US 3179306 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 20, 1965 n. F. coRsET'rE LIQUID DISPENSER Filed March 21, 1963 BY www@ 7M wa/'50.,
ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,179,306 LIQUID DISPENSER Douglas F. Corsette, Los Angeles, Calif., assignor to Calmar, Inc., City of Industry, Calif., a corporation of California Filed Mar. 21, 1963, Ser. No. 266,896 9 Claims. (Cl. Z22- 321) This invention relates to new and improved plastic dispensers of the reciprocating piston type for discharging liquids from portable containers in the form of a ine spray or mist, or as a stream.
It has long been the practice to employ, for the dispensing of liquids from small containers, hand actuated pumps formed of moldable plastic material comprising, in assembled relation, a stationary unit including a barrel or cylinder for direct association with the container, and a reciprocable unit including a plunger or piston reciprocable in the stationary unit to eiect discharge of the container contents, and having at its upper end a discharge head from which the fluid is expelled.
Within recent years certain pumps of this type have been supplied with means to minimize or prevent leakage of liquid from the pumps, after assembly thereof with containers for the liquids, to facilitate shipping and to avertv the annoyance of leakage after the product has been put in use by the consumer. Usually the sealing of the pump, and its release for normal operation, are achieved by rotation of a threaded element about the pump axis to displace axially the reciprocable unit to and from an immobilized and inoperative position in which sealing means are rendered effective. United States patents have been granted on improved pumps of this kind, including Cooprider 3,062,416, granted November 6, 1962, Cooprider et al. 2,956,509,
granted October 18, 1960, and Corsette 3,053,459, grant-V ed September 11, 1962.
Such pumps are commonly provided with a container cap, mounted on the stationary unit of the pump,.and threaded on the neck of a container or bottle to suspend the pump in the container, and a radial flange or like part on the stationary unit is clamped between the container cap and the container neck when the cap is threaded down, so that the stationary unit is frictionally held against rotation. When torque is applied to apply or release the seal, and the direction of such torque is that required to thread the container cap olf the container neck, there is a possibility that the cap will be loosened, producing a malfunctionof the device.
To insure against such failure, it has been thepractice, in assembling pump units in containers, to apply the container cap with a torque substantially in excess of that required to apply and release the seal, and this usually prevents a malfunction. However, the container caps are applied by automatic machinery, subject to wear and resultant reduction of cap torque and inadequate gripping of the stationary unit of the pump, whereupon loosening of the cap and/or turningV of the stationary unit occurs when torque is applied to rotate the threaded element for lthe purpose of applying or releasing the seal. When right-hand threads are employed on both the threaded element and the cap, for instance, counterclockwise rotation of the` threaded element to release the seal and render the pump operative tends to loosen the cap and thus permits rotation of the stationary unit of the pump. When thisoccurs, the pump rotates with the threaded element and there is no way to restore the pump tothe operative condition.
l The problem is perhaps most acute when dispensers having spouts are assembled in containers or bottles have ing one long and one short horizontal dimension, and in which it is desirable, in packing for shipment, toalign 3,179,305 Patented Apr. 20, 1965 ICC the spout with the longer dimension of the container. Thus the container caps are assembled while the spout and the container are maintained in alignment and application of the cap tends to effect relative rotation between the stationary unit and the spout. If the pump is of the type disclosed in the patent to Cooprider 3,062,416, in which the spout and head are threaded into the barrel to seal the pump, such relative rotation tends to unscrew the head from the barrel and reduce the pressure at the seal, unless the cap threads and the threads on the head are of different hand. Leakage in pumps so assembled has been discovered, and is attributed to the effect de- A number of *Y scribed.
It is accordingly the primary object of the instant invention to provide, in a pump the type described, means affording a positive interlock between the stationary unit of the pump and the container to preclude relative rotion thereof. More specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a positive coupling of the usual radial ange on the pump barrel and the neck of the container, whereby malfunction of the pump resulting from rotation of the pump within the container is avoided.
