Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3182461 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 11, 1965
Filing dateSep 19, 1961
Priority dateSep 19, 1961
Publication numberUS 3182461 A, US 3182461A, US-A-3182461, US3182461 A, US3182461A
InventorsEdwin S Johanson
Original AssigneeHydrocarbon Research Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Natural gas liquefaction and separation
US 3182461 A
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 11, 1965 E. s. JOHANSON 3,182,461

NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION AND SEPARATION Filed Sept. 19. 1961 i0 l2 Uri/fly Mal/ls Reversing Valve [4 /6 Motor 58 Heat Excbangar Pump Heat EYC/IMQEI' Check Valves J/ 60 34 33 5a 32 62 A 3/ V 54 46 Expander 42 "a 62 Y 52 anslon Liquid to Storage INVENTOR.

E DWI/V .5. JOHA/VSON United States Patent 3,182,461 NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION AND SEPARATION Edwin S. Johanson, Princeton, N.J., assignor to Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., New York, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey Filed Sept. 19, 1961, Ser. No. 139,194 5 Claims. (CI. 62-43) This invention relates to the distribution of natural gas and more particularly to the recovery of a portion of the gas as liquid by the appropriate conversion of the inherent energy of the gas in the pipeline.

It is well known that the transmission systems for natural gas customarily used in the transcontinental pipeline deliver the gas at the industrial terminals at pressures from as little as 200 p.s.i.g. to pressures in excess of 400 p.s.i.g. It is usually necessary, however, for domestic and industrial purposes to reduce the pressure to a distribution grid to a maximum pressure of about 50 p.s.i.g. Heretofore, this has been accomplished by expansion without any useful work or effect and thus with a definite loss of the energy potential. While this energy level is below that which can be economically recovered by the work of an expansion engine, nevertheless, there is a substantial value available if it can be utilized.

In accordance with my invention, I propose to recover a small percentage of the gas in liquid form by the use of this potential energy and to store such liquid for supplementary energy during periods of excessive gas requirements.

More particularly, by use of suitable heat exchangers, expansion engines and process flows, without the addition of more than nominal amounts of power, I find that it is possible to obtain a net condensate from typical pipeline natural gas which equals in heating value, molecular weight, and combustion characteristics the original pipeline gas, so that the liquefaction of a fraction of the gas can be carried out without degradation of the unit value of the original pipeline gas and the net condensate can be used without modification when there is a subsequent requirement for increased quantities of pipeline gas.

Although it is recognized that the percentage of gas that can be liquefied by this system is small, it is recognized that the energy is available all of the time and the recovery of amounts in the order of 4 to 8% over a year represent a very large added source of energy that can be used during the severe peak loads.

Further objects and advantages of my invention will appear from the following description of a preferred form of embodiment thereof taken in connection with the attached drawing which is a schematic flow diagram of a gas liquefaction cycle in accordance with my invention.

As pointed out, the natural gas from a transcontinental pipeline which enters the system in the line 10 is normally at a pressure of the order of 200 to 400 p.s.i.g. and generally at ambient temperature, as for example, 100 F. For my purposes this gas is passed through a reducing valve 12 to provide a control and to reduce the gas to about 200 p.s.i.g. as it enters the reversing valve 14. This valve is operated through the motor 16 in a suitable cycle.

The gas in line 18 is thus at about 95 F. as it enters heat exchanger 20. The gas then passes in contact with a cool surface hereinafter described so that the gas discharging from the heat exchanger through line 22 is at about 40 F. This gas then passes through the second heat exchanger 24 and is again in contact with a cold surface so that the gas is further reduced in temperature and discharges at 26 at about 178 F. The gas then passes through check valve 28 and the gas discharging in line 30 passes in part through line 31 to the methane liquefier 32, and in part through valve 40 and line 33 to expander ice 38. A part of this gas passes through line 34 and heat exchanger 24 and thence through line 36 to the expander 38. This by-pass line 34 serves to control the temperature in the heat exchanger 24 and serves as the unbalance stream characteristic of reversing exchangers for control of temperature differences for the reversible condensation and revaporization of less volatile constituents.

The position of the reversing valves 16 is alternated periodically, as for example every three to sixty minutes, so that the pipeline gas passes alternately through one side and then the other side of heat exchangers 20 and 24. By this means Water, butane, and propane are condensed from the feed gas on one side of heat exchanger 20 in the first part of the cycle, and revaporized into lower pressure gas from exchanger 24 in the second part of the cycle, while additional water, butane and propane are condensed from pipeline gas on the second side of exchanger. Similarly, carbon dioxide and ethane are condensed and revaporized in heat exchanger 24, using low pressure gas from line 60 (which see below) to receive the vaporized material. The design and attitude of heat exchangers 20 and 24 are such that condensed liquid cannot migrate longitudinally and disturb the temperature difiference pattern essential to the complete revaporization of material. By this means, a gas essentially containing methane is available at line 30 to be used in expander 38 or methane liquefier 32.

