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Publication numberUS3177501 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 13, 1965
Filing dateFeb 12, 1962
Priority dateFeb 12, 1962
Publication numberUS 3177501 A, US 3177501A, US-A-3177501, US3177501 A, US3177501A
InventorsJohn P Kwake
Original AssigneeJohn P Kwake
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Swimming pools and method of installing liners therefor
US 3177501 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 13, 1965 J. P. KWAKE SWIMMING POOLS AND METHOD OF INSTALLING LINERS THEREFOR Filed Feb. 12, 1962 V In." I;

J06 P (wake,

INVEN TOR.

WHANN 8 McMAN/G'Al. Affornfys for A I/anf mam).

United States Patent Ofiice 3,177,561 Patented Apr. 13, 1965 3,177,501 SWIMMING POOLS AND METHOD OF INSTALLING LINERS THEREFOR John P. Kwake, 2507 Carob Drive, Los Angeles, Calif.

' Filed Feb. 12, 1962, Ser. No. 172,520

8 Claims. (Cl. 4-172) This invention relates generally to swimming pools and relates more particularly to swimming pools having liners, and method of installing said liners.

While the invention has particular utility in connection with swimming pools, and is shown and described in such connection, it is to be understood that its utility is not confined thereto.

, Many swimming pools are provided with a waterproof liner of flexible plastic or the like, and certain problems are involved in the installation of such plastic liners. For example, one difliculty or problem has been encountered in securely anchoring the liner to the swimming pool wall, and it is an object of the present invention to provide anchoring means for such liners and method of installing said liners that will overcome such difliculties and solve said problems.

, It has been found that securing or anchoring the free edge portion or peripheral portion of the liner at the top of the swimming pool wall does not provide fully satisfactory anchoring means therefor and it is another object of the present invention to provide means for solving this problem. 1

It is still another object of the invention to provide anchoring means for the liner which will securely anchor the peripheral portion of the liner to the upper portion of the swimming pool wall and also anchor the liner to the swimming pool wall adjacent the bottom thereof.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a swimming pool liner which may be readily and easily anchored along the periphery thereof and along the portion at' the bottom of the swimming pool wall.

It is a still further object of the invention to provide a liner of this character that may be easily and quickly installed.

It is another object of the invention to provide a liner of this character that does not require the services of highly skilled workmen to install.

Still another difliculty or problem involved in the installing of liners for swimming pools is the difliculty of preventing the liners from wrinkling when installed and it is a still further object of the invention to provide a liner of this character which will solve this problem and overcome the said difficulty. V

A further object of the invention is to provide a liner and method of installing said liner wherein the liner will smoothly and evenly be positioned against the swimming poolwall and bottom without wrinkling.

It is a still further object of the invention to provide apparatus 'of this character that is inexpensive to manufacture.

It is another object of the invention to provide a liner of this character that is relatively inexpensive to install.

It is still another object of the invention to provide a liner of this character requiring but a relatively short time to install.

It is a further object of the invention to' provide a liner of this character that may be easily released from the pool wall and removed from the pool.

It isstill another object of the invention to provide a liner of this character that may be of various desired shapes.

The characteristics and advantages of the invention are further sufiiciently referred to in connection with the following detailed description of the accompanying drawings, which represent one embodiment. After considering this example skilled persons will understand that many variations may be made without departing from the principles disclosed and I contemplate the employment of any structures, elements, modes of operation, or steps of the method of installing a liner that are properly Within the scope of the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings, which are for illustrative purposes only:

FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a swimming pool Wall and portion of the bottom thereof with a liner embodying the present invention installed in said pool;

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary enlarged sectional view of the upper portion of the pool wall with the free edge portion of the liner secured thereto;

FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3 of FIG. 1; and

FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view of a lower anchoring means and a portion of the liner to which it is attached.

Referring more particularly to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, there is shown a swimming pool embodying the present invention, said pool including a vertical wall indicated generally at 10. The wall is of concrete or other suitable material and may be continuous or it may be formed of precast section which are subsequently installed and secured together.

Wall rests on and is cemented to a concrete footing 12 set in sand or the like indicated at 15 which is disposed on the ground formation 16. It is to be understood, of course, that the footing and the wall may be otherwise supported and installed.

