|Publication number||US3181575 A|
|Publication date||May 4, 1965|
|Filing date||Nov 9, 1961|
|Priority date||Nov 9, 1961|
|Publication number||US 3181575 A, US 3181575A, US-A-3181575, US3181575 A, US3181575A|
|Inventors||Krizka Jerry A|
|Original Assignee||Paktronic Machine Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (6), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
y 4, 1965 J. A. KRIZKA 3,181,575
FILLING MACHINES Filed NOV. 9. 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet l SOURCE 0 Fig.5
INVENTQR JERRY A. KRIZKA w MW ATTORNEY 4, 1955 J. A. KRIZKA 3,181,575
FILLING MACHINES Filed Nov. 9, 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I 1 t}: .5 ,l' V C t INVENTOR. JERRY A. KRIZKA United States Patent 3,181,575 FILLING MACHINES Jerry A. Krizka, Chicago, IlL, assignor to Paktronic Machine Corporation, a corporation of ()hio Filed Nov. 9, 1961, Ser. No. 151,335 15 Claims. (Cl. 141-141) This invention relates to a novel and improved filling head for filling semi-liquid bulk materials, such as ice cream, into open containers, and also relates to a novel and cooperating machine for introducing the filling head into the container, following the filling head as it rises in the container, and abruptly breaking the filling head clear of the top of the container in a manner which cleanly separates the semi-liquid in the container from that extruded from the head.
It is a principal object of the present invention to provide a novel filling head and cooperating machine which can be used for filling containers which are intermittently placed under the filling head while at the same time being fed continuously by a standard continuous ice cream making machine.
It is another major object of the present invention to provide an improved filling head and machine which fills containers at a very high rate while at the same time completely avoiding smearing or contaminating of the closure seal surfaces around the perimeter of the container with the ice cream being extruded thereinto.
Still a further object of the invention is to provide a filling head structure which is quickly and easily detached from a supporting plate, forming part of the filling machine and which can be quickly knocked down into its several components without use of tools so that it may be fully cleaned and sterilized and then reassembled with a minimum of elfort.
It is a further object of major importance to provide a filling head having an extrusion orifice defined by a novel grating having a series of apertures so located and so vented to the atmosphere that when the head is abruptly retracted upwardly out of the container, the ice cream breaks into a plurality of low pyramid-type peaks, and breaks in such a manner that the ice cream is not splattered or drawn upwardly into long thin wisps, whereby a clean break is accomplished.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved machine which cooperates with means for advancing the containers to lower the head into each container the instant that it arrives thereunder, follows the rise of the head as the head is floated upwardly in a container by the extrusion of ice cream thereinto, and then suddenly snaps the head upwardly out of the container to affect a clean break between the ice cream left in the container and the ice cream in the filling head. The container-advancing means then moves the filled container out of the way and places an empty container under the head which is then immediately lowered into the new container to begin filling the latter. The containers are changed under the head so quickly that the ice cream continuously fed to the head does not have time to drop there from during the change.
It is another object of this invention to provide a novel electrical control means cooperating with the containeradvancing means and the filling head means to completely control the motions of the machine and the head, certain motions of the sequence of operation being initiated by the advancing of a container, and other motions being initiated by the filling of ice cream to a predetermined level. One function of the control means is to cause the head drive mechanism to closely follow the motion of the filling head as it is floated upwardly in the container without affecting this action until a desired level of ice cream has been filled into each container, whereupon the machine abruptly snaps the head out of the filled container, and the control means advances a container thereunder. An adjacent mechanism, which forms no part of the present invention, closes the open end of each filled container in one of a plurality of suitable manners.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent during the following discussion of the drawing, wherein:
FIGv l is an end elevation view of the filling head and machine operatively associated with a conveyor along which the containers are advanced;
FIG. 2 is a side elevation of the machine of FIG. 1 but showing the mechanism in a later position advancing the filling head into the container;
FIG. 3 is a simplified view similar to FIG. 2 but showing the filling head down in the container and floating therein on the ice cream;
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3 but showing the mechanism in a still further advanced position with the ice cream filled nearly to the top of the container;
FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 4 but showing the mechanism in a still more advanced position in which the filling head has been broken free of the ice cream in the filling container;
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram showing a suitable electrical control circuit for use with the present mechanism;
FIG. 7 is a side elevation of the filling head;
FIG. 8 is an end elevation of the filling head;
FIG. 9 is a perspective view showing the bottom of the filling head;
FIG. 10 is a detail view of the grating and vent tubes of the filling head;
FIG. 11 is an end view of the grating and vent tubes shown in FIG. 10;
FIG. 12 is a plan view of the filling head shown in FIG. 8, and showing the mounting ring attached thereto;
FIG. 13 is a view similar to FIG. 12 but showing the mounting ring removed;
FIG. 14 is a detailed view of the mounting ring;
FIGS. 15, 16 and 17 are elevation views showing the filling head in three successive positions with respect to a carton being filled, FIG. 15 showing the filling head above the carton and being lowered thereinto, FIG. 16 showing the filling head inside the carton and floating upwardly on the ice cream therein; and FIG. 17 showing the filling head after having just broken clear of the top of the carton.
Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows an ice cream filling machine mounted on a stationary platform 1 and including two upright supporting rods 2 rigidly fixed in the platform I. The platform also supports a motor M driving an electric clutch 3 which in turn drives a gear reducer R having a shaft extending outwardly just beyond the two upright rods 2. An arm 5 is attached to and rotates with this shaft and drives a connecting link 6 up and down in a well known manner. The upper end of the link 6 is connected with a first sliding block 7 which is journaled to slide up and down on the upright rods 2. Above the block 7 is an upper block 8 which supports a horizontally disposed plate 9 carrying at its outer end an ice cream filling head 20, the latter being discussed in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 7 through 17, inclusive. The plate 9 has two downward extensions 10 and 11, FIG. 1. The downward extension 11 comprises a control rod which extends into a plungertype potentiometer P which is mounted on the lower bearing block 7 and slides up and down therewith. Ordinarily, the upper bearing block 8 is supported by resting upon the block 7 and therefore there is no relative motion therebetween. However, when the blocks 8 and 7 separate in a rnanner to be hereinafter described, the resistance of the potentiometer P is changed by the sliding of the rod 11 out of the potentiometer P, thereby varying the resistance of the potentiometer in the manner shown schematically in FIG. 6. The other downward extension 10 supports two small pawls 12 and 13, these pawls being pivotally connected to the extension 10 as can best be seen in FIG; 1. The upper pawl 12 at its right end'actuates a switch X2 and at its left end carries a'weight which maintains the pawl 12 normally in-a horizontal position by resting on a lug 10a whichforms a part of the downward extension 10. The pawl 13 near the. bottom of the downward extension 10 normally rests upon a lug 10b which maintains this lug horizontal butpermits it to yield in order to pass the switches X2 and X3 when 4i ary wedge so that it engages the hole B, which is one of a plurality of holes spaced alongthe belt with separations therebetween approximating the width of the container C. FIG. 1 shows the machine with its filling head in its upmost'position, and FIGS. 2, 3, 4 and show it in progressively later positions. r
The operation of the machine is as follows: When a container C is brought by the belt B into alignment beneath the filling head 2-0, the switch X1 is thereby closed and the clutch 3 is fully energized so as to tightly couple the motor to the reduction unit R and thereby drive the she-ft at a predetermined rate in the counterclockwise direction-as shownin FIG. 2. The arm 5 rotates downit is traveling downwardly, but so that it throws both switches upwardly intothe on position when it is rising therepast. The upper switch X3 is a spring-urged, normally open switch whichfis only momentarily closed by the passage of the pawl 13 therep a'st when the latter, is
moving in an upward direction as willbe hereinafter explained in greater detail.
The iceicream filling head Q20,is disposed above-an means for advancing the belt B through the width of a container C once during each cycle'of the machine in order to place an empty car-ton under the filling head and 'to move a filled carton therebeyond. As stated above, the belt and the other specific features of the container f advancing mechanism form no part of thepresent invention and are merely included to show a complete operative embodiment. By" referring to the wiring diagram The belt B is merely shown to 'wardly from its uppermost position as; shown in FIG. 1 and pulls the link 6 downwardly therewith, thereby lower- :ing the block 7 to the position that it'oocupies as v illustrated in FIGS. The bearing block 8 .follows the block head in FIG. l, whereas in FIG. 2 and in FIG. 15 a much larger amount of ice L cream has extruded from the head and is hanging generally toward the container therebelow.
