US 3183871 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 8, 1965 o. REDER 3,183,871
SPEED BOAT WITH UNDERWATER WINGS Filed Aug. 13. 1962 3 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR 0770 RE 05 I? y 1965 o. REDER 3,183,871
SPEED BOAT WITH UNDERWATER wmes Filed Aug. 13, 1962 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 ll 2 1 I WL n f 8 WL4' INVENTOR arra RED/5R May 18, 1965 o. REDER SPEED BOAT WITH UNDERWATER WINGS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INV EN TOR OTTO REDER United States Patent ,183,871 SPEED BOAT WITH UNDERWATER WINGS Otto Reder, Bremen-Lesum, Germany, assignor to Weser Flugzeughau G.m.b.H., Bremen, Germany Filed Aug. 13, 1962, Ser. No. 216,630 Claims priority, application Germany, Aug. 28, 1961, W 30,621 4 Claims. (Cl. 11466.5)
docking in harbors and the like, to be tilted out of the position for the high speed operation so as to be completely out of the water. The propellers required for high speed travelling and mounted on the supporting columns or underwater wings will then be tilted out of the water together with the supporting columns. T-here .Itore, it is necessary to provide suitable propellers and additional drives for shallow waters which propellers and drives are mounted on the hull.
It is, therefore, .an object of the present invent-ion to provide a speed boat of the above mentioned general type, which will overcome the drawbacks outlined above.
It is another object of this invention to provide a speed boat with underwater :wings which will have an increased versatility.
These and other objects and advantages ofthe invention will appear more clearly from the following specification in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective View of a submersible speed boat which when travelling at high speed, has the hull above the water with the water wing submerged.
BIG. 2 illustrates the same boat with approximately horizontally tilted supporting columns and with the hull of the craft immersed and travelling at per-iscope depth.
LRIG. 3 is a rear view of the speed boat shown in F165. 1 and 2.
FIG. 4 illustrates a non-submersible ship as seen from the rear with the tiltable supporting columns in different positions of operation.
FIG. 5 shows on a scale larger than that of FIGS. 1 to 4 a propeller drive extending through the supporting column joint.
The speed boat according to the present invention is characterized primarily in that the supporting columns are laterally tiltable on the hull of the craft from a lower vertical position into a horizontal position, or be yond, while means are provided for arresting said supporting columns in a plurality of positions of operation and while the drive of the propulsion means extending through the columns will be assured in any tilted position of the supporting columns. No definite angular positions are required. The tilting operation may :be eflected over a range of up to 180' in a continuous or steady manner, and the respective tilted position may be adapted to the respective requirements. In this way, also in the underwater range of operation of the craft some preferred positions of operation are obtained as will be evident from the drawings. A speed boat of this type may be designed as a surface craft or as a submarine.
According to a further development of the invention, in addition to the water wings being provided with trailing edge ailerons or rudder flaps, the supporting columns are provided with trailing edge ailerons or rudder flaps as well and are tiltable into such a position of operation that they will act as wings while the water wings proper take over and perform the function of the rudders.
Furthermore, a control shifting device is provided for actuating the rudder flaps, said control shifting device being coupled to the tilting movement of the supporting columns in conformity with the tilting angle of the latter so that the shift-over of the control conduits from control of the column ailerons or flaps to control of the water wing flaps or ailerons for the respective required rudder function will be elfected automatically.
If the supporting columns have been tilted into such a position of operation that they act as wings, and if the rudder flaps of the supporting columns are adjusted for negative lift, it is advantageous to give the supporting columns a negative dihedral angle. In this Way, a transverse stabilizing .efiect is obtained because the entire surface brings about a stronger negative lift than the projection inherent to the V-position.
If it is desiredwith certain ship constructions to produce a stronger negative lift, the supporting columns may from the very start be connected to the'hull in such a way that when occupying a position of operation in which they act as wings, they will have a negative angle of incidence. If particular value is attached to a lift effect, a positive angle of incidence is to be selected.
The .water wings may by corresponding suspension and kinematics likewise be given a positive or negative angle of incidence which may be adjusted at random or in a steady manner. The supporting columns .and the water wings according to the present invention make it possible in the lower vertical position of the supporting columns to combine each pair of water wings to a single wing. In this way an improved aspect ratio will be obtained.
The combination of each pair of water wings to a single wing does not mean that the wings have to be positively interconnected or coupled together by bolts, locks, etc. Already the mere abutment of the inner edges of the wings-even if a slight gap remains therebetweenbrings about an improved wing aspect ratio.