It is a further object of the invention to provide sealing means integral with the pump barrel flange for coaction with the container neck to seal against leakage at the container cap, said sealing means being so constructed and arranged as to resist overriding of the elements of the coupling between the pump barrel liange and the container neck. 'Y
Further objects and features of the invention will be apparent from .the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a vertical sectional view of one form of pump to which the invention may be applied;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged elevation of the neck of a container, modified in accordance with the invention for coaction with the pump shown in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a plan view of the container neck of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary sectional view on the line 4 4 of FIGURE 3, and Showing a portion of the coacting pump structure, and
FIGURE 5 is a section on the line 5 5 of FIGURE 4.
For convenience in describing the invention, its principles are illustrated as applied to the pump type sprayer shown and described in the patent to Corsette 3,053,459, above mentioned. It will bev appreciated, however, that the invention` may be as readily applied to other pumps, such as the dispenser'of Cooprider 3,062,416, in which the stationary and reciprocable units are each of onepiece construction, or the sprayer of Cooprider et al. 2,956,509, in which the reciprocable unit is held in inoperable and sealed position by a threaded overcap, or to any other pump structure in which locking of the stationary unit to the container is desirable or necessary.
Referring rst to FIGURE 1, the dispenser there illustrated includes a stationary unit which may be molded in one piece to provide a barrel or cylinder 12 from which a suction tube 13 depends and, at the upper end of the barrel 12, a collar portion 14, noting that throughout the following description the dispenser will be assumed to occupy the upright position in which it is normally used.
The upper end of the barrel 12 is preferably slotted at circumferentially spaced points, as indicated at 18, for the purpose of preventing the formation of an airlOck in the barrel 12 above the piston, to permit ingress to the container of air in order to replace discharged liquid, and to allow drainage into the container of liquid which may pass the piston and which would Otherwise be trapped in the upper portion of barrel 12.
A radial barrel liange 20, formed on the collar portion 14, provides a seat for container cap 21. Cap 21 is apertured to receive collar portion i4 and is internally threaded as shown at 22 for cooperative engagement with external threads formed on the neck of the container.
The collar portion la is further provided at its upper end with an exteriorly threaded sleeve portion 25, and an annular lip 36D which is formed by deformation of sleeve portion 25 after assembly of the container cap 21 thereon, in order to lock the cap on the collar portion 14.
The stationary and reciprocable units of the dispenser may be formed of any moldable plastic materials, preferably materials commonly designated thermoplastics, for instance, polyethylene and polypropylene. Vinyl chloride acetate is also highly effective, and in general, any plastic material subject to hot or cold flow, capable of being molded, may be used.
The reciprocable unit of the dispenser comprises a plunger 35 and a dependent hollow piston 36, the piston being enlarged in diameter at its lower end to fit snugly the interior wall of barrel 12; the plunger and piston may be integrally formed by injection molding.
The interior of plunger 35 defines a fluid passage 40, communicating at its upper end with a passage 41 which is provided with a valve seat 48 receiving a ball valve 45. Movement of uid upwardly in the passages 45t), 41 is thus normally unimpeded, the valve i5 serving merely as a check valve to prevent downward movement ofy fluid. At its upper end, the plunger 35 is preferably tapered upwardly to provide a conical portion 38. A discharge head 37, which maybe cast separately from thermoplastic resins of the type hereinbefore described, is recessed internallyV for reception with a snug tit on the upper endof the cylindrical portion of the plunger 35 and on the tapered portion 38 thereof. Assembly of the head 37 on the plunger 35 is effected by applying endwise pressure to'force the head downwardly on the plunger until it assumes the position shown, in which annular beads 39 on the plunger seat in coacting annular grooves in the interior of thehead, the head yielding suiiiciently to pass it over the beads. The head and plunger, thusassembled, are fitted together sufficiently tightly to prevent egress of fluid therebetween.
The tapered portion 38 of the plunger 35 terminates short of theupper end of the head 37, providing a cavity "iti, into which passage 4i opens. A stud 71, projecting downwardly from the finger rest portion 73 of the head into cavity 70 serves as a retainer for the ball valve 45.