At the top the wall 10 has a coping 17 with an inwardly projecting flange or bead 18. Extending lengthwise of the wall, beneath the flange 18 and adjacent thereto is a recess or groove 20 of somewhat rectangular cross sectional shape and having top and bottom walls or surfaces 21 and 22 respectively, which are substantially parallel to each other, and an interior or back wall 24. The side of the groove or recess 20 opposite the back wall 24 faces the interior of the pool and is open at 25, and hence will be termed herein the inner or open side of said groove. Along the lower edge at the open side of the groove is a tongue or flange 26 projecting into the open side of the groove and partially closing said open side. The inner side 27 of the flange 26 is curved upwardly and outwardly of said groove so that the width or height of open part of the groove is less than the spacing of the upper and lower walls 21 and 22 of said groove.

Adjacent the bottom of the wall 10 and at its inner side is a groove 30 similar to the groove 20, said grooves 20 and 36 being spaced apart vertically in wall 10. Groove 30 includes top and bottom walls 31 and 32 and interior wall 34. The groove has an opening or open side 35 and there is also an upstanding tongue or flange 36 having an upwardly and outwardly curved inner side 37.

The bottom 40 of the pool is concave and may be formed in any suitable manner, as by removal of the earth in the area defined by the wall 10.

In order to insure a fluid-tight pool there is a liner, indicated generally at 41, installed therein. The liner may be of any suitable flexible material, such as plastic, for example. Various plastic materials may be used, vinyl having been found to be very satisfactory (particularly polyvinylchloride). Along the upper free edge of the liner is a releasable attaching means, indicated generally at 42, which extends continuously along said free edge.

Attaching means 42 includes a bead 45 which may be of any suitable flexible material that is somewhat resilient and may be of the same type of material as the liner 41. As shown, head 45 is integral with the liner and the portion of the liner adjacent to and extending along said head is termed the tail portion 43. It is to be understood, of

edge.

course, that the tail portion V the bead but as a part separate from the restofthe llner maybe formed integral with and secured to the adjacent edge of the liner by any suit-' able means known in the art for uniting pieces of plastic 'or other similar material. Suitable adhesive maybe used or the parts united by deep sealing'said parts together.

n It is to be noted that'the bead is generally in the shape of an obtuse triangle with the tail portion,43.,beingattached to said bead at. the junction or angle 48 formed by the shorter sides of said bead. One end portion '46 of the bead is longer than the opposite end portion 4'7 relative to thefline of attachment 48 :of thetail 43. In-

considering the tail portion of the securing means,it is to be understood that said taillis that portion adjacent tothe longer part-46 at the upper inner corner of th'efgroove I and the shorter part..47' disposed along the base of the tongue 26. Any outward pull v onthe tail v43 .,Will effect a wedging action of the bead .45 to thereby securelyholdsame in the groove and support the liner alongits upper liner is spaced from the bottom-40 of the poolv and this spacing may satisfactorily be from several inches to several feet. I A V While theretaining means 42 has been described hereinbe fore the retaining means 54' have been described, it is to be understood that the latter are installed before the retaining means '42 is installed.- In other words, the

. beads'55 are first insertedinto the groove 30, and the head 45 along the top edge'Lof the liner is thereafter inserted into the groove 20. a

After the liner has thus been installed, water is turned into the 'pool. The weight of the wateron the bottom portion 66 of the linercauses the liner to stretch sufficiently so as tobe pressedtightly and smoothlyagainst the bottom surface 40 of the pool without wrinkling. As the,

water level rises thepart 50 of the. liner is forced against the-inner surface of the wall10, as described hereinabove. There is an' inward and downward pullon the securing means54 while there is but a downward pull on the securin'gmeans42. V

Q It has been found that'the presentinvention is effective to secure the liner in place and it also has been found that the pool and the liner maybe of any desired shape. The. invention and many of its attendant advantages Vertical portion of the liner is adapted to be pressed against the inner surface of the wall 10 when the pool is filled with water. However, this portion of the liner is about six inches smaller ,in'diameter than the inner diameter of [said wall so that said liner portion is spaced somewhat from the inner surface of the wall 10 when installed but prior to filling of the pool. Described other- ;wise, this portion 50 of the liner corresponds in longitudinal or circumferential extent with the interior of the wall 10, except that said portion-50 is somewhat smaller in such'extent' than the interior surface of said wall 10 and consequently is spaced inwardly of said inner wall; surface, as. shown in FIGSI'I and 2, prior tothe filling of the pool. When the .pool is filled. this portion of the liner will be stretched somewhat and pressed'tightly and smoothly .against'the innergsurface of the wall without wrinkling.