It will not be necessary any longer to provide propulsion means on the hull of the ship but instead driving means such as propellers carried at the ends of the supporting columns or on the water wings only will suflice. It is, of course, also possible instead of propellers to provide jet drives. If propellers are used a transmission has to be provided which will be able to drive the propeller in any tilted position of the supporting columns. The transmission according to the inventon may consist of two coaxially spaced intermediate gears located on the axis of tilt of the respective support columns. One driving and one driven gear mesh with two intermediate gears. This gearing arrangement makes possible a compact space saving construction which maintains the driving connection in all tilted positions of the support column. The occurring forces are low and can easily be mastered.
Furthermore, adjusting means may be provided for varying the propeller pitch. Such adjusting means may be of any standard construction, for instance of the con struction disclosed in German Auslegeschrift No. 1,115,- 607 dated October 9, 1961.
Referring now to the drawing in detail, FIGS. 1 to 3 illustrate a craft for both surface and submerged operation and having a hull 1, while FIG. 4 shows a non-immersible speed boat, for instance a stepped and keeled hydroplane. The hull 1 or 1' has two front joints 2 and one or two rear joints 2'. Pivotally connected to said joints 2, 2' are pairs of supporting columns 3, 3. These supporting columns are equipped with ailerons or rudder flaps 4 and 4. Mounted at the lower end of the supporting columns are water wings 5 and 5' with ailerons or rudder flaps 6 and 6'. The front supporting columns 3 are equipped with a housing '7 for a control transmission and with a driving propeller 8 which may be designed as tractor or pusher propeller. Also the rear supporting column ends may be equipped with propulsion means (not shown in the drawings). Instead of a propeller drive, also a suitable flow or jet drive may be employed.
The vertical or nearly vertical position of operation of the pairs of supporting columns 3 and 3 (FIG. 1) preferably, and usually, serves for the high speed travel with the hull of the craft above the surface of the water but may also be employed in sufficiently deep waters when the craft is travelling with the hull in submersed condi' tion. In this way there is made possible a very fast change over from high speed surface travel to travel in submersed condition and vice versa. During high speed travel over water, the entire lift is produced dynamically by the water wings and 5. The ailerons or rudder flaps 6 and/ or 6 which may be actuated manually or by auxiliary means or by an automatic control will with the supporting columns 3 and 3 occupying the position shown in FIG. 1, control the ship in pitch, heave, and roll during both surface and submerged travel, whereas the rudder flaps or ailerons 4 or/ and 4 will serve as directional rudders. Furthermore, the Water wings 5 or/ and 5' may be so suspended that the angle of incidence thereof may be changed positively or negatively. In this way, a control is obtainable solely by the angular movement of the fins 4 or/ and 4 solely by changing the angle of incidence of the water wings 5 or/and 5' or by the combination of the two possibilities.
When travelling with the hull on the surface in shallow waters and also when travelling with the hull submerged, the supporting columns 3 and 3' may be tilted on the hull into a horizontal or nearly horizontal position (FIG. 2). In this position, the supporting columns 3 and 3' act as wings which, by means of their ailerons or rudder flaps 4 and 4', produce a dynamic lift or negative lift depending on the movement of the flaps 4 and 4 in one or the other direction. The large surfaces of the supporting columns may also at low travelling speed produce such a strong negative lift that the hull of the craft will be pressed under the water without the flooding of submersing tanks.
A further essential advantage at this position of operation consists in that the propeller thrust acts at the level of the center of gravity of :the vehicle so that no strong pitching movements can occur which have to be compensated. I
If it is desired to produce higher negative or positive lift forces, the supporting columns may be arranged to have a negative or positive angle of incidence when extended laterally from the hull, to which end, the joints 2 and 2' would be mounted inclined at a corresponding angle with regard to the travelling direction.
In the horizontal position of operation of the supporting columns 3 and 3', as shown in FIG. 2, the water wings or water supporting surfaces 5 and 5 occupy an approximately vertical position so that by means of their flaps 6 and 6' they act as directional rudders to control lateral movement of the craft. Also in this position, with regard to the control, the possibility described in connection with FIG. 1 is available. A shifting device (not shown), for instance a hydraulically operable control valve, is provided which automatically brings about the changeover of the control conduits through the pivoting movement of the columns as soon as the tilting of the columns to a certain angle has been effected.
