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Publication numberUS3176551 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 6, 1965
Filing dateMar 19, 1962
Priority dateMar 19, 1962
Publication numberUS 3176551 A, US 3176551A, US-A-3176551, US3176551 A, US3176551A
InventorsHansen Burton R
Original AssigneeHansen Burton R
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Convertible jaw pliers
US 3176551 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 6, 1965 B. R. HANSEN CONVERTIBLE JAW PLIERS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 19, 1962 FIG 5 BURTON R.HANSEN ATTORNEY April 6, 1965 B. R. HANSEN CONVERTIBLE JAW PLIERS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 19, 1962 BURTON R. HANSEN INV EN TOR.

United States Patent 3,176,551 CGNVERTBLE .IAW PLIERS Burton R. Hansen, 1631 S. 2nd St., Mount Vernon, Wash.

Filed Mar. 19, 1962, Ser. No. 180,654 Qiaims. (Ci. 81-423) This present inventioin relates to the general art of pliers, by which is meant a tool having two lever members which are pivoted together near one end of both members and provided with jaws on the short pivoted ends and the opposite ends providing handles of increased length to give the mehanical purchase required to cause the jaws to grip with a pressure several times that applied to the handle portions of the lever members. More particularly, this present invention relates to a design providing a practical method for the common seating of a large variety of plier type jaws in one or more basic tools of the plier or movable jaw wrench types.

Manufacturers have supplied the mechanical World with a wide range of hand tools and have further provided a great number of specialized tools that can normally be used only for certain specific operations but which particularly fit those operations and are very eflicient when so used. It follows that it would be most inconvenient for a person to have readily available the wide variety of tools that are currently obtainable for any one of the difierent lines of craft work. There are many basic types of pliers and wrenches and many sizes of each type. To solve this problem I have constructed my convertible plier jaws having coacting pairs adapted to any normal type of pliers or wrenches which have jaws formed on the short end of the two pivoted together levers and which provides an elongated handle or handle portions on the opposite side of the pivot point, a design which is characteristic of this general type of tool.

In making this plan available it is necessary that the actual fixed jaw portion of the pliers, of whatever type they may be, have suflicient material and be properly shaped so that transverse dovetailed slots can be provided in each of the plier jaws and that these dovetailed slots should be unsymmetrical with the deepest part of the slot in the direction of the pivot point of the pliers so that the pliers can have adequate strength without undue bulkiness; the male portion of the dovetail particularly must be made of sufiicient metal to assure adequate strength for the task required. Throughout the present drawings, three general types of pliers have been illustrated. However, it is to be understood that my jaw arrangement is adaptable to various types of pliers or pivoted jaw wrenches beyond those illustrated and further, that a wide variety of jaws can be used in a standard tool which is provided with the transverse dovetailed slots as called for by my present plan.

The principal object of my present invention, therefore consists in providing a design which incorporates an irregular or unsymmetrical type of dovetailed slot running transversely through the permanent portion of coacting plier jaws and which is unique in that it provides offset angular position to the jaw face of the pliers and serves several purposes not heretofore known to the best or my belief.

A further object of this invention is to provide plier jaws which conform more nearly to the structural shape of the permanent portion of plier jaws, thereby retaining the maximum of structural strength for a given amount of material.

A further object of this invention is to provide for greater material strength where most needed to counteract the radial thrust created, particularly by the operation of the extended type of jaws.

A further object of this invention is to permit utilization of the wedge principle to the greatest advantage in rigidly stabilizing the seating of jaw inserts during func tional operation of pliers which are so equipped.

A further object is to provide means which serve adequately in the retention of jaw inserts of a wide variety of forms of pliers and wrenches.

Further objects, advantages and capabilities be apparent from the disclosure in the drawings or may be comprehended or are inherent in the device.

In the drawings:

FIGURE 1 is a face view with the handles partially broken away and illustrating a general utility type of modern pliers.

FIGURE 2 is a side view of the pliers of FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE 2 but with the upper jaw and handle member revolved and shown in section, as taken from the line 33 of FIGURE 4, so as to illustrate particularly the construction of my lever locking pin.

FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary view illustrating a difien ent type of toothed jaw in which the jaw inserts, while coactive, are not symmetrical.

FIGURE 5 is a perspective view illustrating one of the jaw insert members as shown in FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 6 is a view somewhat similar to that of FIGURE 1 but illustrating a long nosed type of plier jaw inserts and further illustrating a cam setting means which limits the amount the jaws can be opened, which is a great help in certain types of work when using the long jaws especially.