The amount of gas which passes through the expander 38 is usually in excess of of the total fiow from heat exchanger 24 and as the pressure drops from about 200 p.s.i.g. to 50 p.s.i.g., the temperature of the gas will drop from 148 F. to about 220 F. The expanded gas in line 42 then passes through the methane liquefier 32 in countercurrent contact with the gas entering from the line 31 under such circumstances that the minor portion of the gas in line 31 is sub-cooled and partially liquefied. The cooled gas and liquid discharge from methane liquefier 32 through line 44 and the gas is further expanded in valve 46 into the flash separator 48. The liquid removed from the bottom of flash separator 48 through line 50 is again expanded in valve 52 into the low pressure flash separator 54. From 5 to 10% of the total gas may be removed through line 56 as liquid and passed to storage from which it is available for use in peak seasons. The low pressure gas in line '72 may then serve as an unbalance or heating stream for heat exchangers 24 and 20.

The partially heated gas at about 50 p.s.i.g. from the methane liquefier 32 passes upwardly through the line 58 and line 60 to the check valve 23 with its temperature raised to about F. In a similar manner, the gas from the high pressure separator 48 is removed through the line 62 and joins with the gas line 60. This gas at 45-50 p.s.i.g. is used to revaporize condensed water, butane, propane, ethane and carbon dioxide in the reversing cycle of heat exchangers 2t) and 24- as described above.

The combined high pressure gas then passes upwardly through the line 64 through heat exchanger 24 and through line 66 into heat exchanger 2th and thence through line 68 and reversing valve 14 to the utility gas main line 70, which in the present case, is assumed to be at 40 p.s.i.g.

The low pressure gas from the low pressure separator 54 passes upward from the line 72 and through heat exchangers 24 and 20 and is then compressed at 74 before joining the utility main line '70.

To some extent, depending upon the efficiency of the heat exchangers, it is found that, by the cycle disclosed, pipeline gas at 200 p.s.i.g., can be converted to utility main gas at 50 p.s.i.g. with approximately 6% of the gas flow liquefied. If the initial gas is at 400 p.s.i.g. approximately 8% of the gas can be liquefied without external energy.

Reference has been made to the condensation and revaporization of the higher hydrocarbons and if it is undesirable to retain them in the system they can be removed as usually the ethane, propane and butane command preminimum prices relative to natural gas.

' merely a question of recovering more or less of the liquid.

depending upon pressure and heat exchanger efiiciency.

While I have shown a preferred form of embodiment of my invention, I am aware that modifications thereof can be made within the scope and spirit of the specification herein and of the claims appended hereinafter and I, therefore, desire a broad interpretation of such specification and claims.

I claim: I

1. A method of operating a plant for converting a high pressure natural gas predominantly methane supplied by a transmission line to a substantially lower pressure heating gas and for distributing said heating gas to COIISUIII", ers with a minimum of interruption, whichcomprises: (l) withdrawing said natural gas under transmission line pressure from the transmission line by which said gas is supplied to said plant; (2) cooling said gas in a reversing heat exchanger While under substantially transmission line pressure to form a gaseous fraction; (3) removing a part of the cooled gaseous fraction and returning it as an unexpanded unbalance strearn'to the exchanger; (4) expanding said part of said gaseous fraction to a pressure substantially corresponding to the distribution line pressure maintained by said gas plant; (5) passing said cold expanded gaseous fraction in heat exchange relationship,

with the balance of said natural gas to liquefy a part thereof at the high pressure; (6) substantially continuously, at least during periods of ample supply, of said natural gas, conducting said liquid fraction in the liquid state to at least one storage vessel; and (7) passing :the

expanded gaseous fraction after the heat exchange of step 4. gas contains impurities'of the class of Water, butane, propane, ethane and CO and a portion'of thehigh pressure low temperature liquid is flashed in part and the vapor is conducted-through at least one of the heat exchange steps to unbalance the temperature therein and 'revaporize impurities formed on the heat exchange surfaces.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein the pipeline natural gas contains impurities of the class of water, butane, propane, ethane and CO and the heat exchange step is carried out in reversing exchangers and a portion of the gas discharged therefrom is separately returned through one of the heat exchangers for unbalance and to condition the gas for entry into the expansion step and a portion of the high pressure low temperature liquid is flashed in part .and the vapor is conducted through at leastanother part of the, heat exchangersto unbalance the temperature therein and revaporize impurities formed on the heat exchange 7 surfaces.

5. The method of operating a plant as claimed in claim 1 wherein the cooling of the gas is to a temperature in the order of below -200 F. at the high pressure, the expansion of step (4) is accomplished in doing work, and the part of the gas liquefied is in the order of about 4 to 8%.