When viewing the craft of FIGS. 1 and 2 from the rear as shown in FIG. 3, the boat will, when at rest, immerse up to the water line WLll. In this instance, only small superstructures, and the eriscope or snorkel 19 which produce only a minor static buoyancy extend above the water. This minor buoyancy can, when travelling with these portions of the craft immersed, easily be compensated by the dynamic negative lift of the supporting columns in their operative position B. If it is desired also to be able to submerge the entire hull, including the portions referred to above, when the craft is at rest, only relatively small flooding tanks are required.
When the supporting columns occupy the position shown in solid lines in FIGS. 2 and 3-position of operation Bthe craft travels with the hull submerged to periscope depth with the water line as indicated at WL3. In this connection, it is advantageous to place the supporting columns at negative dihedral angles a and a which position at negative lift will produce a lateral stabilizing eifect.
When the supporting columns occupy their position of operation A (illustrated in dot-dash lines) the craft will travel above the water at high speed as described in connection with FIG. 1 and in so travelling, a water line as indicated at WLZ will be had.
The employment of the present invention in connection with surface ships is illustrated in FIG. 4 for a stepped hydroplane provided with a keel.
With the supporting columns 3 and 3' occupying the position shown in solid lines-position of operation A- the hull of the craft will at high speed be completely lifted out of the water by the water wings or water supporting surfaces 5 and 5 similar to the submarine in FIG. 1. The water line will, at this time, be at W2. It will also be seen from FIG. 4 that the Water wings 5 may be brought toward each other below the center portion of the ship to such an extent that they form a single continuous surface with an improved aspect ratio. The same bringing together of the two lateral supporting surfaces or wings at the front of the craftis also possible.
If the automatic control system which automatically controls heave, pitch, and roll at high speed of the craft should become ineffective, or if for other reasons an autostabilizing hydrofoil configuration is required, it is merely necessary to tilt the supporting columns into the position of operation C indicated by dot-dash lines. As a result thereof, the hull of the craft will be lifted up to the water line WL4. The water wings or water supporting surfaces and the supporting columns both will then represent surface piercing hydrofoil configurations.
In rest condition and also at low travelling speed, the hull of the craft will immerse up to the water line WLl. For travelling in shallow waters, the supporting columns are tilted upwardly on the hull to such an extent that the driving propellers 8 will still be under the Water level as illustrated by dot-dash lines in FIG. 4 and shown in the condition of operation D. In this instance, either the front or rear pair of supporting columns may be tilted completely out of the water as indicated in FIG. 4 (condition of operation D) for the rear pair of supports 3' which are not provided with propulsion means.
When docking in a harbor and for purposes of cleaning or repairing the ship, all of the supporting columns of the craft may be folded upwardly completely as shown in FIG. 4 by the dot-dash lines in position E. Movement of the craft is then accomplished by towing.
The tilting of the supporting columns may be eflfected by any suitable motor, such as a hydraulic motor.
A transmission which makes possible the operation of the propeller in any position of the pertaining supporting columns is illustrated in FIG. 5. The lugs 11 connected to the hull I carry the pivot bolt or shaft 12 having rotatably mounted thereon the joint head 13 of the supporting columns 3 (FIGS. 14). A hollow drive shaft 14 is, by means of splines, connected to the drive pinion shaft 15 and drives pinion 16 which meshes with intermediate bevel gears 17 and 17. The particular advantage of the double mesh of this pinion 16 is seen in the fact that the tooth forces are low, and that the bearingforces are greatly reduced while small dimensions are possible.
which is in double mesh with the lower intermediate bevel gear 23 and a similar bevel gear above the drawing plane. Likewise, the lower output gear 24 is in double mesh with the intermediate bevel gear 23 and the said gear above the drawing plane. Bevel gear 24 drives propeller 8 through shaft 25, which propeller may be designed with adjustable pitch.
The particular advantage of. this drive with double gear mesh is at this point seen particularly in the fact that the control transmission 22, 23, 24 can be designed so as to save considerable space while the housing 7 for said transmission will be given a compact shape so as to offer a minimum of water resistance.
As mentioned above, the supporting columns are tiltable from a lower vertical position into a horizontal position. More specifically, with regard to FIG. 5, the front end of the supporting columns is provided with a gear ring 26 meshing with a pinion 27 driven by a motor 28 which may be an electric motor. By actuation of motor 28, and through the intervention of pinion 27 and gear ring 26, the entire supporting column is tilted about the joint 2.