FIGURE 7 illustrates the toggle type plier and illustrates how my insert jaws can be adapted to this unusual form of pliers, or as it is often termed, a plier wrench.

FIGURE 8 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-sectional view showing one form of spring backed locking means used to insure that the jaw inserts will not move transversey of the jaws once they are seated for use.

FIGURE 9 is a top plan view of FIGURE 7 as taken along the line 9-9 of FIGURE 7 and with certain parts of the toggle plier broken away.

FIGURE 10 is a diagrammatic view illustrating a preferred angularity arrangement for the transverse slots on the dovetailed blocks of the jaw members.

FIGURE 11 is a perspective view of a wire detent locking means.

FIGURE 12 is a fragmentary detail view of the end of a pliers or wrench jaw showing the wire detent means.

Referring to the drawings, throughout which like reference numerals indicate like par-ts, the two plier handle and jaw members 12 and 14 which are pivoted together in an operative manner by pivot means 16, illustrate a type of plier particularly well adapted to this present.

invention. The form of this plier is quite well illustrated with some variations and it is believed that it will be understood from a study of FIGURES 1 through 4. The two elements, 12 and 14 are normally spring biased into the open position by means of spring 18, the functioning of which is illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 6. In this illustration, which includes FIGURE 6, the general utility types shown are equipped with the arcuate land and groove arrangement. These are probably best illustrated in FIGURES 3 and 4. It is desirable to point out however that this utility type wrench, of which there are many types, was taken for illustrative purposes as being one of the more ,difiicult types for the adaptation of my convertible jaws. Further, the togglev wrench type of pliers shown in FIGURE 7 is another diflicult type. It

is believed apparent that the ability to successfully use my convertible jaws in these two extreme types of wrenches or pliers should show that they are adaptable to a wide range of plier types and the like type of tools.

Referring to the showing of FIGURES 1, 4, 6, 8 and 9, the particular form of dovetailed transverse slot 15 arrangement used in the inner face of each of the two plier tool jaws is illustrated. The preferred angular values are given in FIGURE for the dovetailed key member 17 so that the form of the unsymmetrical type of transverse slots may be clearly understood. With this arrangement it is noteworthy that the deepest portion or the heaviest end of the dovetail is shown at 24 nearest to pivot 16 and the lightest or shallowest end is shown at 26 farthest away from pivot 16. This form of dovetailed slot and coacting key 17 is used in all the various examples given, and while the proportions might be varied within limited amounts, experiment has proven the values given to be most generally satisfactory.

These proportions give the greatest resistance to distorting either of the convertible jaws, as 30 and 32. Other forms of jaws are shown in FIGURE 7 at 34 and 36, in FIGURE 4 at 42 and 44 and in FIGURE 1 at 38 and 40. These jaws are illustrative of only a limited number of forms that these convertible jaws might take, it being the intent to have convertible jaws that will normally take care of every function for which plier or movable wrench jaws are produced. There would be one common element, and that is the size and proportion of the dovetailed transverse slots 15 and the dovetailed key block 17 formed as part of each of the jaw members. In this way, for example, two holders, such as illustrated by the pliers of FIGURES 6 and 7, might conceivably have two or three dozen different types of jaws, all of which could be used interchangeably in either holder, but of course the jaws would have to be used in coacting pairs.

Pliers are made for all classes of work and consequently are made in a wide variety of sizes even though the design characteristics are the same. I have found it desirable'to employ a variety of dilferent locking means to hold the convertible jaws as the tool jaws 46 or .48 or the other coacting pair of tool jaws, 59 and 52; In FIGURES 4 and 8 I have illustrated a piston type locking member 54 which is spring backed by spring 56 and has a heading for the locking member 54 illustrated at 58 whichcan be raised and thus retract piston 54 from its engagement in the jaw member 42a. In order to insure the small but necessary movement of the convertible jaw along the longitudinal axis of the tool jaw, the piston receiving opening in one of the jaws should be extended along an axis extending generally normal to the plane of closure of the jaws so that full use can be made of the wedgi'ng action occurring when the convertible jaws are under load in use. Because the wedging action of the insert jaws 38 and 40 prevents them from moving laterally when under pressure, it is not necessary that the mechanism for holding the insert jaws in place be capable of taking loads or that it be of heavy design. FIGURES l, 1 1 and 12 show that light wire spring detent members 60 and 71 can be adapted to hold the insert jaws in place. Note that a small cylindrically shaped lead slug 65 .is swedged into hole 67 to hold member 60 in place. Spring member 60 is essentially V-shaped to form point or detent 71. An-

chor 65 is pressed against portion 61 while the overhang.

ing end 75 of the other portion is bent outwardly to be engaged by the operators fingers for releasing the insert jaw. Wire portion 61 is anchored at 65 and passes through an oversized drilled hole 67 extending to slot 69. The wire is exposed in the front transverse slot at 71 to form a locking detent to prevent the transverse movement of the jaws in the dovetailed slot. ,Wire 60 is bent to provide the overhanging end 75 so that the detent: can

4 be easily engaged by finger action to free the convertible jaws 34 and 36.