, As the filling head2'0 is loweredinto this containenice of FIG. 6, itwill be seen that when power is applied at p the plug D the motor M runs continuously. This motor is coupled through .the electric clutch '3 with the gear reduction R so that the gear reduction is. driven to the extent that-the clutch 3" is energized; When this clutch is fully energized, the drive from the motor to the reduc- 7 tion gearing R is firmly 'established,'but when a resistance I such as that of the potentiometerP is introdwced in series with the power line to the clutch 3, the clutch does not positively drive the reduction gearing but allows it to slip to a certain extent, the positiveness of the drive being determined by the amount of current allowed to flow through the clutch 3 and the potentiometer P when the switch X2 is. open. The current to the clutch is fully interrupted whenever the switch X1 is open, and by referring to FIGS. 1 and 6 it can be seen that this switch'is normally open, but is closed by the presence of a container C to be filled beneath the filling :head 20; Thus, if no container is there, clutch 3 is fully disengaged. When .a container C actuates the switch X1, the circuit is closed .to deliver power both to the potentiometer 1 and to the switch X2. When'thefswitch X2 is closed as shown in FIG. 6, full current is delivered directly to cream is distributed therein 'and fillsthei'b'ottomi of the container and floats the head thereon. At this point, the head can travel downwardly no further, as, shown in FIG. 3, and therefore the lower block 7 retreats downwardly away from the upper block 8, which it previously supported. Thepawl 13 has passed bothswitches X2 and X3 in its downward motion without actuating either of these switches, but at this point the pawl 12 reaches the toggle arm of the'sWitch XZ and-throws this switch downwandly to its 01? position. By inspection of the wiring diagram of-FIG..,6 it will be seen that when switch X2 is opened so that control of the amount of current through the clutch} then becomes solely dependent upon the position of thecontrol rod ll'in the potentiometerP. Since the control rod 11 is connected by the plate, 9 directly with'the upper bearing block 8 and since the barrel of the potentiometer P is directly carried by the lower-bearing block 7, itwill be seen that the rod 11 has been pulled outwardly of this potentiometer in FIGS. 3 and 4, which is the direction which decreases the amount of resistance placed in the circuit by the potentiometer P, and the amount of coupling provided by the electric clutch 3 increases. Thus, the clutch continues to turn the reduction gearing sothat the .arm'S passes through bottom dead center and heads back up again towards the upper bearing pi ate 8. g
It is intended in this portion of the cycle that the block 7 closely follow the block 8, but that it does not "push this blockup'wardly while the ice cream is filling the container, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4; 5 Thus, as the block 7 beginsto catch up with the block 8,, FIGJ4, the control rod 11- is pushed further into the, barrel of the potentiometer P; \and increases itsrresistance, thereby decreasing the amount-of current flowing through the electric clutch and permitting the latter to slip to a greater extent. .This potentiometer P is so" adjusted that the normally open switch, but when closed remains closed only so long as its toggle arm is held in closed position by the pawl 13'. Upon release of the toggle arm, the switch X3 immediately opens. Thisswitch is connected directly to the solenoid S which is used to advance the belt by engagement of its hooked end H into anlopen- 'ing B in the belt B. Whenthe solenoid S is energized, the-hooked end H is thrown upwardly by a small stationblock 7 almost comes in contact with the block 8 but doesnt quite fully contact it. It merely follows the block 8 upwardly, the latter being floated and raised by the ice cream which is forced through the filling head 20 to fill the container. 7
Finally, when the ice cream has reached a predetermined level in the container'and has almost filled it,- the pawl 13 rises to the toggle arm on the switch X2 and throws this switchto its on position, in which position it remains during the rest of the cycle. The instant the switch X2'is closed, full power is applied to the clutch-3 and the coupling becomes tight between the motor M and the reduction gear R and drives the bearing block 7 up wardly so that it strikes the bearing block 8, and abruptly drives it upwardly, thereby suddenly snapping the filling head out of the container C.