For purposes of arresting the respective supporting column in its respective adjusted position, a bolt 29 may be employed which is operable by a piston reciprocably mounted in a cylinder 30. That circumferential portion of gear ring 26 which is located opposite the pinion 27 is provided with a number of bores 32 corresponding to the desired number of operative positions of the supporting column. These bores 32 may selectively be engaged by pin or bolt 29. If it is desirable to tilt the respective supporting column, a pressure medium is through pressure lines 31 conveyed to cylinder 30 so that the piston with bolt 29 thereon will be moved toward the left with regard to the drawing whereby the supporting column is unlocked. The supporting column may then be tilted in any convenient manner into the desired position of operation in which it is again arrested by reversing the supply of pressure fluid to cylinder 30 so that bolt 29 will engage the respective bore 32.
As likewise indicated above, for actuating the control means a control device may be provided which is coupled to the tilting movement of the supporting columns in conformity with the tilting angle of the latter so that the shift-over of the control means for the respective required control function will be effected automatically. This shift-over may, for instance be effected electrohydraulically. If the control surfaces are actuated hydraulically through the intervention of a control valve, each position of operation of the supporting columns requires a different position of the control valve, and thus a difierent distribution of the effect of a control movement upon the control surfaces. This respective position of the control valve which corresponds to a certain position of operation of the supporting columns is brought about by electric contacts. At the bottom of each bore 32 there is provided an electric contact 33 which is actuated as soon as bolt 29 is introduced into the bore. For each bore there is provided one contact so that the position of the control valve will in this way correspond to the respective position of operation of the supporting column. Thus, the above-mentioned devices will automatically control the control lines in conformity with the tilting angle of the supporting columns.
It is, of course, to be understood that the present invention is, by no means, limited to the constructions shown in the drawings but also comprises any modifications within the scope of the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. A craft adapted for surface and subsurface operation comprising: propulsion means, a hull and a hydrofoil assembly, said hydrofoil assembly including a plurality of supporting columns arranged in pairs spaced along the hull and each pair of columns including a col- 6 umn on each side of the hull, each said columns having a hydrofoil cross section with the major axis thereof extending in the direction of movement of the ship, controllable ailerons on the trailing edges of said columns and extending to the region of the ends thereof remote from said hull, hydrofoil means supported by each of said columns in the region of the end thereof remote from said hull and extending at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the respective column, said hydrofoil means including ailerons on the trailing edges thereof, means pivotally connecting said supporting columns to said hull for movement of each said column in a vertical plane transverse to the longitudinal axis of the hull and into a plurality of operating positions, said operating positions including a. first operating position of the supporting columns wherein they extend substantially vertically downwardly from the hull and a second operating position of said columns wherein they extend substantially horizontally outwardly from the hull, said hydrofoil means performing as hydrofoils in said first position of said columns, and in said second position of said supporting columns and said supporting columns performing as hydrofoils and said hydrofoil means performing as directional rudders, said propul sion means being carried by at least some of said columns at the extreme ends thereof remote from said hull so as to be submerged in all tilted positions of said columns.
2. A craft according to claim 1 in which said means pivotally connecting said columns to said hull comprises a pivot shaft for each column at the upper end thereof and carried by the hull and extending in substantially the fore and aft direction of the craft, power operable means in the hull connected to each column for rotating the same about the axis of its respective pivot shaft, and lock means carried by the hull and columns engageable in columns in said tilted positions, said positions including a plurality of tilted positions of said columns to lock the columns in said tilted positions, said positions including said first and second positions of the cohunns.
3. A craft according to claim 1 in which said pairs of columns include a rear pair having the said hydrofoils arranged thereon so as to meet when the said rear pair of columns are in their said first position whereby the said hydrofoils form a continuous substantially horizontal hydrofoil element.
4. A craft according to claim 1 in which said pairs of columns include a rear pair having the said hydrofoil means arranged thereon so as to meet when the said rear pair of columns are in their said first position whereby the said hydrofoil means form a continuous substantially horizontal hydrofoil element, said propulsion means being mounted on a forward pair only of said columns and having fore and aft axes substantially coinciding with the axes of intersection of the central planes of the said forward pair of columns and the said hydrofoil means thereon.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,410,875 3/22 Bell 11466.5 1,776,700 9/30 Pegna 114--66.5 2,274,200 2/42 Hill 114-665 2,749,870 6/56 Vavra 114-665 2,906,228 9/59 Wendel 114-66.5 2,914,014 11/59 Carl 11466.5 2,918,029 12/59 Legat ll466.5 2,931,443 4/ 60 Pehrsson 115-4 2,980,047 4/61 Korganoff 11466.5
FOREIGN PATENTS 457,840 6/50 Italy. 526,415 5/55 Italy.
FERGUS S. MIDDLETON, Primary Examiner. MILTON BUCHLER, Examiner.