Formed in the inner tapered surface of head 3'7 is a spin chamber 80, which may be generally conical with its iiared end inward. An` orifice 81 communicates with the `axis of spin chamber 8d. Fluid may be directed into the spin chamber by tangential passages formed in the inner surface of the head 37 and communicating with the cavity '76, as is conventional. V Alternatively, rotation of fluid in Vspin chamber 80 may be established as described more particularly in the patent to Corsette 3,053,459. The structureof the head forms no part of the instant invention and, as pointed out hereinbefore,
the application of the invention to pumps having a discharge spout rdelivering a stream of liquid, as in the patent to Cooprider 3,062,416, is of outstanding'value.
R'ie'oeivedwithiny piston 36' and seated in the lower end of barrel 12 is a coil compression spring 52, acting to urge .the reciprocable unit` upwardly.v Ball valve 55, seating by gravity in the lower end of barrel 12, acts as a check valve to prevent drainage of liquid downwardly from the barrel 12. Preferably the seat 56 for ball valve 55 forms an angle Yof at least 45 with the axis of the dispenser to minimize the possibility of wedging of the valve in its seat.
Spring 52 is formed with convolutions dil of reduced diameter, preferably adjacent each end, as shown, to provide reversibility. ln the position which the parts occupy in FIGURE l, the reciprocable unit being fully depressed-the ball valve 55 is engaged by the adjacent small convolution 6th of spring 52 to hold the valve tightly against its seat, thus preventing flow of liquid into the barrel and outwardly through passages 4d and 4l when the'dispenser is inverted.
At its lower end the head is formed to provide a depending skirt portion 42, formed with interior threads which coact with the external threads on the sleeve portion 25 of the barrel l2. When the head is thus screwed down on the upper end of the barrel, as shown in FlG- URE l, coacting inclined surfaces 62" on the head and barrel are pressed together to'form a seal preventing discharge of liquid from the container through the slots 13 and externally of the plunger 35. Since movement of liquid upwardly into the lower end of the barrel 12 and the plunger 35 is prevented in the fully depressed position of the lplunger by direct engagement of the convolutions titl of the spring 52 with the ball valve 55, leakage of liquid is prevented during handling and shipping, this being of particular kimportance when toxic liquids, such as insecticides, are used. It should be noted thatV the lip i4 depending within the skirt portion 42 ofthe head 37 seats inside the upper end of the barrel and thus tends to resist springing of the skirt 42 and stripping or overriding of the threads as the head is screwed down on the barrel.
It will be appreciated that'in order to render' the dispenser operative, it is only necessary to unscrew the head from the barrel, whereupon the plunger 35 is raised by spring 52. Liquid may then be forced upwardly within the plunger 35 by finger pressure on the upper surface of the head to reciprocate the plunger in barrel 12 in the usual manner. Preferably the discharge head 37 is formed of linear polyethylene, having a relatively low coefiicient of friction and asmooth, waxy surface, to facilitate threading of the skirt portion of the head within the sleeve portion 25 of barrel l2,
The reciprocable unit is retained in position in the stationary unit by an inwardly directed annular part 66 which extends into close proximity with theplunger 35 vand serves as a bearing surface for guiding the plunger during reciprocation thereof, while limiting outward movement of the" plunger in response tothe action of spring 52. The annular part 66 is formed after assemblyk of the two units, by assembling around plunger 35 a cylindrical tool, the-tool being pressed downwardly against a shoulder formed at the junction of the barrel proper with the collar portionV 14 of the barrel so as to cause the material to flow inwardly.
All of the structure thus far described is disclosed and claimed in prior patents, and is rnerelyV illustrative of one type of pump in which the instant inventionl may be employed. The details of Vthe selected pump are, therefore, not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention. 1
The novel structure, shown in enlarged views in FIG- URES 2 to 4, requires modification of both the container neck and the radial barrel flange to lock the stationary unit of the pump against rotationin the container. The container, here shown as a glass bottle 85, is formed to provide the usual neck 56, externally threaded at 87 to receive the threads 22 on' the skirt of container cap 2l, which may be formed either of metal or of molded plastic. The outer face ofthe rim of the bottle neck is provided with a plurality of circumferentially spaced teeth 90 formed by recessing the rim, so as to avoid increase in the peripheral diameter of the rim. Teeth 90 are preferably somewhat thicker measured circumferentially, and of slightly greater depth measured radially, at .their lower thanat their upper portions as indicated in the plan view, FIGURE 3. The upper face of the bottle neck is formed to provide an annular, generally V-shaped groove 92.
