US 3185219 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 25, 1965 G. G- GRIMMER ETAL SHIFTING TOOL FOR VALVES Original Filed June 23. 1958 Fig. 3
INVENTORS Harry B. Schramm BY George G. Grimmer United States Patent O 3,185,219 SING TOUL FOR VALVES George G. Grimmer, Dallas, Tex., Harry B. Schramm, deceed, late of Dallas, Tex., by Josephine Schramm, enecutrix, Dallas, Tex., assignors, by mesne assignments, to ts Engineering Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Original application .lune 23, B58, Ser. No. 743,646, now Patent No. 3,160,452, dated Aug. 13, 1963. Divided and this application Nov. 9, 1962, Ser. No. 252,549
6 Claims. (Cl. 16o-215) This invention relates to well tools and more particularly to gas lift valves and to nipples connectable in a well tubing string for use with such gas lift valves. This application is a division of application Serial No. 743,646 filed June 23, 1958, now Patent 3,100,452. An object of the invention is to provide a gas lift valve which is removably disposed and locked in position in a well pipe and which may be shifted from one position to another in the well pipe without being released from locked position in the pipe for selectively directing the flow of lifting gas into the well pipe to the gas lift valve directly into the well pipe bypassing the valve.
An object of the invention is to provide a gas lift valve and a ported landing nipple in which the valve is removably positionable, and wherein the gas lift valve is shiftable without removal from the nipple between a first position in which the gas lift valve is disposed adjacent the port of the nipple to direct any uid fiow through the port and through the valve and a second position in which the gas lift valve permits unobstructed fluid flow through the port into the flow passage of the nipple.
Another object of the invention is to provide a landing nipple of the character described wherein the landing nipple is provided with a valve-receiving pocket laterally displaced from bore or flow passage of the nipple and of the bore of the well pipe in which the nipple is installed to provide a continuous unobstructed bore through the well pipe.
A further object of the invention is to provide a landing nipple of the character described in which a gas lift valve installed therein may be moved by means of customary flexible line methods and means longitudinally in the nipple between the positions previously described.
A still further object is to provide a landing nipple of the character described wherein a sleeve is slidable longitudinally in the nipple to move the gas litt valve between the first and the second positions in the nipple, the sleeve being slidable by means of a customary flexible line operated mechanism.
Still another object is to provide a landing nipple of the character described wherein a sleeve slidable therein is releasably restrained in its two extreme positions.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a landing nipple and a gas lift valve removably positionable therein of the character described wherein the Valve is movable longitudinally in the nipple by the application of a direct upward or downward force thereto.
Another object is to provide a shifting or moving tool having means engageable with a sleeve for shifting the sleeve longitudinally in a landing nipple, the shifting tool being releasable from engagement with the sleeve after the sleeve has been shifted.
Additional objects and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent from the reading of the following description of devices constructed in accordance with the invention, and reference to the accompanying drawings thereof, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a view, partly in elevation and partly in section, showing :a ported landing nipple in accordance with the invention installed in a string of a well pipe or tubing having a gas lift valve positioned in its pocket of nipple and a shifting tool in position in the movable sleeve, the sleeve and valve being in position to confine any flow through the ports of the nipple to the gas lift valve;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged view, similar to FIGURE 1, showing details of the shifting tool and the lower end of the landing nipple;
FIGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE 2, showing the sleeve and gas lift valve moved to a position wherein the valve does not obstruct the free flow of iiuids through the ports ofthe nipple; and,
FIGURES 4 and 5 are sectional views taken on the lines 4 4 and 5 5 of FIGURE 2.
Referring now to FIGURES 1 through 5 of the drawings, the numeral 10 refers to a landing nipple which is threadedly connected in a string of well pipe or tubing 11. The landing nipple is enlarged intermediate its ends and is provided with a tubular pocket 12 laterally displaced from the bore through the well pipe. An upper eccentric fitting 13 and a lower eccentric fitting 14a provide for the proper displacement of theV pocket from the bore of the well pipe and for the alignment of the sections of well pipe above and below the landing nipple to establish :an unobstructed passage through bore or flow passage 14 of the nipple unrestricted below the diameter of the well pipe.
