US 3180057 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aprfl 27, 1965 D. PRITZKER 3, 7
STORAGE CONTAINER 0F PREFABRICATED CURVED WALL SEGMENTS Filed May 26, 1960 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVEN 1 OR DA V/D PR/ TZKER D. PRITZKER STORAGE bONTAINER OF PREFABRICATED CURVED WALL SEGMENTS Filed May 26, 1960 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VENTOR DA V/D FRITZ/(ER STORAGE CONTAINER OF PREFABRICATED CURVED WALL SEGMENTS Filed May 26. 1960 D. PRITZKER ApriI 2 7, T965 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR April 27, 1965 D. PRITZKER STORAGE CONTAINER OF PREFABRICATED CURVED WALL SEGMENTS Filed May 26, 1960 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 I V Zn DAV/D FRITZ/ ER WMDWAFE g l ains United States Patent 1 Claim. (51. 50-162) This invention relates to the production of containers for fluids and solid materials assembled from prefabricated parts and more particularly to such a container constructed of interconnecting elements without the need for auxiliary supporting wall frames or posts.
The production of containers for fluids, especially liquids, at least partially from pre-fabricated parts has heretofore been attempted. Generally, the pre-fabricated parts utilized are composed of concrete or steelreinforced concrete. In particular, it has already been proposed to produce such containers, for example, for storing water, oil, and the like from a plurality of individual segments or shells having a curved configuration, the convex side of the segments facing the interior of the container. While these prefabricated segments or shells are positioned, one next to the other, to form the container wall, it has heretofore always been necessary to partially connect these segments together by means of steel elements as well as by means of concrete pillers or posts which were required in order to ensure proper structural reinforcement of the container.
Inasmuch as there is a great tendency, due to the outward thrust of the liquid in the container for the segments to be outwardly displaced, a common expedient which has become important in many cases has been to outwardly surround the segments disposed in abutting relation with one another with tension rings in order to compensate for the outwardly exerted force and to ensure that compactness of the container wall. Among the disadvantages of prior prefabricated container constructions is the necessity for steel framework reinforcements as well as concrete posts to render the finished structure safe in use and sufficieutly strong and durable to prevent disconnection of the structurally related parts. Such prior prefabricated container constructions, therefore, required a relatively large amount of time, energy, and material and consequently great expense.
It is an object of the present invention to overcome the foregoing disadvantages and to provide for the production of structurally reinforced containers capable of storing fluids formed of prefabricated parts without the need for auxiliary steel or concrete frame reinforcements.
It is another object of the present invention to provide containers of the aforementioned type which are simple, strong, and durable in construction and comparatively inexpensive to fabricate.
Other and further objects of the invention will become apparent from a study of the within specification and accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a top view of a partial container side wall in accordance with the invention, illustrating the position relationship of adjoining wall segments or shells.
FIGURE la is a special View of several segments 1 positioned one above the other. 7
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged top view'of two abutting portions of the side wall in accordance with the invention illustrating details of construction and the' manner of connection between adjacent segments.
FIGURE 2a is an enlarged top view of another embodiment of the two abutting portions of the side walls shown in FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 2b is an enlarged partial, sectional view of -tion of the next adjacent segment.
3,180,057 Patented Apr. 27, 1965 the embodiment of FIG. 2 showing the presence of the sealing coating.
FIGURE 3 is a partial, sectional view, taken along the lines III-J11 of FIGURE 2 yet showing only the lower portion of the wall segment and further illustrating in section the relationship of the base and bottom wall portions of the container in relation thereto.
FIGURE 4 is a prospective view of a stud used in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.
FIGURE 5 is an end view of the stud of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 6 is a top schematic view illustrating the interconnecting relationship between two adjacent studs.
FIGURE 7 is a schematic view similar to that of FIG URE 6, additionally illustrating the position relationship of adjacent inter-connecting studs with respect to the corresponding portions of adjacent wall segments or shells situated thereat.
FIGURE 8 is a side elevation in section of the container illustrating details of construction and the position relationship of various elements of the container in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. 7
FIGURE 9 is a side elevation in section of one half of the container in accordance with the invention, including the side wall, bottom wall, and roof.