The switch X3 is so placed above the switch X2 that at the moment the filling head just clears the top of the container C, the pawl 13 contacts the toggle arm of the switch X3 and moves it into its closed position. This motion energizes the solenoid S which then engages the hook H in the hole B in the belt and moves the belt to the right in order to take away the filled container and place an empty container beneath the filling head 20. The instant the pawl 13 has passed the switch X3, this switch returns to its normal open position, which deenergizes the solenoid S and permits the hook H to be returned by the action of the spring L to its relaxed position as shown in FIG. 2. A full cycle is then completed and commences all over again as soon as the switch X1 is reclosed by the presence of a container C in contact therewith, this switch being also of the normally open variety.
The filling head As pointed out in the objects of this invention, one of the most important objects of the present invention is to provide a filling head which can be operated by a machine to fill containers at such a high rate of speed that the ice cream from a continuous ice cream maker (not shown) can be continuously pumped to the head. This type of operation not only requires a very high speed machine, but in addition it requires special features of the ice cream filling head which will permit this head to be abruptly retracted out of a container when the container has reached the proper filling level without splattering ice cream or pulling it out into long thin wisps which may then bend over and wet the perimeter of the container. The present machine is especially intended for use in connection with automatic cartonmaking and -closing machinery, and especially it is the intention that the closing step be carried out by a heatsealing process. This heat-sealing process cannot be successfully used to seal the container if the container is wetted by ice cream spilled thereon during or after the filling process. The ice cream filling head which has been developed through experimentation to meet the above practical requirement is illustrated in FIGS. 7 through 17 of the drawings.
The filling head in general is designated by the reference numeral 20 and comprises a rectangular body portion designed to be a relatively snug fit in the ice cream containers C which it is to fill. The body has an open lower end comprising an extrusion orifice and has an upper end which tapers into a pipe 21 through which the ice cream is pumped by a pump 19 from a continuous ice cream making source, FIG. 1. Between the pipe 21 and the body of the filling head 20 is a boss 22, FIG. 7, which is solid, as distinguished from hollow so that no pockets will be present which can collect food. This boss has three openings therethrough as can be seen in FIG. 7, including the central opening which connects with the pipe 21 and two smaller openings 23 adapted to receive the tubes 24 shown in FIGS. and 11 for the purpose hereinafter stated. Note that the upper end of each of the tubes 24 has an enlarged ring 25 integrally attached thereto, and that the diameter of the ring is such as will just pass through the small bores 23. The tubes 24, FIGS. 10 and 11, extend downwardly and are fixed at their lower ends in a grating 26 which has a step in its outside periphery so that it can be inserted up into the body of the head 20 so as to mate therewith flush with the outside surface thereof, as shown in FIG. 7. The lower periphery of the grating 26 is chamfered as at 26a so that it can be guided easily into an ice cream container. The grating has eight apertures or windows W through which the ice cream emerges and flows into the container C. The tubes 24 extend through the grating to the points marked 24' in FIG. 9, and these tubes register with a groove 27 which extends substantially across the width of the grating 26. The tubes 24 thereby vent the groove 27 to the atmosphere at the top of the filling head in the vicinity of the rings 25 so that when the filling head is abruptly retracted away from the ice cream and out of the filled container, no vacuum will be developed which will tend to prevent a clean break between the ice cream in the container C and the ice cream in the filling head 20.
The tubes 24 and the rings 25, however, serve still another purpose by providing a quick-detach type mounting of the filling head on its supporting plate 9, employing a collar 28 which can be seen in detail in FIG. 14 to hold the filling head on the plate. The plate 9 has an opening therethrough sufficient to pass the ice cream pipe 21 and the tubes 24 including the rings 25 at the upper ends thereof. The collar 28 has two slotted holes 29 therethrough, one end of each hole being of diameter sufficient to pass the rings 25, the slot itself being only as wide as the outer diameter of the tubes 24. By this means the filling head can be passed through a mounting hole in the plate 9 and the collar can he slipped down over the ice cream pipe 21 and the retaining rings 25 and then rotated in the manner shown in FIG. 12 so as to turn the holes and slots 29 in such a direction as will retain the filling head 2!) tightly engaged with the plate 9. This structure provides a quick disconnect means permitting not only the removal of the entire assembly of the filling head 20 from the plate 9, but at the same time releases the grating and the tubes 24 from the body of the filling head 20 so that these members, as shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, can be disassembled therefrom. This type of structure has been approved as satisfactory for use in connection with the filling of ice cream containers, in view of the fact that this head can be quickly disassembled and sterilized. In the production model of the head, all parts thereof, including the grating, are made of stainless steel so that none of the parts will be damaged by sterilization.
