|Publication number||US3182335 A|
|Publication date||May 11, 1965|
|Filing date||Feb 27, 1963|
|Priority date||Feb 27, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3182335 A, US 3182335A, US-A-3182335, US3182335 A, US3182335A|
|Inventors||Victor W Bolie|
|Original Assignee||Univ Iowa State Res Found Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (25), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 11, 1965 v. w. BOLIE- DUAL-CHAMBER ARTIFICIAL HEART 2 Shawls-SheetI 1 y Filed Feb. 27. 196s @fn 7 w mM/, www? @J1/V, w E Wag@ -vf ,www
yaaom May 11, 1965 v. w. BOLIE 3,182,335
DUAL-CHAMBER ARTIFICIAL HEART Filed Feb. 27, 1963 2 Sheets-Shee\I 2 Jl J5 97 y Q6 00 Sy Jar W@ P @-76 89# 22H92 70 l u7u $91 nig/ [1 94 l7 85 i j`7l 72 75 jim-wf United States Patent O corporation of Iowa Filed Feb. 27, 1963, Ser. No. 261,426 8 Claims. (Cl. 3 1) This invention relates to a dual-chamber articial heart, and, more particularly, to apparatus adapted to oscillate pneumatically.
It is an object of this invention to provide an articial heart adapted for use within the chest cavity.
Another object is to provide an articial heart operated by an automatically cycling device delivering adjustably-controlled air pulses.
Still another object is to provide a pneumatic oscillator uniquely constructed and adapted to alternately pressurize chambers such as those employed in pumping blood.
Other objects and advantages of the invention may be seen in the details of construction and operation set down in this specification.
The invention is explained in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. 1 is an elevational view, partially in section, of the artificial heart of the invention, the sectional portion corresponding to that seen along the sight line 1-1 applied to FIG. 2;
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the organ seen in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view of the organ of FIG. 2 and at a position thereof corresponding to the line 3 3 of FIG. l;
FIG. 4 is a schematic representation, i.e., diagram, of a pneumatic oscillator employed in conjunction with the organ of FIGS. l-3; and
FIG. 5 is a schematic representation of an alternative form of pneumatic oscillator.
In the illustration given, the numeral 11i designates generally a receptacle adapted to be installed within the chest cavity and which is constructed of a rigid material such as a rigid plastic capable of generating the least possible hemolysis, clotting, irritation, and heat.
The receptacle 19 is characterized by a pair of elongated chambers 11 and 12 (see also FIGS. 2 and 3) which extend downwardly from an open top 13. The shape of the receptacle is generally oval or ellipsoidal. Centrally, the top 13 of the receptacle 11i is equipped with a pair of upwardly-extending integral tubes 14 and 15, which communicate as at 16 and 17 with the chambers 11 and 12, respectively. The interior walls of the chambers 11 and 12 are grooved annularly as at 18 and 19 to permit pressure fluid entering the tubes 14 and 15 to surround the collapsible bags 20 and 21. The bags 2i) and 21 provide the pumping means for the articial heart.
As seen in FIG. 3, the interior walls of chambers 11 and 12 are further equipped with vertically extending recesses as at 22 and Z3, which merge as at 24 and 2S at the bottom of the chambers so as to insure full access of pressure fluid to all of the exterior portions of the bags 26 and 21.
Each bag 2t) and 21 is equipped with an upstanding constricted outlet portion as at 26 and 27, respectively. Each portion 26 and 27 is equipped with an inlet check valve and an outlet check valve, the outlet check valve of the bag 2li being illustrated in FIG. 1 and designated by the numeral 28, while the inlet check valve associated with the bag 21 is seen at the left-hand side of FIG. 1 and is designated 29. rIhe inlet check valve associated with the bag 20 is seen in FIG. 2 and is designated 30,
312,335 Patented May 11, 1965 ice while the outlet check valve associated with the bag 21 is seen also in FIG. 2 and is designated by the numeral 31.
Functionally, looking at the showing in FIG. 1 as representing the artificial heart of a mammal, with the bag 21 corresponding to the right ventricle and the bag 20 to the left ventricle, the outlet check valve 31 allows llow to the lungs and thus corresponds to the pulmonary valve. The inlet check valve 29 allows iiow from the vena cava, and corresponds to the tricuspid valve. Relative to the left ventricle replaced by the bag 2t?, the outlet check valve 2S corresponds to the aortic valve leading to the mammals aorta, while the inlet check valve 30 carries the blood iiow from the lungs and corresponds to the mitral valve.
