US 3184186 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 18, 1965 MINORU IKAI ETAL 3,134,186
SPOILER I Filed Sept. 6, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 May 18, 1965 MINORU IKAI ETAL SPOILER 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 6, 1963 Filed Sept. 6, 1963.
M y 1965 MINORU IKAI ETAL 3,184,186
SPOILER s Sh eets-Sheet a PRIOR ART Fig.7. Fig.8.
The Present 9 The convenfionul one Knuqamo JGHOGS womow afiugH spoiier etevution angle elevation United States Patent 3,184,186 SPGILER Minor-u Ikai, Nishi-ku, and Kazuo Arashi, Kita-lru, Nagoya, Japan, assignors to Shin-Mitsubishi Iulrogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Japan Filed Sept. 6, 1963, Ser. No. 307,235 Claims priority, application Japan, Sept. 20, 1962, 37/ 49,882 Claims. (Cl. 244-42) This invention relates to a spoiler, and more particularly to a spoiler of simple construction.
conventionally, in order to improve the performance of airplanes, such as its take-oil performance, etc, it is known to mount a device for increasing the lift force, such as a flap on the trailing edge of the main wing across the whole wing span thereof, with various kinds of spoilers constituting a lateral control system in place of the conventional aileron. However, such constructions have various aerodynamic defects. For instance, in the projection-type spoiler, the etliciency is good at small elevation angles, but the hinge moment characteristic becomes irregular due to the condition of the flap operation. In the plug type spoiler, the main wing with a spoiler provided thereon must have a large cutout in the wing span direction, thereby introducing problems with respect to the strength of the wing. In the hinged flap type spoiler, the efiiciency is low at small elevation angles and moreover the hinge moment becomes particularly irregular when the flap is in the lowered position. In the slot-lip type spoiler there are deficiencies in that the configuration of the slot-lip is limited by the flap device and the characteristic of the hinge moment becomes poor.
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a spoiler without the above-mentioned defects.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a spoiler of simple construction.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a spoiler comprising a spoiler member provided with a projection for effectively separating the air current on the main wing to decrease effectively the lift force of the main wing.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a spoiler which does not decrease the strength of the wing.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a spoiler, having high efiiciency at small elevation angles and hinge moment characteristics which are greatly improved.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide a spoiler which does not disturb the aerodynamic performance of the main wing in the accommodated condition of the spoiler.
Other objects and advantages are effected by the present invention as will be apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a wing with a spoiler member according to a first embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged sectional view of the spoiler member shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged sectional View of a main detail of the structure shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic View of the spoiler operating mechanism;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view of another embodiment of spoiler number of this invention;
FIG. 6 shows sectional views of wings provided with spoilers according to the prior art; and
FIGS. 7 and 8 are respectively characteristic performance curves of the spoiler of this invention and that of the prior art, showing them in comparison with each other.
3,l8l,l8h Patented May 18, 1965 In FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, i is a main wing, 2 is a spoiler member, 3 is a recess to accommodate the spoiler member 2 when retracted and inoperative, 4 is a projection which is provided on the lower part of the leading edge of the spoiler member 2 and which as will be examined hereinafter, has a sharp downward apex to forcedly separate the air current flowing into the lower part of the spoiler member 2 through the gap between the upper face of the main wing 1 and the spoiler member 2 The spoiler member 2 is pivotally supported, by means of a spoiler attach- Inent member (7) at the spoiler hinge 5 to the main wing l with a space between the leading edge 2' of the spoiler member 2 and the wing 1, so that air may be induced through said space between the trailing edge 2. and the main wing 1, when the spoiler member 2 is raised upward from the recess 3 in the main wing l, by rotating around the spoiler hinge 5.
The spoiler operating mechanism may be a mechanism similar to that used for conventional spoilers or ailerons. An example thereof is shown in FIGS. 3 and 4-. In FIGS. 3 and 4, 161 are handles adapted to be operated by the pilots, 102, are chain gears connected to the handles, 163 is an endless cable extending between the chain gears 162 and sprocket 1&5, said cable being tightened by a plurality of pulleys 164. ms is a connecting means connecting the sprocket M5 to the spoiler members 2 and it)? are supporting members interposed in the connecting means.
In the above mentioned mechanism, when one of the handles is rotated in the direction of the arrows in PEG. 4, the endless cable M3 is displaced as shown by the arrow, then the sprocket N5 is rotated around its axis. The rotation of the sprocket M55 is conveyed to the spoiler members 2, through the connecting means 166, and the spoiler members 2 are rotated around the spoiler hinges 5.