The radial barrel flange 20 is extended outwardly beyond the rim ofthe bottle neck 36, and terminates in a depending annular skirt 94 having on its inner` surface a plurality of inwardly directed teethv 95, dimensioned for reception between the teeth 90 to provide the necessary coupling between the bottle neck and the barrel flange. Teeth 95 are preferably somewhat thicker measured circumferentially at their upper than at their lower portion, it being appreciated that t-he shape of teeth 90 and 95 is such as to insure proper orientation as the pump is assembled in the bottle, while minimizing circumferential play between the coacting teeth when the barrel flange 20 is fully pressed down on the bottleneck by tightening down on container cap 21. An effective positive coupling, as distinguished from a frictional connection, is thus established between the barrel and the container, preventing relative rotation thereof, and avoiding the failures hereinbefore described in pumps provided with sealing means.
An annular lip 96 is formed at the underside of the radial barrel ange; lip 96 may have a slightly larger diameter than groove 92 as shown, so that when the pump is lassembled in the container, and the container cap is threaded down on neck 86, lip 96 will ride down the outer slope of the groove 92 in the neck, as is apparent from FIGURE 4, and will exert pressure thereon to provide an effective seal between the barrel flange 20 and the upper end of the container neck, thus preventing leakage at the container cap. By forming the barrel of a soft moldable plastic, such deformation of Ilip 96 as may be required to cause the lip to conform to the shape of the engaged surface on the bottle neck is assured. PolyethyleneV or polypropylene are suitable materials.
If the diameter of lip 96 is less than the diameter of groove 92, lip 96 will ride down the inner slope of the groove as the container cap is threaded down, so as to apply progressively increasing sealing pressure therebetween. Preferably lip 96 is of slightly greater depth than groove 92, so that the lip will bottom in the groove despite slight variations in the relative diameters of the lip and the groove resulting from customary manufacturing tolerances, thus insuring the application of adequate sealing pressure therebetween.
It will be appreciated that engagement of lip 96 in groove 92 tends tomaintain the concentricity of the skirt 94 of the barrel flange 20, whereby overriding of coacting teeth 90 and 95 is resisted.
In all of the different types of pump heretofore used that employ sealing devices to prevent leakage, for instance, the pumps shown in the prior patents to which reference is made hereinbefore, sealing is achieved by rotation on the pump axis of a threaded element, constituting an axial cam, which acts between the reciprocable and stationary units of the pump to displace the reciprocable unit to one end of its stroke. This is true whether the threaded element is a part of the pump, as illustrated herein, or a separate protective cap as in the patent to Cooprider et al. 2,956,509. In any pump employing such a sealing device, the instant invention has outstanding value in preventing malfunction resulting from rotation of the pump within the container or bottle.
As hereinbefore indicated, the instant invention has outstanding utility when applied to a dispenser of the type shown in the aforesaid patent to Cooprider 3,062,416 having a discharge spout. The head is rst threaded down in the barrel to close the seals, usually at the plant of the dispenser manufacturer. The unit is thereafter applied by the purchaser to the bottled product by threading the container cap on the bottle neck, while holding the spout in alignment with the longer horizontal dimension of the bottle. Thus the application of the container cap tends to rotate the barrel with the cap, loosening the seals, since the head and spout are held against rotation. This difficulty is obviated by the present invention, inasmuch as barrel rotation is preventedby the coupling between the barrel flange and the container neck.
The usual bottle finish may readily lbe altered to conform to the contour shown herein by appropriate cutting or hobbing of the top plate of the usual neck mold to the necessary complementary configuration.