FIGURE 10 is a schematic top view of the roof of the container, illustrating the position relationship between the ribs, cover plates, roof opening, and side wall segments in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.
FIGURE 11 is a partial side view in schematic section, illustrating the constructional details and connection between the upper portion of the side wall and the peripheral portion of the roof of the container. t
FIGURE. 11ashows further details and the connec tion between the upper portion of the side wall and the ribs of the roof constructionof the container.
FIGURE 12 is a schematic sectional View, partially broken away, to illustrate details, in a condensed manner, of a lining disposed along the interiorsurface of the con-. tainer indicating the manner of anchoring the lining to the interior side face of the Wall segment, and
FIGURE 13 is a schematic, partial top view, of adjacent portions of two corresponding wall segments illustrating the disposition of the lining along the interior of the container wall andthe manner of connection between adjacent wall segments.
:In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the foregoing disadvantages may be overcome and a structurally rein-forced. container, formed of prefabricated parts, which is capable of storing fluids and solid materials, and particularly oil and water, may be provided without the need for additional or auxiliary structural framework reinforcements. As a result a simple durable and inexpensive construction is attained in which the Wall segments or shells themselves contain the required structural reinforcement framework integrally therewithin. Accordingly, a lesser number of prefabricated elements are required, and the prefabricated container may be assembled with a minimum of effort and expense. V V
The side Wall of the container includes a plurality of preferably slightly curved wall segments or shells positioned one adjacent to the next to form an endlesscontainer Wall, such as a cylindricalcontainer wall, each side edge portion of the wall segments or shells placed in abutting engagement with the corresponding side edge por- The side edge portions of each segment preferably define therewith in cross section a flat, U-sha-ped configuration, the convexed side of the curved wall segment being directed towards the interior of the container and the side edge portions forming the free ends of the U being outwardly directed remote from the interior of the container. These side edge portions, representing the free ends of the U-shaped configuration, in accordance with the invention, specifically define structural reinforcement or prestressed ribs for the container wall. In this way, there is no need for pIOVlding auxiliary structural reinforcement framework in the building of the container.
A bottom wall is preferably provided for the container which is impervious to fluids, such as oil and water, as is preferably the side wall. The side wall is advantageously supported by a footing or base adjacent the bottom wall periphery. It will be understood that the fluid, such as water, contained within the container, cannot escape through the side wall. or bottom wall through any seams defined by abutting parts due to suitable PI'OVISIOH for sealing such seams from leakage.
The side edge portions of each wall segment are provided with a lateral surface whereby correspondingly adjacent wall segments may be placed in abutting engagement with one another to form the container wall. A pair of side edge portions positioned in abutting engagement may be said to form together a structural reinforcement rib. Each lateral surface is preferably provided with a recess therein passing in the longitudinal direction of the side edge portion so that when two lateral surfaces are situated sideby-side, in abutting engagement, a channel will be defined therebetween passing along at least a portion of the length of the respective wall segments. This channel may be filled with cement or plastic material to bond the abutting wall segments together and to aiford additional structural reinforcement for the container.
It has also been found preferable to provide one or more hook means in each recess which extends outwardly therefrom towards the corresponding recess whereby the adjacent wall segments may be interlocked together for greater reinforcement. V
The plurality of wall segments, defining the container wall are preferably provided along their outer'periphery with a retaining means to prevent outward displacement of the individual wall segments in consequence of the outward force of the fluid, such as water or oil, disposed within the container. The retaining means may consist of one or more retaining rings encircling the exterior face of the container wall or may consist of a plurality of retaining studs, each disposed between the respective side edge portion extensions of each wall segment and passing across the concave portion of the wall segment. Adjacent wall studs may be secured together at their end portions by various inter-meshing elements held in place at the meeting of the corresponding side wall portions of abutting wall segments.
The roof of the container may be constructed, having a dome shaped frame, comprising a ring means from which a plurality of rib means pass radially outwardly to the top portions of the container side wall. Suitable cover plate means are disposed across said rib means to complete the roof. With respect to the ring means which is preferably more or lesscentrally located with respect to the container roof, the same provides a closable opening which is covered over by a lid or plug.