In the above mentioned spoiler, when the spoiler member 2 is raised while rotating around the spoiler hinge 5' to assume the spoiler elevation angle, as shown in FIG. 1, a gap appears between the leading edge 2' and the upper face of the main wing it, and the air-current flowing along the upper face of the main wing l is induced through the gap against the lower face of the spoiler member 2. The air-current thus induced against the lower face of the spoiler member 2 is forcedly separated from the lower face of the spoiler member 2 by the projection 4 provided on the lower part of the spoiler member 2 causing on the lower face of the spoiler an area of air-current separation 6, disturbing the air current to reduce its lift force and increasing the drag force to lessen the lift/drag ratio, thereby making the efficiency much higher.
In the spoiler member shown in FIG. 5, for simplicity, its upper face is made of a metal plate 12 having a leading edge 12 and a projection 14 for forcedly separating the air current induced against the lower face of the spoiler member. The projection M is formed on a metal plate, previously bent and having a sharp apex at its lower edge, and is secured by a rivet 14's to said metal plate 12 forming the upper face or" the spoiler member. The operation thereof is similar to that described referring to FIGS. 1 and 2.
As above mentioned, the spoiler of the present invention comprises a downwardly directed projection on the lower part of the leading edge of the spoiler member which is pivoted to the main wing with a space in the forward direction between said leading edge and the wing so as to forcedly separate the air-current induced through a gap between the upper face of the wing and the spoiler member. Accordingly, the spoiler is very simple in construction and there is no necessity of cutting the main wing for fitting the spoiler member therein, thereby causing no lessening of strength of the wing.
FIGS. 7 and 8 show comparatively the rudder efficiency and the hinge moment of the respective spoilers in the present invention and the prior art. It is clear therefrom that, in the present invention, the efficiency at small elevation angles is increased while the characteristics of the hinge moment are greatly improved.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the present invention is not limited to the specific constructions disclosed herein, but covers all modifications and variations within the scope and spirit of the invention as defined in the attached claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A spoiler for the wing of an airplane comprising means defining a recess in the upper surface of the wing of the airplane, a spoiler member, means pivotally connecting the spoiler member to the wing adjacent the end of the recess closest to the leading edge of the wing, said spoiler member having an upper surface with an outer contour corresponding to that of the wing such that the upper surface of the spoiler member is co-extensive with the upper surface of the wing when the spoiler is in lowered position, said spoiler defining a gap with said wing as the spoiler is raised, said gap being formed between the leading edge of the spoiler member and the upper surface of the wing, said spoiler member including a projection extending at least in part normally from the lower surface of the spoiler member at a location adjacent the leading edge of the spoiler member to forcedly separate the air current introduced through the gap between the spoiler member and the upper surface of' the wing when the spoiler member is raised.
2. A spoiler for a wing structure, said spoiler comprising a spoiler member, means hingeably supporting the spoiler member from the wing structure for movement between a raised operative position and a retracted inoperative position, said wing structure having a recess in which the spoiler member is adapted for accommodation in said inoperative position, said spoiler member having a leading edge which in said operative position is in spaced relation with the wing structure bounding said recess whereby air will be induced between the leading edge of the spoiler member and the wing structure and will flow along the lower surface of the spoiler member, said spoiler member including downwardly projecting means at the leading edge of the spoiler member to forcedly separate the air which is induced between the leading edge of the spoiler member and the wing structure.
3. A spoiler as claimed in claim 2, wherein said spoiler member includes an upper plate having an upper surface constituting the upper surface of the spoiler member, said downwardly projecting means including a downwardly extending plate secured to said upper plate and having a sharp lower edge.
4. A spoiler as claimed in claim 1 wherein said projection is directed at least in'part downward with respect to the direction of air current when the spoiler member is raised.
5. A spoiler for a wing structure comprising a spoiler member pivotally secured to the wing structure with a space in the forward direction from the leading edge of the spoiler, the spoiler member being comprised of an upper metal plate forming the spoiler upper face and a projection constituted of a metal plate secured to the upper metal plate and having a sharp apex at its forward edge for forcedly separating the air current inducted onto the lower face of the spoiler member.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,026,482 12/ 3 5 Mattioli 244-40 2,041,688 5/36 Barnhart 244-42 2,791,385 5/57 Johnson 244-42 2,852,211 9/58 Xenakis 24442 MILTON BUCHLER, Primary Examiner.