member 54 which extends forwardly at a greater angle and is preferably substantially perpendicular to the aforementioned plane as shown best in FIG. 2. Thus each of the blade means 48 defines a forwardly facing pocket 56 which is adapted to be filled with particles of the material being processed as will be described more in detail below.
Each of the blade units 33 comprises a main body member 58 shown best in FIGS. 2, 3 and 5, which body member is detachably secured to the impeller disk 32- by means of a plurality of bolts 60. Each body member 58 is mounted so that its forward side 62 extends from and substantially provides a continuation of an adjacent blade element 54 and is preferably even slightly inclined forwardly of the adjacent blade element 54 as shown in FIG. 2. Each body member 58 also defines a forwardly facing pocket 64 which is adapted to become filled with particles of material being processed for protecting the body member against direct abrasion by the material during a crushing operation. In the embodiments shown each blade unit 38 also includes an insert 66 detachably connected with the main body member 58.
In order detachably to connect the insert 66 with the body member 58, an aperture 68 is formed in the body member 58 for receiving a tongue 70 formed integrally with the insert 66. The aperture 68 and the tongue 70 extend diagonally outwardly and rearwardly with respect to an intersecting radius of the impeller so that during rotation of the impeller, centrifugal force urges the tongue 70 agressively into the aperture 68 and precludes accidental disassembly of the insert.
In the embodiments shown, each insert 66 is adapted to overlie and completely cover the outer end margin of its associated body member 58 and thus provide the outer terminal end of its blade unit. This outer end is usually subjected to the greatest amount of abrasion and wear during a crushing operation whereby each insert will usually be worn away faster than its associated body member 58. It is contemplated that the inserts 66 may be quickly and easily removed and replaced independently of their associated body members 53 whereby to reduce maintenance costs.
, During a crushing operation, material to be processed is delivered through the opening 20 in the cover 14 and falls downwardly through the opening 46 in the distributor plate 44 and is first engaged by the elements 50 of the blade means 48. As shown best in FIG. 3, inner edges 72 of the elements 50 are beveled whereby the elements 50 are relieved and provided with'a generally triangular configuration for minimizing any possibility of the material becoming jammed and clogging the central area within the distributor unit 36. As additional material is delivered to the impeller, the pockets 56 and 64 become filled and packed with particles of the material so that such packed material provides surfaces 74 indicated by broken lines in FIG. 2 over which subsequent particles of the material being processed pass as they are accelerated and thrown from the impeller. In accordance with a feature of the present invention, the blade means 48 and the impeller blade units 38 are constructed and angularly disposed in the manner previously described and for arranging the pockets 56 and 64 in a manner which promotes filling and packing of the pockets and the forming of the surfaces 74 with a substantially predetermined configuration. When the pockets 56 and 64 are filled with the material, the elements of the blade means 48 and the blade unit 38 are effectively protected against direct engagement and abrasion by a majority of the material which is processed. Furthermore the surfaces 74 are formed with a curving configuration which progressively increases in curvature from the radially inner ends of the blade means toward the radially outer ends of the blade unit. When the surfaces 74 are formed in this manner, an optimum condition is approached whereby the material being processed readily flows outwardly across the surfaces 74 and at the same time is retained in engagement with the surfaces 74 for'a longer period, As
a result the particles of the material being processed are accelerated more efiiciently to higher velocities at the time of departure from the periphery of the impeller whereby to promote a more effective crushing action.
While the preferred embodiment'of the present invention has been shown and described herein, it is obvious that many details may be changed without departing from the spirit and scope of the appended claims, 7
The invention is claimed as follows:
1. An impeller, of the type described, which is rotatable in a predetermined direction about an upstanding axis comprising vertically spaced and substantially axially aligned generally flat lower and upper 'disc members, said upper disc member having a'central opening therein through which material to be processedmay be delivered, a plurality of blade means disposed between said disc members and spaced therearound, each of said blade means defining a forwardly facing pocket for receiving and retaining a portion of material being processed and extending from adjacent said axis radially outwardly and forwardly with respect to said predetermined direction of rotation, a third disc member beneath and supporting said lower disc member and having portions extending radially outwardly of said lower disc member, a plurality of separate and individually mounted shoe means having forwardly facing pockets on said radially extending portions of said third disc member and respectively disposed for providing outer end extensions of said blade means, each of said shoe means including a main body member extending outwardly and substantially forwardly with respect to said direction of rotation, and an insert substantially covering an outer endof said main body member, said insert and said main body member including complementary tongue and aperture means interengaging each other and extending generally radially for releasably connecting the insert with said main body member.
2. An impeller structure, of the type described, which is rotatable in a predetermined direction about an upstanding axis comprising vertically spaced and substantially axially aligned generally flat lower and upper disc members, said upper disc member having a central opening therein through which material to be processed may be delivered, a plurality of blade means disposed between said disc members and spaced therearound', each of said blade means defining a forwardly facing pocket for receiving and retaining a portion of material being processed and extending from adjacent said axis radially outwardly and forwardly with respect to said predetermined direction of rotation, a third disc member beneath and supporting said lower disc member and having portions extending radially outwardly of said lower disc member,
a plurality of separate and individually mounted shoe means having forwardly facing pockets on said radially extending portions of said third disc member and respectively disposed for providing outer end extensions of said blade'means, each of said blade means including an inner end section on said lower disc member and inwardly of an inner margin of said upper disc member for direct engagement with material to be processed entering through said central opening, and each of said inner end'sections having an upper edge extending generally diagonally downwardly from. adjacent said inner margin of said upperdisc member toward an inner terminal end of the end section.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 7 2,992,783 Wirth et al July 18, 1961 FOREI'GN PATENTS 688,169 Germany Feb. 14, 1940