A plurality of lateral ports 15 through the outer Wall of the pocket provide fluid communication between the exterior of the nipple and the interior of the pocket. A gas lift valve 16 is removably positioned in the pocket and is provided with upper and lower packing means 17 and 18 which are spaced apart to seal on either side of the lateral ports of the pocket. When the packing means seal on either side of the lateral ports, any flow through the ports is controlled by the gas lift valve 15.
The gas lift valve is provided with a fishing neck or head 19 at its upper end by which it is lowered into and installed in the pocket by means of the usual iiexible line apparatus. An annular latching ange 20 adjacent the lower end of the valve is provided for engagement by a latch means 21 in a manner to be more fully hereinafter described.
The lower part of the bore of the lower eccentric fitting is enlarged, and a sleeve 22 is positioned therein for longitudinal sliding movement. A lower sub 23 is welded in the lower end of the bore of the lower eccentric fitting to provide the connection with the tubing 11 and to limit downward movement of the sleeve in the fitting. Upward movement of the sleeve is limited by its engagement with a downwardly facing shoulder 24 in the bore of the lower eccentric fitting.
A resilient latch arm 25, welded or otherwise affixed to the sleeve, extends upwardly from the sleeve toward the lower end of the pocket and is aligned with the inner wall thereof. The latch ann extends upwardly between the legs 26 of a U-shaped guide channel 27, the ends of the legs being welded to the inner wall ofthe nipple below the pocket to maintain the latch arm in proper alignment with the pocket. The transverse member 28 connecting the ends of the legs of the guide channel serves as a stop member to limit lateral movement of the latch arm away from the pocket. A lateral pin 29 extends between the latch arms to restrain the latch arm from movement toward the pocket and cooperates with an upper protrusion 39 on the outer surface of the latch arm to form a detent means to hold the sleeve and latch arm in its lower position, the lateral pin deflecting resiliently to allow the protrusion 31B to pass the pin on the application of a sufiicient longitudinal force to the sleeve. The sleeve and latch arm, on movement to the lowennost position in the nipple, are thus releasably held in the lowermost position against inadvertent movement therefrom. A similar lower protiusion 30a on the latch arm coacts with the lateral pin to releasably hold the sleeve and the latch arm in the uppermost position against-inadvertent movement therefrom when the sleeve is moved to the uppermost position.
The upper face of the latch means is provided with a latching notch or groove 31 in its outer face which engages the latching flange of the gas lift valve to lock the gas lift valve to the latch means. The upper face of the latch means is downwardly and outwardly beveled at 32 for engagement by the latching flange of the gas lift valve as the valve is inserted into the pocket so that the flange cams the latch means away from the pocket to :allow the latching flange to enter the latchng groove. The upper face 33 of the latching flange is slightly beveled downwardly to provide a cam to deilect the latch means away from the pocket on the application of a certain upward force to the gas lift valve, thereby allowing the valve to be disengaged from the latch groove or recess of the latch means on upward movement of the valve. With the latch means disengaged from the valve, the valve can be removed upwardly from the pocket and from the well.
The gas lift valve is thus locked in position in the pocket by means of the latch means 21 attached to the sleeve V22. When the sleeve is in the upper position as shown in FIGURE 2 the packing means 17 and 18 are positioned to seal above and below, respectively, the lateral ports 15 of the pocket, thereby directing any flow through the ports into the gas lift valve, thence into the pocket 12 and upwardly into the flow passage 14 of the nipple.
The gas li-ft valve is of any suitable design, for example the type shown in the patent to Bryan, 2,828,698, and is therefore not described in detail.
When the sleeve is moved to the lower position as shown in FIGURE 3, the upper packing means 17 is moved out of sealing engagement with the pocket above the lateral ports and into alignment with an internal annular recess or groove 34 in the pocket into which the ports 15 open. With the valve thus positioned in the pocket, a ow course is provided from the lateral ports upwardly around the upper packing means and around the upper end of the valve through the upper end of the pocket into the flow passage 14.
The sleeve 22 has an internal annular groove 35 which is beveled at its upper and lower ends for engagement by a suitable shifting tool so that the sleeve and consequently the gas lift valve may be moved longitudinally in the nipple between the upper and lower positions.