FIGS. 15, 16 and 17 are included to illustrate in greater detail the manner in which the ice cream head first enters the container C with the ice cream I extruding from the head and already hanging considerably below the grating 26. By the time it reaches the bottom of the container, the ice cream is almost ready to fall free of the head, but the timing and the ice cream temperature are such as to prevent undesired dropping.
The continer then is filled as shown in FIG. 16 by having the head 20 actually floated on top of the ice cream being extruded therefrom into the container. Finally, the machine abruptly retracts the filling head 29 upwardly away from the container C and breaks the ice cream into a plurality of little pyramids in the container C, which pyramids are quickly and easily flattened when the end closure is applied to the container and sealed thereto by a machine (not shown) in a subsequent operation, which operation is not illustrated because it forms no part of the present invention.
The cross-sectional dimension of the ice cream container actually being filled by the present machine is about 3 /4 x 4% and the eight windows W in the bottom of the grating 26 permit the rapid flow of ice cream into the container C, but on the other hand provide sufiicient restriction of the orifice of the ice cream filling head that when the head is suddenly and rapidly retracted away from the container C the ice cream peaks which form as small pyramids on the top of the container are only about /2" high, and these peaks break in a completely clean and satisfactory manner with the peaks which remain at the bottom of the ice cream filling head as it rises away from the container.
I do not limit my invention to the exact forms shown in the drawings or to the precise use recited for illustrative purposes, for obviously changes may be made therein within the scope of the following claims.
. I claim:
1. A machine tor automatically filling 'c'ontainerswith V a semiliquidmaterial supplied by a source, comprising a filling head shaped to fit inside a container; conveyor means for intermittently advancing said containers under I i said filling head; pump meansbetween said source and said head to force the material through the head and float the head upwardly thereon within the containers; recipro cating head-support means above said conveyor means;
and said drive means including'means responsive to. thesecond control means to abruptly raise the head-support means awayfrom the container.
7 2. In a machine as set forth inclaim 1, said filling head fitting snugly in the containers and having. an orifice through a face disposed transversely of the axis of reciprocation of the filling head throughwhich said material extrudes, the area of the orifice being smaller than the area of the transverse face. V
3.1a a machine as set forth in claim 1, said drive means comprising a motor; a block reciprocably mounted below said head-support means; translatory means for translating rotary'motion of the motor to reciprocatory motion of the block; slip clutch means coupling the motor to the translatory means; saidfirst control means including sensor means responsive to the placing of a container below the head for engaging the clutch means to lower the block'and the head-support meansresting thereon;
sensor-means to disengage the clutch when the block reaches the bottom of its reciprocation; sensor means sensitiveto the spacing between the block and the support means and partially engaging the clutch means to make the block follow the support means upwardly; and said second control means includingsensor means responsive to the arrival ofthe head-support means at said level to fully engage the clutch; j
, therebetween for partially energizing the clutch to make the block closely follow the support means upwardly; and a'third switch responsive to the arrival of the support means at said level to fully energize the clutch.
7. In a machine as setforth in claim 6, means responsive to the raising of the head out of the container to advancesaid conveyor means.
8'. In a machine as set forth in claim 6, said translatory means comprising a reduction gear driven by the motor and driving a crank arm, and a connecting rod coupling the crank arm with the'block.
9. A machine for automatically filling containers with a semiliquid material pumped thereto at, a continuous sive to the placingof a container opposite the head for advancing "the latter thereinto, the continuous flow of material forcing the head back outwardly of the container; control means responsive to the position of the head when the container has been fille'd to a predetermined head fitting snugly in the containers" and having anorifice through'which. the material extrud'es and located inra face disposed transversely of the axis of reciprocation of the filling head, the area otthe orifice. being smaller than the area of the transverse face.