The outer ends of the rib means are preferably disposed on the upper portion of the container wall in suitable bearing recesses provided therefor which allow a certain amount of play of the rib means in consequence 'of contractions and expansions caused by temperature, pressure, etc.
A suitable sealing blanket may be conveniently disposed across the roof above the cover plate means to provide a further seal and protection for the container.
It will be appreciated that various means maybe used to provide a fluid or liquid sea-l with respect to the C011- tents of the container along all seams in the interior surface of the container. Thus, a plastic film or a metal lining may be disposed across the interior surface of the container with suitable constructional allowances being made for expansion and contraction of the related parts.
Where the prefabricated parts employed for assembling the container are made of materials which are impervious to fluids, such as water and oil, it will be appreciated that only the seams along the interior surface of the container between adjacent abutting parts need be supplied with suitable sealing materials whereas if this is not the case, the interior surface of the container should be provided with a suitable film or lining of material, such as plastic or metal, suitable anchored to the interior surface of the container and eliminating all exposed seams from contact with the contents within the container, said film or lining being impervious to fluids.
In accordance with the present invention, therefore, a simple, durable, and effective construction is provided which has self-contained, structural support members integrally included therein in such a manner that simple and easy assembling of the prefabricated parts may take place with a minimum of elfort yet providing a maximum of structural reinforcement and required rigidity.
Referring to the drawings, FIGURE 1 illustrates a portion of the container side wall including wall segments 1 and side edge portions or half posts 2. Abutting post side wall portions or half posts 2, together form a post or structural reinforcement rib for the container wall. The wall segment portion is preferably slightly curved, convexly with respect to the interior of the container and the side wall portions outwardly extend in a direction remote from the interior of the container, these elements appearing in cross-sectional view as a fiat U-shaped member.
FIGURE 1a shows a special construction for the production of very high container Walls, in which several wall segments 1 being connected with each other by inserted seals 101 of flexible material are disposed one above the other. Just in the case of very high containers, it has turned out to be advantageous to provide the prefabricated segments with reinforcements being included in the cement pulp by prestressing, whereby the reinforcements extend downwardly, in a vertical position of the segments, whereas when being produced they can be embedded into the cement pulp in a convenient horizontal position.
The preferred manner of joining abutting side Wall portions of adjacent wall segments is indicated in FIGURE 2. Actually, in practice, the corresponding longitudinal edges of adjacent side wall portions are provided with a sealing material, such as a synthetic rubber or plastic material convenient for this purpose and which serves to compensate for slight variations in shape and surface smoothness along the longitudinal abutting connection. The disposition of this sealing material is shown at 3 and 4. A longitudinally defined semi-circular recess is provided in the lateral surface of adjoining side edge portions, these recesses, together forming a hollow channel 5. The recesses are preefrably made so that the defining surface of the channel is rough and coarse in texture. This enables the subsequently added pressure concrete or poured concrete into channel 5 to effectively adhere thereto. Optionally, hooks 6 may be provided, anchored in the respective side edge portions, which extend into channel 5 and interlock together thereat. In this way, a strong connection between adjacent wall segments is provided as well as a structurally reinforced rib or post integrally included within the container Wall.
Where the wall segments or shells are made of a material impervious to fluids, such as water or oil, the seam provided along the interior surface of the container wall at4 is suitably covered by a sealing coating 7 such as a plastic foil, conveniently bonded across the exposed seam (see FIG. 2b).
In order to provide additional support for the container wall and prevent outward displacement of the same due to the force of the contents therewithin, one or more retaining rings 8 may be provided along the outer surface of the container side wall. The bracing of the outer wall of the container by means of tension rings d is readily accomplished by employing steel wires or steel rails made taut by suitable lock connections.
FIGURE 20 shows a special form of the end portions 2 of the wall segments 1'. The connection between the two end portions is a linear surface having only one small channel 5', the linear surface being discontinued at the inside of the container by the sealing 4' also comprising the channel 5' and at the outside of the container by the sealing 3', both consisting of flexible material. In this simplified construction, there is no need for providing the special iron reinforcements 6 shown in FIGURE 2 or the special concrete lining of the channel 5.