The liner is also secured to wall'10 along the lower edge, thereof by a plurality of longitudinally spaced securmeans 54, which is similar to the securing means 42,

hereinabove described except for longitudinal extent, comprises a bead 55 having the cross sectional shape of an obtuse triangle. The tail 56 "is connected to'the beadalong theangle formed, by the junction of the shorter sides, as indicated at 57. Thus there is a wider portion 58 and tail. The tail 56 isrelatively wide and itsedge portion opposite the bead 55 is secured to the outerside of 55: a narrower portion 59 of the head at opposite sides of the ,v 1 j the liner by any suitable well'known means such as adhesive or heat process, there being a substantial part of the tail between the head 55 and. part 60 that is free or unattached to the liner. e

, The. bead 55 of each securing means 54 is disposediin 1 i I a the groove 30 in the same manner'that the bead 45-iis secured in the groove 20, as best shown in FIG. 1, and,

as -mentioned above, the securing means 54 are longitudinally spaced apart. While the securing 'means54 may" be of various desired lengths and spaced from each other various distances,it, has been foundthat a very satis-" factory length for saidfsecu'ring means is approximately a six inches with a spacing half inches.

of approximately one and one- When the liner is fully installed but prior tol the, pool being filled with water,"the'-bottomportion 66; of, the

willbe understood from the foregoing description and it will be apparent that various changes may be made in ,thexform, constructionand arrangement of the parts of the invention without departing .from the spirit and scope thereof or sacrificing its material advantages, the arrange- ,ments hereinbefore described beingmerely for purposes a (b) anupper longitudinally extending groove in thejinner' side of saidwall just beneath the flange ofthecoping,

(aa) said groove having top and bottom walls 1 substantially parallel toeach other,

(bb) an'interior wall-connecting the inner ends of the top and bottom walls, I (cc). saidgroove being open, at its outer side, (dd) and an upright flangeextending along i the free edge of the bottom wall of said groove, said flange being of less height than the distance between the top and bottom walls and havingan upwardlyand outwardly curved inner: side, (c) and a lower longitudinally extending groove in the inner side of thewall adjacent the bot-tom thereof so'astolbe spaced downwardly from the first mentioned, groove, the bottom groove being of similar shape andarrangement as the'upper a V groove, including said flange thereof; 1 v (B); and a plastic liner of a flexible sheet'material that is'somewhat stretchable, said-linerzhavin'g I (a) avertical portion (biandabottom portion, A 1 (0) a bead along the upper free edge of said verticalportiony e '1 D,:(a z) said jbead beingin the cross sectional 1 shape of, anobtuse triangle withthe upper edge portion of the liner joined thereto along the angle at thejunction of the v shortersides of said triangle,

g m (b b) saidbead being disposed in upper I groove and extending diagonally from the base of. the upstanding flange into the .cornerlat the junction of the top walland interior wall, soas to be wedged insaid groove, I

(cc) said bead being subjected to a downward pull by the vertical portion of the liner,

(d) and a plurality of horizontally arranged,

longitudinally spaced securing elements adjacent the junction of the vertical and bottom portions of said liner, each of said elements comprising (aa) a bead of the same cross-sectional shape and arrangement as the first mentioned bead,

(bb) and a relatively Wide flexible tail portion secured along the upper edge to said bead at the angle formed by the shorter sides thereof and having a longitudinally extending lower edge portion secured to the bottom of the liner leaving a substantial part of the tail free,

(cc) the beads of each of said elements being disposed in the lower groove in substantially the same manner as the first mentioned bead is disposed in the upper groove,

(e) the vertical portion of said liner normally being of less circumferential extent than the circumferential extent of the inner surface of the vertical Wall of the pool when there is no water in said pool,

( and the bottom portion of the liner normally being spaced from the bottom of the pool when no water is in said pool, the beads of the securing elements being subjected to a downward and inward pull.