References (Zited by thelilxaminer UNITED STATES PATENTS NORMAN YUDKOFF, Primary Examiner. ROBERT A. OLEARY, Examiner,

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1901389 *Oct 9, 1929Mar 14, 1933Maurice Hazard-FlamandProcess for liquefying and rectifying air
US2541569 *Apr 2, 1945Feb 13, 1951Paul L BornLiquefying and regasifying natural gases
US2658360 *May 8, 1946Nov 10, 1953Chemical Foundation IncTransportation of natural gas
US2716332 *Apr 20, 1950Aug 30, 1955Koppers Co IncSystems for separating nitrogen from natural gas
US2760356 *Apr 8, 1953Aug 28, 1956Nat Res DevMethod of liquefying gases
US2909904 *Dec 26, 1956Oct 27, 1959Carbonic Dev CorpTreatment of natural gas in distribution systems
US2919555 *Jul 28, 1955Jan 5, 1960Joy Mfg CoApparatus for and method of separating gases
US3098732 *Oct 19, 1959Jul 23, 1963Air ReductionLiquefaction and purification of low temperature gases
BE560692A * Title not available
CA585149A *Oct 13, 1959British Oxygen Canada LtdMethod of and apparatus for producing liquefied gas from gas stored under pressure
RU119539A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3312073 *Dec 3, 1964Apr 4, 1967Conch Int Methane LtdProcess for liquefying natural gas
US3342037 *Feb 18, 1965Sep 19, 1967Lummus CoLiquefaction of natural gas by cascade refrigeration and multiple expansion
US3360944 *Apr 5, 1966Jan 2, 1968American Messer CorpGas liquefaction with work expansion of major feed portion
US3360945 *Feb 25, 1965Jan 2, 1968Lummus CoRepressurized natural gas addition to main gas stream to maintain well head pressure
US3389565 *Apr 21, 1965Jun 25, 1968Sulzer AgProcess for liquefaction of helium by expansion
US3400546 *Jun 18, 1965Sep 10, 1968Linde Eismasch AgHydrogen production and enrichment
US3416324 *Jun 12, 1967Dec 17, 1968Judson S. SwearingenLiquefaction of a gaseous mixture employing work expanded gaseous mixture as refrigerant
US3503220 *Jul 27, 1967Mar 31, 1970Chicago Bridge & Iron CoExpander cycle for natural gas liquefication with split feed stream
US3792590 *Dec 21, 1970Feb 19, 1974Airco IncLiquefaction of natural gas
US3992167 *Apr 2, 1975Nov 16, 1976Union Carbide CorporationLow temperature refrigeration process for helium or hydrogen mixtures using mixed refrigerant
US4456459 *Jan 7, 1983Jun 26, 1984Mobil Oil CorporationIncrease in gas production and decrease in flash gas through use of hydraulic expander
US6694774Feb 4, 2003Feb 24, 2004Praxair Technology, Inc.Gas liquefaction method using natural gas and mixed gas refrigeration
US7219512 *May 5, 2005May 22, 2007Battelle Energy Alliance, LlcApparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same
US7228714Oct 28, 2004Jun 12, 2007Praxair Technology, Inc.Natural gas liquefaction system
US7231784 *Oct 13, 2004Jun 19, 2007Praxair Technology, Inc.Method for producing liquefied natural gas
US7469556Jun 1, 2007Dec 30, 2008Praxair Technology, Inc.Compressing and turboexpanding a refrigeration gas, subcooling and flashing liquid natural gas to produce flash vapor and liquefied natural gas, warming the flash vapor and the cooled refrigeration gas by indirect heat exchange with the liquid natural gas; recovery of pressure energy in let-down stations
US7591150May 15, 2006Sep 22, 2009Battelle Energy Alliance, LlcApparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same
US7594414May 5, 2006Sep 29, 2009Battelle Energy Alliance, LlcApparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same
US7637122Sep 28, 2006Dec 29, 2009Battelle Energy Alliance, LlcApparatus for the liquefaction of a gas and methods relating to same
US8061413Sep 13, 2007Nov 22, 2011Battelle Energy Alliance, LlcHeat exchangers comprising at least one porous member positioned within a casing
US8544295Oct 28, 2011Oct 1, 2013Battelle Energy Alliance, LlcMethods of conveying fluids and methods of sublimating solid particles
US8555672Oct 22, 2009Oct 15, 2013Battelle Energy Alliance, LlcComplete liquefaction methods and apparatus
CN100565058COct 12, 2005Dec 2, 2009普莱克斯技术有限公司Method for producing liquefied natural gas
WO2006044447A2 *Oct 12, 2005Apr 27, 2006Praxair Technology IncMethod for producing liquefied natural gas
U.S. Classification62/619
International ClassificationF25J1/00
Cooperative ClassificationF25J2260/10, F25J2205/24, F25J2230/60, F25J1/0201, F25J2270/08, F25J1/00, F25J2220/62, F25J2270/04
European ClassificationF25J1/02A, F25J1/00