A shifting tool, designated generally by the numeral 40 is lowered by means of the customary llexible line 41 and flexible line operated tools 42 which tools include a set of stroke jars 43 for delivering upward or downward jarring blows to the shifting tool.
The shifting tool includes a central mandrel 44 which is attached to the lower end of a fishing neck 45 which is in turn attached to the flexible line operated tools. The intermediate section 46 of the mandrel is reduced in diameter from the diameter of the enlarged or upper portion 46a and a tapered shoulder 47 is provided at the point of reduction of the intermediate section. The lower section 48 of the mandrel is further reduced in Vdiameter and is threaded into a locking washer 49 and a lower sub 50.
A tubular body 51 is provided above the locking washer 49 and loosely surrounds the mandrel. A catch dog holder 52 is disposed on the lower section of the mandrel for limited sliding movement between a lower position abutting the upper surface of the locking washer and an upper position abutting a downwardly facing annular shoulder 53 of the mandrel. A plurality of catch dogs 54 are swingably mounted at their lower ends in corresponding longitudinal slots 55 in the dog holder, and their upper ends are biased outwardly bythe dog springs 55. The upper ends ofthe dogs protrude outwardly and upwardly through corresponding slots 57 in the body when the body is ink a lower position abutting the locking washer 49. A snap wire 58 is carried on the outer surface of the dog holder for engagement in an internal groove 59 of the body to retain the body in the lower position.
A compression spring 60 is disposed in the body and abuts' the upper end of the dog holder and the lower face of a bearing washer 61 which engages an inturned annular flange at the upper end of the body, the spring urging the body upwardly relative to the dog holder against the restraining action of the snap wire in the groove 59.
A tubular shifting key carrier 62 is slidably positioned on the mandrel 44 above the tubular body 51 and carries a plurality of locking or shifting keys 63 in corresponding key slots 63a provided in the carrier. The keys are movable laterally in the key slots between inner retracted positions and outer projecting positions, the outward Vmovement of said keys being limited by retaining ears 64 on the ends of the keys which engage the carrier.
Upward movement of the tubular body 51 and the key carrier 62 is limited by the engagement of the carrier with the lower face of -an annular collar 65 which is secured by means of a pin 66 to the upper part of the mandrel. The upper face of the collar abuts the lower end of the fishing neck to form a solid metal-to-metal contact therebetween. Y
The shifting tool is assembled with the catch dogs 54 moved inwardly against the biasing force of the dog springs 56 and the tubular body moved against the resiliency of the compression spring to its lower position around catch dogs to abut the locking washer, the slots 57 in the body being aligned with the catch dogs so that the upper end of the dogs protrude through the slots. The dog carrier is retained in its upper position engaging the shoulder 53 on the mandrel by the engagement of the snap wire 58 in the internal groove 59 in the body.
The intermediate reduced section of the mandrel is then positioned behind the locking or shifting keys, the reduced section permitting the keys to move inwardly to retracted position. As the shifting tool is lowered through the tubing string and the landing nipple, the upper ends of the catch dogs are biased into contact with the walls of said tubing and landing nipple and are cammed inwardly on meeting obstructions. The beveled shoulders 63 of the keys cam them inwardly toward retracted positions as the tool meets and passes obstructions.
When the shifting tool descends into the landing nipple 10 to a position wherein the dogs 54 are positioned below the lower sub 23, the shifting tool is raised, and the catch dogs engage the lower end of the lower sub since they then protrude into the recess formed at the coupling 67.' An upward pull on the mandrel then causes the snap wire 5S on the dog holder 52 to be disengaged from the groove 59 in the body, and the compression spring 60 moves the dog holder downwardly against the locking washer 49 and simultaneously urges the tubular body 51 upwardly.
Upward movement of the tubular body causes the lower edges of the slots 57 to engage the catch dogs and cam the dogs inwardly against the bias of the dog springs, the dogs thus being retracted within the body. As the body is moved upwardly on the mandrel, the tapered shoulder 47 of the mandrel engages the inner surfaces vof the shifting keys to cam the keys outwardly toward projecting position.