The partial sectional view is shown in FIGURE 3, wherein 1 is the wall segment, 2 is the side edge portion forming the structurally reinforced rib or post, together with the corresponding side end portion of the adjacent wall segment, 9 is the innermost portion of the convex surface of the wall segment while 10 again illustrates a plurality of retaining rings disposed along the outside wall of the container one above the other. Below the container side wall is disposed a footing or base 11 serving as a structural foundation sufficient to support the weight of the container wall and roof, and 12 is a portion of the bottom wall of the container indicating its connection to the side wall of the container at the base portion 11. V In place of the tension rings 3 or 10, concrete or steel reinforced concrete studs 13 may be employed. Studs 13 may also be suitably prefabricated in the same way as the wall segments in accordance with the invention, the length of studs 13 being approximately equal to the width of the corresponding wall segments.
A plurality of loops 16 may be conveniently provided extending from either end of stud 13 positioned for intermeshing with corresponding loops 16 on the next adjacent stud disposed at the next adjacent wall segment. Cooperating extensions 14 and 15 of the correspondingly positioned loops 16 at either end of the stud pass into the stud and interlock together therein as shown in FIG- URE 4. In FIGURE 5, the spaced stacked relation of various loops 16 is shown, loops 16 being of narrower dimension than the width of the corresponding stud. Of course, loops 16 are preferably of a narrower width than the corresponding side edge portions to which the stud end is secured.
FIGURE 6 shows the position relationship between two adjacent studs 13 having loops 16 extending therefrom. The loops 16 of one stud intermesh with the loops 16 of the other, these loops being offset horizontally with respect .to one another a slight distance if desired.
As seen in FIGURE 7, studs 13 at a particular joining between two adjacent wall segments are positioned with their stud ends on the corresponding wall segments. Reinforcement rods 18 are disposed vertically within the inter-meshed loops 16 and are anchored in the adjacent wall segments. Upon the addition of concrete to the channel defined between the adjacent wall se ments, a firm structural reinforcement and bond is provided not in the channel portion alone, but also along the corresponding lateral extension portions of the side edge portions as indicated at 17 in FIGURE 7.
in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, FIGURE 8 shows an upper retaining stud in schematic cross section, illustrating the manner of anchoring the reinforcement rods 18 within the remective inter-meshed loops 16 as well as a lower tension stud 13 in schematic cross section, illustrating the positional relationship of loops 16. The other parts of the container, shown in FIGURE 8, are similar to those shown in FIGURE 3. While the lower tension stud is shown positioned radially outwardly with respect to the '6 container wall, the upper tension stud 13 is positioned on the top of the container wall. appreciated that various rings or rows of reinforcement studs 13. or tension rings 8 or 10, as indicated in FIG- URES 2 and 3, may be provided along the extent of the container side wall intermediate the top and bottom portions of the container as well. In this regard'suitable recesses or grooves may be provided at the required height in-the side edge portions of the respective wall segments to accommodate the end portions of adjacent studs 13 to e connected therealong, if desired.
In addition to the novel construction of a container having a side wall of prefabricated wall segments which may be placed in abutting connection with one another, having an integrally included structural reinforcement rib therein, the invention further contemplates the construction of a roof for the container side wall portion which is preferably constructed of dome-shaped configuration. As shown in FIGURE 9, in addition to the wall segments 2, the tension studs 13 and the base for footing 11 are present in the manner set forth in FIGURE 8, the bottom wall being shown as 22 and the wall segment section being shown at 21. The roof contains an opening therein, the rim of which is defined by ring 29. A plurality of radially outwardly extending rib members 25 comprise the dome-shaped configuration of the roof of a container, one end of said ribs being secured to ring 29, the other orouter end being disposed on the upper portion of the container side wall. The container dome is generally designated by 23 and includes a lid 24 closing theopening defined by ring 29. Disposed across the ribs 25 are cover plate elements 26, which complete the roof.