2. A swimming pool, comprising: (A) an upright wall having a substantially vertical inner surface and a bottom,

(a) said wall having a longitudinally extending upper groove in the inner side of said wall adjacent the top thereof,

(aa) said groove being open at its outer side,

(bb) and an upright flange extending along the open side of said groove,

(b) and a lower longitudinally extending groove in the inner side of the wall adjacent the bottom thereof so as to be spaced downwardly from the first mentioned groove, the bottom groove being of similar shape and arrangement as the upper groove, including said flange;

(B) and a plastic liner of a flexible stretchable sheet material, said liner having (a) a vertical portion (b) and a bottom portion,

(0) a bead along the upper free edge of said vertical portion,

(aa) said bead being elongated in cross-section,

(bb) said bead being releasably wedged in the upper groove,

(d) and a plurality of horizontally arranged, longitudinally spaced securing elements adjacent the junction of the vertical and bottom portions of said liner, each of said elements comprising (aa) a bead of elongated cross-sectional shape,

(bb) and a flexible tail portion secured along the upper edge to said bead and having a longitudinally extending lower edge portion secured to the under side of the liner leaving a substantial portion of the tail free,

(cc) the beads of each of said elements being releasably wedged in the lower groove,

(e) the vertical portion of said liner normally being of less circumferential extent than the circumferential extent of the inner surface of the vertical wall of the pool when there is no water in said pool,

6 (f) and the bottom portion of the liner normally being spaced from the bottom of the pool when no water is in said pool.

3. In a swimming pool:

(A) a bottom, and an upright wall about the periphery of said bottom, said wall having a substantially vertical inner surface,

(a) said wall having an inwardly opening upper groove in the inner side thereof,

(aa) and an upright flange, partially closing said groove,

(b) and a lower groove in the inner side of the wall adjacent the bottom thereof, of similar shape and arrangement as the upper groove, including said flange;

(B) and a plastic liner of a flexible sheet material having (a) a vertical portion,

(b) and a bottom portion,

(c) a bead along the upper free edge of said vertical portion,

(aa) said bead being secured in said groove,

(d) and a plurality of peripherally spaced lower beads secured to the liner,

(aa) said lower beads being secured in the lower groove,

(e) the vertical portion of said liner normally being of less circumferential extent than the circumferential extent of the inner surface of the vertical wall of the pool when there is no Water in said pool,

(f) and the bottom portion of the liner normally being spaced from the bottom of the pool when no water is in said pool.

4. A liner for a swimming pool, comprising:

(A) a sheet of flexible, somewhat stretchable plastic material, said liner having (a) a vertical portion,

(b) and a bottom portion,

(c) a bead along the upper free edge of said liner,

(on) said bead being in the cross-section shape of an obtuse triangle with the upper edge portion of the liner joined thereto along the angle at the junction of the shorter sides of said triangle, said bead being adapted to be wedged in a top groove, in the inner side of a swimming pool wall,

(d) and a plurality of horizontally arranged, longitudinally spaced securing means adjacent the junction of the vertical portion of the liner and the bottom portion thereof, each of said means comprising (aa) a bead of the same cross-sectional shape and arrangement as the first mentioned bead,

(bb) and a relatively wide tail portion secured along the upper edge to said bead at the angle formed by the shorter sides thereof and having a longitudinally extending lower edge portion secured to the bottom of the liner leaving a substantial portion of the tail free, the beads of said securing means being adapted to be wedged in a lower groove in said swimming pool wall,

(2) the vertical portion of said liner being of less circumferential extent than the circumferential extent of the inner surface of the vertical wall of a swimming pool when installed therein and there is no water in said pool,

(7) and the bottom portion of the liner being spaced from the bottom of the pool when no water is in said pool.

5. In a liner for a swimming pool: (A) a sheet of flexible, somewhat stretchable material,

said liner having (d) and a plurality of horizontally arranged, lon

gitudinally spaced securing means' adjacent the junction of the vertical portion of the liner and the :bottom portion thereof; each of said securing means comprising r, i a

(aa) ahead l a i (bb) and/tailrportion secure'd along the upper edge to said bead and also secured to the liner, said beadsbeing adapted ito'be wedged in alowerg'roovejn said swimming pool 8 7 wall, V

' (e) the verticalpor-tion .of'said liner being of less circumferential extent than the circumferential v extent of the .inner surfaceof the vertical wall of a swimming pool when installed therein and, there is no water insaid pool, r