As the upward movement of the shifting tool is continued, the keys 63 enter the recess 35 in the sleeve 22, whereupon the relative movement between the body and the mandrel is completed, the upper section 46a of the Vcarrier is near the lower end of said tool. member 49 then engages the lower end of the shing -neck 45 and the annular collar 65 is abutted by the upper Yend of the lower sub Si). The catch dogs and the dog 'springs are removed by driving out the dog pivot pins mandrel being positioned behind the shifting keys and 'abutting the inner surfaces of said keys to retain them in projecting position.
Downward jarring blows are then delivered to the shifting tool by means of the liexible line and the stroke jars 43 to move the sleeve 22 downwardly in the housing from the position shown in FIGURE 2 to that shown in FIGURE 3, the jarring blows being transmitted through 'the fishing neck 45, the collar 66 and the keys 63 to the sleeve. The protrusion 3i) and the lateral pin 29 engage one another to hold the sleeve in its lower position in the manner already noted. The gas lift valve is thus moved from the position directing llow from the ports of the nipple through the valve (FIGURE 2) to the position in which said ow through said ports is directed upwardly around the gas lift valve through the pocket 12 of the landing nipple (FIGURE 3) into the bore or flow passage 14 thereof. Y
The shifting tool may be removed by an upward pull thereon, the mandrel initially being moved upwardly relative to the body and the shifting keys against the biasing force of the compression spring. As the mandrel is moved upwardly relative to the keys, the reduced intermediate section 46 of the mandrel is positioned behind the keys, thus freeing the keys for inward movement. The upper shoulders 69 of the keys are beveled so that they are cammed inwardly on contact with the beveled upper edge of the recess 35. The shifting tool is thus removed from the landing nipple and from the tubing string leaving the gas lift valve in the lower position shown in FIGURE 3, upward movement of the sleeve 22 and of the valve being restrained by the engagement of the protrusions or boss 30 with the pin 29.
When it is desired to move the sleeve to the upper position (FIGURE 2) in which the gas lift valve is located to direct the flow of fluids from the ports 15 of the pocket through said valve, the shifting tool is altered as will now be described.
The mandrel 44 of the shifting tool, together with the locking washer 49, the catch dog holder 52, the body 51, the compression spring 60, the bearing washer 61, the key carrier 62, the keys 63, the collar 65 and the pin 66 `are removed as a unit from the iishing neck 45 and from lthe lower sub 50. The mandrel and the attendant mem- Vbers are turned end-for-end and re-connected to the lishing neck and to the lower sub so that the catch dog holder is near the upper part of the shifting tool and the key The locking 70 by which the dogs are attached to the dog holder, and the snap wire 58 is removed from the dog holder as it is not now desired to latch the body to the dog holder.
The compression spring urges the body downwardly on the mandrel and thus urges the key carrier and the -keys downwardly around the enlarged portion 46a of the mandrel so that the enlarged portion abuts the inner surfaces of the keys to hold the keys in projecting position.
The key carrier abuts the collar 65 which limits the downward movement of the carrier on the mandrel. The diameter of the upper portion 71 of the lower sub is the Same as that of the enlarged portion 46a or" the mandrel, that the intermediate section 72 of said lower sub is -reduced, and that an enlarged lower head 73 of diameter i greater than that of the upper portion is provided on the lower end of the lower sub. The purpose of this conguration of the lower sub will be explained more fully hereinafter. Y
Manifestly, the key carrier and the body may be moved upwardly on the mandrel against the force of the compression spring so that the reduced intermediate section 46 of the mandrel is positioned behind the shifting keys so that the keys are freed for inward movement to retracted positions. When the tool is inserted in the tubing string for lowering therein, the compression spring urges the body and the key carrier downwardly on the mandrel, the keys being cammed outwardly into engagement with the wall of the tubing by their engagement with the tapered surface 47 on the mandrel. The dimensions of the keys and the diameter of the tubing are such, however, that the keys may not move to fully projecting positions, and the carrier is thus prevented from moving downwardly over the enlarged portion 46a of the mandrel. As the tool moves through an enlarged section in the tubing string, such, for example, as the upper section of the landing nipple 10, the keys are freed for outward movement and the carrier and the body move downwardly on the mandrel to the position in which the keys are moved to their fully projecting positions.