It will be appreciated that the bags 20 and 21 are constructed of semi-pliable, i.e., ilexible or resilient, material adapted to change shape upon change of external pressure-in the portions below the constricted upper portions 26 and 27. As seen in FIG. 1, the upper necklike portions 26 and 27 are constructed of relatively thicker plastic material so as to resist deformation and are adapted to receive the tubes extending into the vena cava, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins and aorta. Preferably, the constricted portions 26 and 27 merge into the thinner walls of the major portions of the bags 2) and 21 by virtue of tapering wall thicknesses as at 32 and 33.
FIGS. 4 and 5 show variations of pneumatic power operators constructed specially so that they sequentially and automatically alternate pressure and suction to each ventricular chamber 11 and 12 from steady sources of constant air pressure P and suction S. Also provided are means for adjusting the cycle time and air pulses to the left and right chambers.
If desired, the pneumatic oscillator may be located externally of the body, giving externally controllable heart rate and left and right heart output stroke volumes. Alternatively, internal installation of the pneumatic oscillator is achievable, utilizing an internal biological gas generator (possibly stomach hydrochloric acid and plasma sodium bicarbonate to evolve CO2, which is non-toxic and re-absorbable) The oscillator seen in FIG. 4 employs two four-way valves 34 and 35, each of the single pilot-operated, springreturn type. Each of the valves 34 and 35 is equipped with a spool as at 36 and 37 which is spring-loaded as at 33 and 39 so as to be biased in one direction. The four-way designation of each valve stems from the fact that four iiow passages or ways are provided by positioning the spool as at 49 and 41 shown in heavy line relative to the valve 34 and as at 42 and 43 shown in dotted line. The corresponding ways in the valve 35 are designated 44, 45, 46 and 47, respectively.
The valve 3d is connected to a source P of compressible pressure fluid (such as air) by means of conduits 4S, while the valve 35 is coupled to the receptacle 10, namely, the tubes 14 and 15, by means of conduits or pipes 49. The valves 34 and 35 may be Modernairs, or the fourway, single pilot-operated, two-position type provided by Schrader Air Valve Company, of New York city.
In the position shown, the way 41 communicates the pressure source P with a first tank or reservoir 56 by means of the conduit line 51, the line 51 being equipped with a check valve 51a. Also, the line 51 communicates with a iiow control device 52 which has adjustable flow in one direction via the adjustable constriction 53 and full flow in the other direction by virtue of the check valve 53a. Such a control valve is available as Modernair. No. 100, or from the Schrader Air Valve Company. The flow control valve 53a connects with one side of a two-way double pilot-operated valve 54, the two Ways being designated 55 and 36. The way 55 is seen to communicate the atmosphere A with the pilot ports 57 and 5S of the four-way valves 34 and 35 by means of pipe 59. Thus, in the solid line conguration of the ways within the valves 34 and 54, compressed air is being delivered to the tanl: d and gradually building up inthe pilot port 60 of the two-Way valve 54 so as to shift the spool 6i thereof downwardly, thereby Vestablishing the other way Ed. Meanwhile, however, the way 55 vents the pilot ports 57 and 58, permitting the springs 38 and 39 to maintain the spools 36 and 37 in the bottoni position.
Simultaneously with this condition, the reservoir 62 yis connected with one of the pipes i9 via the way d5. It will alsobe noted that the conduit 63 establishing this connection also is in communication with the port 64 of the two-way valve 54 by means of the open check valve 65. Thus, as pressure is built up in the port d@ by virtue of pressure fluid ilowing through the constriction 53, ultimately the spool 6l moves to the downward condition. When this happens, i.e., the spool 61 being shifted to the downward condition, the way 56 is established, which communicates with the pressure source P, whereupon pressure iluid is delivered through the line 59 to the ports 57 and 58 to move the spools 36 and 37 upwardly against the bias of the springs 3S and 39. This then establishes the dotted line ways 42, 43, 46 and 47. With this condition established, pressure fluid from the source P flows through the way 42 vand conduit 66 (through the open check valve 67) to the reservoir 62. Simultaneously,
pressure iluid moves throughfthe constricted portion 67 of the'iiow control valve 63 to build up pressure at the port 64 and ultimately move the spool 6l. to the upper condition. This is made possible by virtue of the fact that the port 6l) communicates with the tank 50 and the way 46 by means ot-the open check valve 53a. By virtue ot the fact that pressure iluid flows out of the reservoir Si? and through the way 46, a lower pressure exists at,
the port dil than that which can be established at the port 64 by virtue ofthe build-up throughuid ow through the constriction 67. Pressure fluid passing through the Way 46 enters the upper of the two pipes 49, while the lower pipe` is connected to suction. rillus, the tubes 14 Vand l5 are alternately and sequentially subjected to pressure and suction to cause corresponding distortions of the bags Ztl and 2i, thereby eilecting the desired heart pumping action.