Thus, ring 29 serves as a central structural collecting point for the inner ends of the ribs 25 as well as supporting structurefor the lid 24. Naturally, ribs 25, cover plates 26, lid 24 and ring 29 are provided as prefabricated parts in accordance with the invention, together defining a structurally reinforced roof portion for the container which is simple in design and durable in use and which avoids the need for further independent or separate additional structural reinforcement elements as were heretofore required.
Optionaly, the outer surface of roof 23 may be provided with a sealing blanket which extends to the periphery of the roof and along the periphery of the tion of the container side Wall.
FIGURE 10 illustrates in greater detail the spacial relationship between the outwardly directed radial ribs 25 and the cover plates 26. In the embodiment shown in FIGURE '10 a plurality of trapezoidal shaped cover elements of increasing width are disposed between adjacent ribs 25 from the center to the outer portions of the roof. Disposed over cover plates 26 is the sealing blanket 27 which protects the interior of the container from the elements and seals preferably the contents of the container from the outside. Sealing blanket 27 may be preferably provided as a plastic covering or as a plaster or cement covering as desired. It will be understood that cover plates 26 may be formed of any suitable shape convenient for cowering over the spaces between ribs 25. Thus, a
upper porparticular cover plate 26 may be disposed across more than one rib space and may comprise a single trapezoid shaped element extending from ring 29 to the outer periphery of the roof adjacent the upper portion of the container side wall.
In FIGURE 11, the connection between the upper por tion of the container side wall and the roof is illustrated in greater detail. The wall segmentis indicated at 21, its innermost convex portion being designated at 9 and the upper stud being indicated at 13. The outer rib end is shown at 25 and the plurality of cover plates 26 is ,shown disposed thereabove, the same being supported thereby. With respect to this connection a suitable bearing recess is provided at 28 in the upper portion of the Nevertheless, it will be i V 7 r container side wall at the top of wall segment 21 as in upper stud 13. In this way the outer end of rib 25 may be displaceably seated so that with changes in temperature, for instance, which may, cause expansion and contraction of the parts of the container, no undo stresses will result but rather a slidable yielding of the particular parts. The inner ends of ribs 25 are suitably fixedly attached to ring 29 as for example by embedding the connecting portions in concrete placed thereat in suitable concrete mold forms.
With respect tocover plates 26, the same are, not attached at their peripheral portions to wall'segment 21 but rather -merely laid loosely thereagainst. The sealing blanket 27. is provided with a peripheral extension 39 which is disposed along the peripheral portion of the upper portion of the container side wall and at the top of the corresponding tension stud 13. An intermediate layer 31 of tar paper, plastic, foil, or similar material is provided between the. peripheral portion 30 of the sealing blanket 27 and the top surface of the corresponding tension stud 13. Thus, the sealing blanket 27 may also carry out sliding movements with respect to the upper tension stud 13 in consequence of expansion and contraction of the spacially related parts in the same manner as the loosely connected ribs 25 and cover plates 26 with respect to their outermost edge portions.
It will be appreciated that while the container side Wall may form an endless wall of any convenient shape, it is preferably in the form of a circular cylinder. The same correspondingly applies with respect to the bottom wall and the roof of the container; In this respect it is preferred that the opening defined by ring 29 is centrally located in the roof for better arch-like structural support for the dome-shaped roof. Since the dome or roof of the instant invention is made of prefabricated parts, it is easily assembled at the point of use in the same manner as the side wall of the container. It will be appreciated that the roof construction must possess a certain amount of mobility so that in consequence of contraction and expansion of the parts due to temperature changes, as well as outward stresses of the material being stored within the container, the same may be suitably offset.
It is preferred that the roof be provided with an opening therein as a safety measure with respect to the possibility of explosions occurring within the container depending upon its contents. In the event of such an explosion, the lid 24 will be merely lifted off by the force of the explosion allowing the explosive gases to vent from the opening. This measure will understandably avoid a complete breaking up of the container which could be perilous depending on its contents.
In addition to the advantage of using prefabricated parts for the roof of the container in accordance with the invention, which results in compactness, yet convenient mobility, a further advantage is provided in that it is possible toeasily, quickly, and securely mount the roof on the container side wall without the need for special frame work construction or additional structural reinforcement.