As the tool re-enters a similar section of the tubing having a diameter corresponding to the main portion of lthe tubing string, as for example, the sleeve 22, the
beveled shoulders 69 of the keys engagethe upper end of said section to arrest the downward movement of the carrier and the housing. The mandrel is moved downwardly against the force of the compression spring until the intermediate .section is positioned behind the keys whereupon the keys are freed for inward movement, the beveled shoulders 69 camming the keys inwardly.
The keys are cammed outwardly into the recess 35 of the sleeve 22 by the action of the compression spring and the cam shoulder 47 in the manner previously described, and the enlarged section of the mandrel is moved upwardly behind the keys to hold the keys in expanded positions.
Upward jarring blows are then delivered to the shifting tool by means of the stroke jars and the flexible line to move the sleeve and the gas lift valve upwardly from the position shown in FIGURE 3 to that shown in FIG- URE 2. The protrusion 30 and the lateral pin 29 release the sleeve for upward movement on the application of a sui'lcient upward force, as previously noted until upward movement of the sleeve 22, and therefore of the valve, is stopped by the engagement of the protrusion or boss 30a with the pin 29.
Upward jarring blows of greater magnitude then delivered to the mandrel shear the pin 66, and the mandrel moves upwardly relative to the key carrier and the collar until the head 73 of the lower sub engages the collar. The intermediate section of the lower sub is now positioned behind the keys to free the keys for inward movement. The beveled shoulders 68 of the keys cam the keys inwardly, disengaging the shifting tool from the sleeve so that the tool may be removed upwardly from the nipple and from the tubing string. l
The gas lift valve is initially installed in the` pocket of the landing nipple by means of a suitable exible line operating mechanism including a deecting tool (not shown) and is locked in position in the pocket by the latch means 21 in the manner already described.
When it is desired to remove the gas lift valve from the nipple, a retrieving tool (not shown) suitable for engaging the fishing neck 19 of thel valve is lowered by means of the ilexible line andl laterally deflected `in the nipple by means of a deliecting tool (not shown) to engage and grip the valve. An upward pull of suicient magnitude onV the valve disengages the latching ange 20 from the latching groove 31 of the latch means, Vthe beveled upper face 33 of the flange cammingrsaid latch means away from holding engagement with said flange.
.The gas lift valve is thus freed for removal from the nipple and from the tubing string.
It is obvious that a dummy valve or blind valve (not shown) which does not permit ow therethrough can be installed instead of the gas lift valve 16 in which event, when the dummy valve is in the upper position shown in FIGURE 2, ow through the ports 15 is completely closed o, and whensuch dummy valve `is in the aneaala lower position of FIGURE y3 the ports 15 'are opened as previously described to permit flow therethrough.
The foregoing description of the invention is explanatory only, and changes in the details of the construction illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art, within the scope of the appended claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What is claimed rand desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
l. A running tool for shifting a .gas lift valveV in a landing nipple connected in a pipe string and having a laterally offset receiving pocket provided therein, saidY tool including: an elongateA mandrel; a carrier sleeve longitudinally movably mounted on said mandrel; latch means carried by said mandrel and engageable with said carrier sleeve for initially releasably holding said carrier sleeve in a first position on said mandrel; locking means mounted on said carrier sleevek for movement between retracted and expanded positions with respect to the exterior of said sleeve; said mandrel when said carrier means is in said first position on said mandrel allowing movement of said locking means to retracted position; said carrier sleeve being movable longitudinally from said j first position to a second position on said mandrel, said mandrel when said carrier sleeve is in said second position on said mandrel having `means thereon engageable with said locking means to move said locking means to expanded position and to hold said locking means in such expanded position; said latch means extending outwardly of said running tool to engage an obstruction in a pipe string in which said running tool is inserted to release said carrier sleeve for movement from said first .position to said second position; and spring means on said mandrel resiliently urging said carrier means toward said second position.
2. A shifting tool for shifting a ow control device disposed in a housing connected in a well ow conductor longitudinally thereof, said shifting tool including: Van
-elongate mandrel; an elongate tubular carrier sleeve mov- -shifting keys having portions'thereof projecting beyond said sleeve and engageable withV said flow control device for shifting the same in said housing; said mandrel having means thereon disposed when said carrier sleeve is in one position longitudinally of said mandrel permitting said shifting keys to move inwardly of said sleeve to retracted positions; said mandrel having means thereon engageable with said shifting keysV to hold the same in projecting positions when said carrier sleeve is in a second Amovement relative to said mandrel from said first position toward said second longitudinal position on said mandrel; said catch dog means being engageable with a t projection in said Well flow conductor to apply a longitudinal force to said latch means and said mandrel, said -meansreleasably securing said latch-means in said first position with respect to said carrier sleeve being releasable upon the application of a longitudinal force to said latch means freeing said sleeve for movement longitudinally relative to said mandrel from said first position to said-second position on said mandrel.