11. In a machine as set forth in claim 9, a grating across said orifice and dividing it into'a plurality of smaller I 4. In amachine as set forth'in claim 3', means respon-' sive to the raising of the head out of the container to advance said conveyor means.
5. A machine for automatically filling containers with asemiliquid material supplied by a source, comprising a" filling head shaped to fit inside a container; conveyor means for intermittently advancing said containers. under said filling head; pump means between said source and said head to force the materizfl through the headand float the head upwardly thereon within the container; reciprocating head-support means above said conveyor means;- reciprocating drive means below and supporting said headsupport means; and drive control means responsive to the advancing of a container under'the head for lowering the head thereinto, responsive to the spacing betweenthe head-support means and the drivejmeans to make the latter follow the upward floating of the former, and responsive to the arrival of the headat a predetermined level to abruptly raise the head-support means awayfrom. the container. v i
6. In a machine as set forth 'in claim 5, said drive means comprising a motor; a block reciprocably mounted below said head'support means; translatory means for translating rotary motion of the motor to reciprocatory motion or the block; an electric clutch coupling the motor to the translatory means; and said control means comprising a first'switch responsive to the placing of a container 1 under the head for energizing the clutch to lower the block and the. support means resting thereon; a second switch for deenergizing the clutch when the block reaches the bottom ofits reciprocation; potentiometer means conopenings, and vent tube means. extending from outside the head to points in the vicinity of the grating to admit air when the head is retracted away from the container.
' 12. In a machine as set forth in claim 11, said semiliquid material comprising a food product, and said grating and vent tube structure being disa'ssemblable' from the head to facilitate cleaning and sterilizing of all of the parts. a
13. In a machine as set forth in claim 9, said filling head time under said head; head-support means for reciprocating said head toward and away from said'containers; headsupport drive means responsive to the placing of a container under the head for lowering. the latter thereinto, the continuousxfiow of material forcing-thev head to rise upwardly in the container; means'responsiveto the positron of the head when'the container has beenfilled to a predetermined level; and said head-support drive means including means to abruptly? retract the head out' of the container and break the flow of material thereto; and means responsive to theraising of the head from the container to'advancesaid intermittent means.
15. In a, machine as set fofth in-c'laim ll said drive means comprising'a motor; a block reciprocably mounted below said head-support meansitranslatory means for translating rotary motion of the motor to reciprocatory motion of the block; slip clutch means coupling the motor a to the translatoryjmeans; sensor means responsive to the nected between the blockand the support means and placing of a container below the head for engaging the clutch means to lower the block and the head-support means resting thereon; sensor means. to disengage the clutclr when'the block reaches'the bottom of itsrecipro- 9 cation; sensor means sensitive to the spacing between the block and the support means and partially engaging the clutch means to make the block follow the support means upwardly; and sensor means responsive to the arrival of the head-support means at said level to fully engage the clutch.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,379,291 5/21 Stiglitz 141159 1,393,276 10/21 Fuller 141156 1,442,405 1/32 Hawthorne 141-162 XR Harrington.
Bleam et a1 141-161XR Kennedy 141131 XR Daanen et a1. 10754 Warner 141283 XR Aldecoa 141-156 XR Dixon et al 141251 XR Axlid et a1 141-161 XR Anderson et a1. 141-131 1O LAVERNE D. GEIGER, Primary Examiner.
RAPHAEL M. LUPO, Examiner.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|US4758143 *||Oct 2, 1986||Jul 19, 1988||Deering Ice Cream Corp.||Manufacture of specialty ice cream products|
|US4938260 *||Aug 19, 1988||Jul 3, 1990||The Sherwin-Williams Company||Pneumatic aerosol can filling machine|
|US5647408 *||Mar 12, 1996||Jul 15, 1997||The Sherwin-Williams Company||Aerosol can filling head|
|EP0148360A2 *||Nov 7, 1984||Jul 17, 1985||Degussa Aktiengesellschaft||Method of compacting and/or filling pulverulent materials|
|U.S. Classification||141/141, 141/198, 141/181, 141/256|
|International Classification||B65B39/12, B65B39/00, A23G9/28, A23G9/04|
|Cooperative Classification||B65B39/12, A23G9/283|
|European Classification||A23G9/28D4, B65B39/12|