A modified form of pneumatic oscillator is seen in FIG. 5, whereinV only two four-way valves are employed, there being no need in this case for the two-way valve 54 seen Y in FIG. 4. Further, each of the four-way valves 70 and 7l are double pilot-operated, and may be Modernair CR/'405, or those provided by the Schrader Air Valve Company. Employed in combination with these valves are two variable volume reservoirs 72 and 73, which may` be Schrader No. 30901-0030 cylinders having a l bore and 3" stroke.
Also employed inthe pneumatic power oscillator system ot FlG. 5 are two flow control valves 7d and 75 of the Modernair typeV No. lil() used in the illustration of FIG. 4. Still further, check valves as at 76 and 77 are employed which may be Schrader No. 3134.
The condition of the apparatus seen in FIG. 5` Vis to `deliver compressible pressure fluid to the left ventricle chamber t4., Starting with thev reservoir 72,'it is seen that pressure tluid from this storage tank is enabled to flow i Hthrough the line 73, then through the way 79 and pipe 8@ Vtothe way Si which communicates with the tube 14 as soonas the spool Q5 of'valve 7l shifts to the left. Simultaneously, pressurelluidtrom the source P flows through the -way 82 in the valve 7? and thence through the lineY 83 to a T 84. Ont-branch of the vT 34 com- .l municates withthe alternate reservoir 73by means of a line 85, while the other'branch of the `'i' ,communicates Vwith the flow control valve 74 by meanssof a line 86.
,port 9@ is able to ow through the check valve portion 9.1i of the flow control valve 75 into the line 78 delivering pressure fluid tothe left ventricle chamber 14.
As soon as suiicient pressure is developed in the pilot port S8 to shift the spool 89 'to the lett position, pressure iiuid from the source P flows through ythe dotted lineway 92 into the reservoir 72 and simultaneously by means of the line 93v through the constriction 94 into .the pilot port 90. This in time develops suiiicient pressure at the pilot port 9% to shiftthe spool 89 to the right position. j Thus, .there is provided an automatic oscillation in the valve 7i) which alternately communicates'thereservoirs 72 and 73 (seen to be of the adjustable volume type by means of the pistons 72a and 73a, respectively) to the outlet valve 7i.
In the condition shown in FIG. 5, pressure uid is being delivered through the Way 81a tothe right ventricle chamber l5, while the left ventricle chamber 14 is connected to a source of suction S. ln the left position of the spool 9S provided as part of the valve 7l, the dotted line ways are establishedwhereinithe right ventricle chamber 15 is coupled to suction and the left ventricle chamber 14 is connected to a source of pressure P. The shiftingrof the spool 95 is achieved very shortly after the shifting of the spool S9, and for this'purpose the valve'71 is equipped with right and left pilotports he and 97, respectively. In
fthe condition shown, pressure is being lbuilt up in the pilot kvalve 7l cannot pass out way 81 .of valve 7l until spool Yso 95 has shifted to the left; In order to overcome any possiblesluggishness of action of valve 7@ due to friction ot its sliding spool, positive feedback to its pilot ports 88 and 9@ is provided through the one-way check valves 76 and 77. ln'this'way, the spools ot valves 7th and7l alternate lett and right automatically at a rate controllable by the flow constrictions 37 and V9d, and thus alternate pressure and suction pressures to the left and right ventricles connected to lines )i4 and 15. lfthe ventricular back pressure does not exceed its maximum physiological value (3 to 5 p.s`.i.g.), andrthe supply pressure P is high,('t'o 100 p.s.i.g.), then the ventricular stroke volumes delivered by thedeviceV are governed by theadjustable volumes 72 and 73. Y i
While, in the foregoing specification, a detailed description of the invention hasbeen set downlor the'purpose of illustration, many variations in the details herein given may be made by those skilled in the art-withoutdeparting from the spirit and scope of ythe invention. Y
I claim: Y
l. in an artificial heart, Y v Y a rigid receptacle adaptedto be'installed in abody Y cavityand defining-a pairof chambers, saidrec'eptacle comprising a generally elliptical body with said'Y body, said valves being mounted in lside-by-side rela-k tion in said constricted end,
pressure fluid conduit means communicating with each chamber adapted to alternately `compress said'bagS, `said conduitmeans kbeing coupled-'to each chamber 5 adjacent one end thereof, with flow passages for said pressure fluid in the chamber walls communicating with the other chamber ends, and a pneumatic oscillator coupled to said conduit means, said oscillator comprising a pair of pilotoperated, four-way valves, one of said valves being coupled to said pipe means, a source of pressure duid coupled to other of said valves, a pair of pressure fluid reservoirs coupled to both of said valves, and other conduit means including constriction means coupling said reservoirs to said valve for operating said valves. 2. In an artificial heart, a substantially rigid receptacle adapted to be installed in a body cavity and defining a pair of chambers, a eXible bag in each chamber equipped With inlet and outlet check valves, flexible pressure fluid conduit means communicating with each chamber, and a pneumatic oscillator coupled to said conduit means for delivering pressure iluid to said chambers for alternately compressing said bags, said oscillator including a pair of pilot-operated, four-way valves, one of said valves being coupled to said conduit means, a source of pressure fluid coupled to the other of said valves, la pair of pressure fluid reservoirs coupled to both of said valves, and other conduit means including constriction means coupling said reservoirs to said valves for simultaneously operating said valves.