For use under maximum loading conditions I employ the key locking members illustrated at 62 and 63 shown in FIGURES 7 and 9. To employ these, arcuate cuts are made as at 64 which are similar to the Woodruif cuts for Woodruff keys, except in this intance I provide that each of members 62 and 63 have fashioned as part thereof and illustrated at 66, a portion to fit these arcuate cuts 64. They are easily operated by the use of the outwardly extending portions indicated at 62 and 63 so that they can be operated by merely pressing the nose of the pliers onto a firm surface and pressing the nose of the pliers onto a firm surface and then pressing the outwardly extending pieces 62 or 63 within the outline of the jaws 50 and 52, which pivot the members about their securing screws 68 and release the keys from cuts 64 so that the convertible jaw members can be moved sideways and thus be removed or fitted into the jaws.

In a tool of this order, particularly in the longer nosed types as shown in FIGURE 6, it is desirable to limit the opening of the jaws as a time saver on the average job. To achieve this I provide the eccentric 70 pivoted on pin 72 and have the operating handle 73. It is believed apparent that as the eccentric is turned about its pivot 72 the eccentric will abut the movable jaw and handle elements 73 and limit its movement to that illustrated in the dashed lines in FIGURE 6, considering this as merely one of the various settings that might be achieved. The eccentric mount 72 is in effect a screw which is probably best illustrated in FIGURE 2. Consequently, it is possible to tighten screw 72 and thus lock the eccentric in position if desired, or if better suited to the work at hand thus making it work with considerable resistance. a

In FIGURE '3 I have illustrated a shift lock pin 78. This unit is threaded for downward adjustment and is provided with a lever portion as 79 for turning the detent portion 80 which may be selectively positioned in any of the grooves 20 when the jaws themselves are shifted. After being thus positioned, there will be no change from one groove to the other by the mating lands 22 as might occur when the tool is laid down or otherwise disposed of during periods of non-use. In FIGURE 6 is illustrated a side cutting pair of coacting cutting edges 84 and 85, formed as part of the convertible jaws 30 and 32. It will be believed apparent that my convertible jaws can be installed with the cutting edges on either side of the pliers.

Referring to FIGURE 8 I have illustrated the details of the seating and locking means for the inserts. Illustrated are the points of relief and areas of bearing that have been found desirable to insure that the jaw inserts will wedge themselves into the angular seat formed by sides A and B' when force is applied in the directions indicated by the two force vectors F and F When properlyseated theinserts 17 will actually be contacting only the two sides A and B and with a minimum clearance (.002"-.003") at faces C and D. These faces will provide additional support only under extreme conditions as when the applied force is great enough to crowd the inserts against the two faces C and D.

It is believed that it will be apparent from the above description and the disclosure in the drawings that the invention comprehends a novel cnostruction of convertible jaw pliers.

Having thus described my inventiomI claim: 1. A convertible jaw hand tool of the pliers or movable jaw wrench type, comprising:

(a) a tool having a coacting pair of tool jaws con-v the deepest end of the dovetail is nearest to said pivot means and the shallowest end farthest away from said pivot means;

(e) each of said insert members having a dovetailed key block for coaction with said dovetailed slots and (f) means for locking said insert members against transverse movement within said tool jaws.

2. A convertible jaw hand tool of the pliers or movable jaw wrench type, comprising:

(a) a tool having a coacting pair of tool jaws connected in an operative manner by pivot means;

([1) a coacting pair of insert jaw members;

(c) a transversely disposed dovetailed slot in the inner face of each of said tool jaws arranged to secure a pair of insert members in a coaotive manner;

(d) said slots having an unsymmetrical form in which the deepest end of the dovetail is nearest to said pivot means and the shallowest end farthest away from said pivot means;

(e) each of said insert members having a dovetailed key block for coaction with said dovetailed slots;

(1) means for locking said insert members against transverse movement with said tool jaws;

(g) comprising a spring biased piston type locking member to seat substantially one half in said tool jaw and one half in said insent members and said seating opening in said insert members having clearance space added along the longitudinal axis of one of said jaws.