3. A shifting tool including: an elongate mandrel;
' tubular carrier means longitudinally slidably mounted on said mandrel; locking means mounted on said carrier 'means for movement `between retracted and expanded positions relative theretogsaid mandrel having means disposed when said carrier means is in a first longitudinal position on said mandrel to allow movement of said locking means to retracted position; said mandrel having means thereon engageable with said locking meansA for holding said locking means in expanded position when said carrier means is in a second longitudinal position on said' mandrel; and latch means mounted on said mandrel Vand engageable with said carrier means for releasably `holding said carrier means in said first position and releasable to permit said carrier means to move to said second position on said mandrel.
4. A shifting toolY including: an elongate mandrel; tubular carrier means slidably mounted for longitudinal movement on said mandrel; locking means mounted on said carrier means for movement` between retracted and expanded positions laterally thereof; means on said mandrel disposed when said carrier means is in a first position on said mandrel to allow movement of said locking means to retracted position; means on said mandrel disposed when said carrier is in a second position on said mandrel to engage said locking means to hold said locking means in expanded position; resilient means on said mandrel and engageable with said carrier means for resiliently urging said carrier means from said first longitudinal position on said mandrel towards said second longitudinal positionon said mandrel; and means on said mandrell and coengageable with said mandrel and said carrier means for releasably holding said carrier means in said second longitudinal position on said mandrel wherein said locking means is held in expanded position and releasable to permit movement of said carrier means relative Vto said mandrel toward said first position permitting movement of said locking means to retracted position.
5. A running tool including: an elongate mandrel; tubular carrier means longitudinally movably mounted on said mandrel; locking means mounted on said carrier means for movement lateral thereof between retracted and expanded positions; means on said mandrel disposed when said carrier means is in a first longitudinal position on said mandrel to allow movement of said locking means to said retracted position; means on said mandrel engageable with said locking means to hold said locking means in expanded position when said carrier meansis in a second longitudinal position on said mandrel; latch means on said mandrel engaging said carrier means for releasably holding said carrier -means in `said first position, said latch means extending outwardly of said carrier means to engage an obstruction upon longitudinal movement of the mandrel and carrier means in a well pipe string` to release said latch means holding said carrier means in said first position on said mandrel to permit said carrier means to move from said first position on said mandrel to said second position on said mandrel; and means resiliently. biasing said carrier means toward 4said econd position on said mandrel.
6. A shifting tool including: an elongate mandrel having means for connecting it to an operating means; an elongate tubular carrier sleeve longitudinally movably mounted on said mandrel for movement between first and second positionsrthereon; locking means mounted on said carrier sleeve for movement laterally of said carrier sleeve between retracted and expanded positions; Vlatch means. having releasable holding means co-engageable with said mandrel and said carrier sleeve releasably holding said carrier sleeve in said first position on said mandrel, said mandrel when in said first position relative to said carrier sleeve having means to allow movement of saidrlocking means on said carrier sleeve to retracted position relative thereto; said mandrel having means thereon engageable with said locking means to hold said locking means in expanded position when said carrier sleeve is in said second position on said mandrel; said latch means having means extending outwardly of said 9 Y l@ mandrel and carrier means to engage an obstruction in References Cited bythe Examiner a pipe string in which said shifting tool is inserted to UNITED STATES PATENTS release said releasable holdmg means to release said car- Y Iier sleeve for movement relative to said mandrel from 2,723,677 11/55 Mlddleton et al- 165-224 said first position toward said second position; and spring 5 2,924,278 2/60 Garrett et al. 166-214 means on said mandrel and engageable with said carrier 2,949,963 8/60 MCGOWen et al 166-214 sleeve for urging said carrier sleeve toward said second Y position. l BENJAMIN HERSH, lPrmzary Examzner.