3. The structure of claim 2 in which the said one valve is also coupled to suction means for expanding said bags. 4. The structure of claim 2 in which said conduit means includes a three-way valve equipped with a shiftable spool,
and pilot ports communicating With the spool ends, said source and one reservoir being coupled to said ports in one condition of the other of said four-Way valves, which said Lsource and the other reservoir are reversely coupled to 5 said ports in the other condition of said other four-Way valve.
l5 The structure of claim 2 in which each of said reservoirs is equipped with means for Varying the internal volume thereof.
6. In combination, a pair of pressurizable chambers adapted to function as an artificial heart, a pneumatic oscillator including first and second four-way valves each equipped with a movable spool, a source of pressure fluid coupled to said r'irst valve, pipe means coupling said chambers to said second valve, a pair of pressure liuid reservoirs, and conduit means interconnecting said valves and reservoirs for delivering pressure uid for simultaneously moving said spools to alternately communicate each of said reservoirs with different valves.
7. The structure of claim 6 in which said conduit means is equipped with variable constriction means for regulating the period of oscillation of said oscillator.
8. The structure of claim 6 in which means are provided for controllably varying the volumes of said reservoirs whereby the ventricular stroke volumes generated by said oscillator are adjustable.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,978,346 10/34 Ernst et al 91-38 2,917,751 12/59 Fry et al 3 1 3,007,416 11/61 Childs 103-44- 3,024,732 3/62 Nyman 137-102 X 3,037,504 6/62 Everett 12S-214 3,048,165 8/62 Norton 12S-1 3,097,366 7/63 Winchell 3--1 3,099,260 7/63 Birtwell 12S-1 RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3327322 *||Jul 27, 1964||Jun 27, 1967||Trw Inc||Artificial heart powered by a fluid pressure pump means simulating the action of the human heart|
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|US3449767 *||Sep 24, 1965||Jun 17, 1969||North American Rockwell||Artificial heart regulating system|
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|US3916449 *||Nov 19, 1974||Nov 4, 1975||Pacific Roller Die Co Inc||Implantable heart pump|
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|US4369530 *||May 19, 1981||Jan 25, 1983||Foxcroft Associates||Hydraulically actuated cardiac prosthesis and method of actuation|
|US4376312 *||May 19, 1981||Mar 15, 1983||Foxcroft Associates||Hydraulically actuated cardiac prosthesis|
|US4381567 *||Sep 15, 1981||May 3, 1983||Foxcroft Associates||Hydraulically actuated total cardiac prosthesis with reversible pump and three-way ventricular valving|
|US4389737 *||Sep 15, 1981||Jun 28, 1983||Foxcroft Associates||Hydraulically actuated cardiac prosthesis with three-way ventricular valving|
|US4397049 *||Sep 15, 1981||Aug 9, 1983||Foxcroft Associates||Hydraulically actuated cardiac prosthesis with three-way ventricular valving|
|US4427470||Sep 1, 1981||Jan 24, 1984||University Of Utah||Vacuum molding technique for manufacturing a ventricular assist device|
|US4473423 *||Sep 16, 1983||Sep 25, 1984||University Of Utah||Artificial heart valve made by vacuum forming technique|
|US4650485 *||Dec 20, 1984||Mar 17, 1987||Berardino Della Sala||Total artificial heart|
|US4838889 *||Jul 23, 1986||Jun 13, 1989||University Of Utah Research Foundation||Ventricular assist device and method of manufacture|
|US4994078 *||Feb 16, 1989||Feb 19, 1991||Jarvik Robert K||Intraventricular artificial hearts and methods of their surgical implantation and use|
|USRE35707 *||Oct 27, 1989||Dec 30, 1997||Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha||Apparatus for driving medical appliances|
|U.S. Classification||623/3.21, 128/899, 417/480, 417/339, 91/38, 417/394|
|International Classification||A61M1/12, A61M1/10|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M2001/1065, A61M1/12, A61M1/106|