3. A convertible jaw hand tool of the pliers or movable jaw wrench type, comprising:

(a) a tool having a coasting pair of tool jaws connected in an operative manner by pivot means; 7

(b) a coaoting pair of jaw insert members;

(c) a transversely disposed dovetailed slot in each of said tool jaws arranged to secure said pair of jaw insert members in a coactive manner;

(at) said slots having an unsymmetrical form in which the deepest end of the dovetail is nearest to said pivot means and the shallowest end farthest away from said pivot means;

(e) each of said jaw insert members having a dovetailed key block for coaction with said dovetailed slot;

(h) each of said key blocks having a heaviest end disposed nearest said pivot means and a lightest end disposed farthest away from said pivot means and (f) means for locking said jaw insert members against transverse movement within said tool jaws.

4. A convertible jaw hand tool of the pliers or movable jaw wrench type, comprising:

(a) a tool having a coacting pair of tool jaws connected in an operative manner by lpivot means;

(b) a coasting pair of insert members;

(0) a transversely disposed dovetailed groove in the inner face of said tool jaws arranged to secure said pair of insert members in a coactive manner;

(d) said grooves having an unsymmetrical form in which the deepest end of the dovetail is nearest to said pivot means and the shallowest end farthest away from said pivot means;

(e) each of said insert members having a dovetailed key block for coaction with said dovetailed grooves;

means for locking said insert members against transverse movement with said tool jaws and (g) said locking means comprising a slot located at the outer end of each of said tool jaws midway between the sides of said jaws, a hole means passing from a point on the back of each of said tool jaws which point is spaced from the rearmost part of said slot, said hole extending generally toward the shallowest end of said dovetail groove, and a generally V-shaped spring wire means anchored in said hole means and extending through said hole to said shallowest end and up into said slot, the end of said wire means which is in said slot having an overhanging side detent means extending sideways to be moved by finger action to allow said insert member to move laterally.

5. A convertible jaw hand tool of the pliers or movable jaw wrench type, comprising:

(a) a tool having a coacting pair of tool jaws connected in an operative manner by pivot means;

(15) a coacting pair of insert members;

(a) a transversely disposed dovetailed slot in each of said tool jaws arranged to secure a pair of insert members in a coaotive manner;

(d) said slots having an unsymmetrical form in which the deepest end of the dovetail is nearest to said pivot means and the shallowest end farthest away from said pivot means;

(e) each of said insert members having a dovetailed key block for coaction with said dovetailed slot;

(/1) each of said key blocks having a heaviest end disposed nearest said pivot means and a lightest end disposed farthest away from said pivot means;

means for locking said insert members against transverse movement within said tool jaws and (k) said locking means for each convertible jaw comprising a locking detent rneans formed of spring wire, having a substantially right angle bend disposed midway in said detent mean and which has at one end means for securing the spring wire in one of the tool jaws and at the opposite end an overhanging end to facilitate releasing said Idetent, both of said jaws having a longitudinal slot therein so said spring maybe flexed to withdraw said locking detent into the body of said tool jaws, said pair of insert members coacting with said tool jaws, each having a longitudinal slot for engaging said right angle bends to lock saidconvertible jaws in said \tool jaws.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 433,794 8/90 Kasch.

844, 1 34 2/ 07 Jenkins 81-423 X 1,216,527 2/ 17 Weldon et al 81-423 1,504,870 8/ 24 Coughlin.

1,578,438 3/26 Hintz 81341 X 2,404,224 7/46 Fink. 2,814,222 11/57 Sanders 81423 X FOREIGN PATENTS 501,294 2/51 Belgium. 861,380 12/52 Germany.

7 WILLIAM FELDMAN, Primary Examiner.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3261244 *Feb 12, 1964Jul 19, 1966Richard HutchinsonSpring attachment for pivotally connected levers
US4232573 *Jan 8, 1979Nov 11, 1980Dace Jr Marvin HSlip pliers with lock
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US4621401 *Aug 13, 1985Nov 11, 1986Milbar CorporationRetaining ring tool
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Classifications
U.S. Classification81/423, 269/263, 81/417, 81/341
International ClassificationB25B7/10, B25B7/18, B25B7/00, B25B7/04, B25B7/14
Cooperative ClassificationB25B7/18, B25B7/14, B25B7/10, B25B7/04
European ClassificationB25B7/18, B25B7/14, B25B7/10, B25B7/04