FIGURE 11a once more shows in detail the disposition of the ribs 25 on the pillar portion of the segments, the
other end of the ribs 25 being attached to the central con crete ring 29. It is to be pointed out that the ribs 25 are always embedded on the pillar or connecting portions 2, respectively, of the wall segments or she1ls,'that means never on the wall segments or shells themselves, and are only loosely extending into the upper tension ring 13, as to be seen clearly on FIGURE 11.
In accordance with a further embodiment of the invention, as shown in FIGURE 12, the individual wall segments 1 may be composed of concrete, cement, or other suitable matreial and may contain anchored thereon a lining of metal, such as iron, impervious to fluids, including water and oil, as a further feature. When such metal lining is used, no further sealing means is ordinarily required with respect to the individual wall segments. Such a lining is shown at 32 in FIGURE 12, said lining being generally known as a C-proiile. The ends of adjacent portions of linings 32 are anchored within Wall segment I and are bonded together at their inner and out er abutting edges as shown at spot weld seams 33 and 34. In this manner a double bonding or welding is provided with a minimum of effort and expense.
As shown in PIGURBB, a plurality of C-profiles 32 are provided along the convex surface of the wall segments facing the interior of the container.
.Advantageously, at the adjacent edges of abutting wall segments, the terminal C-profile 35 is used which contains an outwardly directed resilient flange portion which may be welded or bonded at 36 with a similar flange of the next adjacent wall segment. In this way a suitable impervious lining is provided on each wall segment 1 composed of a plurality ,of longitudinally directed O-profiles 32, the adjacent terminal profiles, 35 being secured at 36 to formv a suitable. expansion joint capable of yielding in response to expansion and contraction of the spacially related parts. In the embodiment shown in FIGURE 13, a tension ring S is additionally provided as well as hooks 6 within channel 5 and sealing materials 3 and 4 along the inner and outer longitudinal edges or seams of adjoining side edge portions 2 of the corresponding wall segments.
The bottom wall may be provided as a plurality of prefabricated plates, such as iron plates, which may be welded together to form the bottom wall with ease at the site of construction of the container. Where a number of small plates are used to form the container bottom wall,
the same may be welded together to form larger bottom wall portions, and these larger bottom wall portions material parts and including a container. side wall, which comprises a plurality of slightly curved wall segments positioned one adjacent the next to form an endless container side wall, each said wall segment having an intermediate wall portions of substantially even thickness throughout, curved about its longitudinal axis and having a convex face, and a concave face, and a pair of end rib portions integrally connected with said wall portion along their common extent and together defining therewith in cross-section a U-shaped configuration with said end rib portions having a thicker cross-section than said wall portion, said end rib portions extending from the side of said wall portion having said concave face outwardly and remote from the interior of the container, each end rib portion being provided with a lateral surface in direct abutting engagement with the corresponding lateral surface of the next adjacent wall segment, each said lateral surface having a corresponding recess provided therein to form a channel together with the recess of the next adjacent wall segment, said wall segments thereby defining together a circular container wall with all the convex faces of said wall portions directed toward the interior of the container, said end rib portions specifically defining in situ prefabricated integral structural reinforcement ribs for the corresponding wall segments and in turn for container side wall, a concrete retaining stud being disposed between the respective end rib portions of each wall segment and across the concave face of the wall portion, each said stud being secured at each end thereof to a corresponding stud of the next adjacent wall segment, each stud end being provided with at least one loop means intermeshing with a corresponding loop means of the next adjacent stud, and reinforcing rod means being provided which are passed within and through the intermeshing loop means of correspondingly adjacent studs and secured to the corresponding adjacent end rib portions.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Rumbold 5052 Pugh 50154 Bason 5052 Wheeler 50-153 Knight 50153 Playford 50161 X Nelson et a1 50445 X Laube 50154 Hewett 50154 Russell 5055 Abeles 50366 Rees 50153 Penton 50346 Lorimer 50--153 FOREIGN PATENTS France.
(Addition to No. 429,007)
OTHER REFERENCES Engineering News Record, April 29, 1954, pages 61 15 and 62.
EARL J. WITMER, Primary Examiner.
WILLIAM I. MUSHAKE, JACOB L. NACKENOFF,