V (f) and the bottom portion of the liner ibein'g having a concave bottom anda vertical circumferential wall with an inner verticalxface having top and bottom longitudinally extending grooves :and upstanding flanges at the lower open sides thereof, the liner having a vertical portionand a bottom portion, ;an upper .peripheral bead along the 'free :edge of the vertical portion and af plurality of longitudinally spaced'similar lower beads' secured to the liner. adjacent the junction of the bottom 7 and verticaljp'ortions thereof by 'i ieirib'letail pieces; comprising the steps of:' i

(A) wedging the lower beads in the lowerggroove throughout the circumferential extent of-the liner,

and wall with the bottom of 'the'lin'er spaced from the bottom of the pool when no water isin'the pool;

'(B) wedging the upper bead in the upper groove:

throughout the circumferential extent of the liner and the vertical 'wall of r the 'poo'l with at least a substantialflpart of the vertical portion of the liner below the upper :bead spaced from the adjacent inner face-of thewalljwhen nowater is'in the' pool; 4 (C) and stretching'the bottom of the liner into unwrinkled' engagementwith the bottom of the pool and stretching thevertical'portion' of the liner'into.

' 8' unwrinkled contact withthe inner surface 7 vertical wall by filling said poolwithwater. '7; A method of installing liners in swimming pools having a concave bottom and a vertical peripheral wall, comprising the steps of: i

(A) first securing the peripheryof the bottom portion of a flexiblestretchable-liner to the vertical wall adjacent the bottom thereof at a plurality of peripherallyspacedlocations about said periphery, with said bottom portion of thelinerspaced upwardly of the bottom of the pool a distance ofseveral inches; (B) then;securing;ithe upperfree edge of said liner throughout its entire periphery tosaid vertical wall 7 adjacent the. top thereof with the portion of the liner below the secured free edge thereof adjacent 7 said wall, spaced therefrom a predetermined distance; (C) and stretching the liner. into wrinkle-free contact with the bottom ,of the spool and the'inner surface of the .vertical wall thereof by 'filling same with water." a 1' r 8; In a method of installing liners in swimming pools of the having a bottom and a peripheral wall'upstanding therefrom: v a a a (A) securing the periphery of the .bottom portion of a flexible, stretchable liner to the ,vertical wall adjacent the bottom thereofat a plurality'of peripherally spaced locations about said periphery with said bottom portion of the liner spaced upwardly of the 7 bottom of the .pool;

(B). securing the upperfree edge of said liner throughoutits entire periphery to said vertical wall adjacent the top thereof with a portiontof the ,liner below the secured edge and. adjacent'said wall, spacedtherefrom; 1

(C) stretching'theliner into wrinkle-free contact with I the bottomof the pooland the inner surface of the i Q upstanding wall thereof -by filling same with water.

References Cited by 'the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS:

EDWARD v.- BEN AM;'P mm Exam ner.

FRANK HQBRONAUGH',=Exqminer.-

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3298039 *Jan 18, 1965Jan 17, 1967Major Pool Equipment CorpSwimming pool coping
US3310814 *Jan 7, 1965Mar 28, 1967Fred KatzmanSwimming pool coping
US3347006 *Jul 20, 1965Oct 17, 1967Fox George CSwimming pool and coping structure therefor
US3354473 *Feb 13, 1967Nov 28, 1967Hendon Construction CompanyLocking strip for a liner of a swimming pool
US3405489 *Apr 8, 1966Oct 15, 1968Bjorn BrundinFalse ceilings
US3409536 *Jun 3, 1966Nov 5, 1968Barber Webb CoElectrolytic cell with cell liner
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US3419918 *Dec 12, 1966Jan 7, 1969Albert V. PetrikAbove-ground swimming-pool construction
US3501782 *Oct 3, 1967Mar 24, 1970Hendon Construction CoSwimming pool assembly including rigid liner for sidewalls of pool with interlocking sections
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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/169.7, 52/741.4, 4/503, 4/DIG.900, 156/308.4, 220/495.1, 160/392
International ClassificationE04H4/00, E04H4/14
Cooperative ClassificationE04H2004/147, E04H4/142, E04H4/0075, Y10S4/09
European ClassificationE04H4/14A1, E04H4/00D