While the container cap is illustrated herein as having the usual threaded connection with the container neck, and this arrangement is preferred because of the leverage thereby afforded, permitting the application of substantial axial pressure on the seal between the barrel ange and the container neck, an alternative arrangement in which the container cap snaps onto the container neck, for instance as shown in the patent to Corsette, 3,069,040, granted December 18, 1962, may be substituted for the illustrated threaded connection. In this event the container cap may, if desired, be molded integrally with the barrel ange.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A manually operable pump for liquids comprising a cylindrical barre1,\a reciprocable unit including a plunger extending within said barrel, having at its lower end a piston slidably received in said barrel and having at its upper end a discharge head, said plunger, piston and head having communicating discharge passages extending therethrough, a coil spring acting between said barrel and plunger to urge the latter upwardly, a valve element, said barrel being formed adjacent its lower end to afford a seat for said valve element to prevent discharge of liquid downwardly through the lower end of said barrel while permitting free ow of liquid upwardly into said barrel, sealing means acting between said barrel and said reciprocable unit at one end of the stroke of the latter to prevent leakage of liquid from said barrel externally of said plunger, manually operable means acting between said barrel and said reciprocable unit to retain the latter at the said one end of its stroke and to apply sealing pressure to said sealing means, said manually operable means being rotatable about the sprayer axis and being provided with an axial cam surface for exerting axial thrust on said reciprocable unit, said barrel having adjacent its upper end a radial flange, a container cap supported on said radial ange, a container for liquid in which said pump is received, said container having a neck for reception of said container cap whereby said pump is mounted in said container, said barrel flange having at its periphery a depending annular skirt dimensioned to embrace the peripheral portion of said neck, said barrel ange skirt and said neck being formed to provide interlocking teeth to effect a coupling between said barrel and said neck, whereby relative rotation thereof is precluded.
' 2. A manually operable pump for liquids as claimed in claim l, in which the upper end of said neck is provided with an annular generally V-shaped groove and said barrel flange is provided at its under side with an annular lip for reception in said groove to eifect a seal when said container cap is assembled on said container neck, the diameter of said annular lip being slightly greater than the diameter of said groove to effect initial contact between said lip and said groove on the outer wall of said groove, whereby a wedging action occurs as said lip is forced downwardly into said groove.
3. A manually operable pump for liquids as claimed in claim l, in which said barrel ange is provided at its under side with an integral annular sealing lip for sealing engagement with said container neck.
4. A manually operable pump for liquids, comprising a stationary unit including a generally vertical pump barrel, a reciprocable unit including a plunger having a sliding fit in said barrel, sealing means acting between said stationary and reciprocable units and engaged at one end of the stroke 'of the latter to prevent leakage of liquid from said barrel externally of said plunger, manually operable means acting between said stationary and reciprocable units to retain said reciprocable unit at the said one end of its stroke and to apply sealing pressure to said sealing means, said manually operable means being '7 c rotatable about the sprayer axis and being providedwith anaxial cam surface for exerting'an axial thrust between said stationary and' reciprocable" units, a container for liquid having a container neck, means mounting said stationary unit on said container neck, and positive coupling means acting between said stationary unit and said container neck to prevent relative rotation therebetween.
5. A manually operable pump as. claimed in claim 4, in which/ said means mountingsaid stationary unit on sa'idcontainer neck comprises a container capforrned integrally with said barrel, and in which said positive coupling meansis located: within said container cap.
6. A manually operable pump for liquids as' claimed in claim 4, in .which said manually operable means comprises al partof said movable unit, and the said axial cam surface thereon engages said stationary structure.
7. A manually` operable pump for' liquidsy as claimed in claim 4, in which said positive coupling means comprises outwardly projecting teeth on said container neck, said barrel having a radial flange and, at the periphery g of said flange a depending annularskirt having inwardly directed teeth mating with said rst named teeth.
8. A manually operable pumpor liquids as claimed in claim 7, in which said radial ang'e is provided at its under side with an annular sealing lip and said container neck is provided at its upper end with an annular groove dimensioned to receive said lip'.
9. A manually operable pump for liquids as claimed in `clairn 8, in which the groove in said neck is generally V-shaped, and the diameter of said lip is such as to establish weclging engagement between said lip and' a wall of said groove, and a container cap overlying said ange and having threaded engagement With said neck.
References Cited bythe Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Y 2,088,790 8/ 37 Huthsing 222-321 2,088,791 8/37 Huthsing 222--321 X 3,064,865 11/62 Scoggin .et al 222--321 LOUIS I. DEMBO, Primary Examiner.