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Publication numberUS3190300 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 22, 1965
Filing dateDec 9, 1963
Priority dateDec 9, 1963
Publication numberUS 3190300 A, US 3190300A, US-A-3190300, US3190300 A, US3190300A
InventorsN Jack S Wear
Original AssigneeDon B Finkelstein
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Portable shelter arrangement
US 3190300 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 22, v1965 J- S. WEARN 3,190,300


BY fi provided the above desiderata.

United States Patent 3,190,306 PORTABLE EHELTER ARRANGEMENT Jack S. Wearn, Redlands, 'Calitl, assignor of twenty-five percent to Don It. Finkelstein Filed Dec. 9, 1963, Ser. No. 329,618 1 Claim. (Cl. 135-5) This invention relates to a portable shelter and more particularly a foldable shelter, collapsible into a convenient form for ease in transportation.

In many applications, particularly in beach, patio, lakeside, or similar recreational areas, there has long been a need for a shelter arrangement that could be quickly and easily set up on the site to provide desired protection from sun, wind, blowing sand, and the like. Such shelters are generally portable and are only temporarily erected at the desired location. For example, people often carry such shelters to beach or lakeside areas and return them to their homes when they are finished so utilizing them. Similarly, when utilized in patios or backyards, such shelters are preferably easily portable to allow utilization of such areas for other purposes when the shelter is not In use.

Thus, there has long been a need for a conveniently portable shelter that provides the desired adequate protection and yet is also easily portable, comparatively light in Weight, economical to manufacture, and comparatively easy to erect from a closed condition, utilized in transporting the shelter, and, similarly, comparatively easy to collapse into the closed position, for transportation, from the erected condition.

Portable shelters of this general type utilized in the past have not, to the best of applicants knowledge, completely For example, such prior art portable shelters often contained comparatively rigid and bulky frame members that did not allow compact folding for convenient transportation and storage, while others were not able to provide a convenient and simple arrangement for opening and closing the portable shelter. Further, no such portable shelters have also provided, in addition to the desired protection from the elements described above, a ground cover for protection and insulation from the particular ground surface, such as sand, upon which the portable shelter may be erected.

Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved shelter.

I It is another object of this invention to provide an improved shelter that is easily transportable.

It is yet another object of this invention to provide an improved shelter that may be conveniently and easily erected from a closed condition and conveniently and easily folded from an erected condition to a closed condition.

It is still another object of this invention to provide a portable shelter that, in the closed position, is formable into a convenient shape for ease of transportation and storage.

The above and other objects are achieved, according to one embodiment of applicants invention, by providing a flexible cover material that has a plurality of pockets extending across the transverse length thereof on one side. Flexible, spring-like and yieldable rib members are inserted, one in each pocket, and each of the ends of the rib members are pivotally connected together in a coplanar array. The flexible cover has a width at the middle thereof substantially greater than the Width at the ends thereof and in general, in the preferred embodiment of applicants invention, in the extended position the cover material defines a doubly curved surface.

A flexible, bendable, spring-like strap member is pivotally and rotatably coupled to the first rib member along the 3,199,300 Patented June 22, 1965 top transverse edge of the cover material and to the last rib member along the bottom transverse edge of the cover material. The strap member has a length substantially equivalent to the width of the cover material between the first and the last rib members at the connection of the strap member thereto and is deformably bendable into an arcuate shape bearing against the inside of the cover material to spread apart the first and last rib members, the cover material thereby spreading apart the intermediate rib members when the shelter is in the open position.

The strap is pivotally rotated away from its position adjacent the inside of the cover material when it is desired to close the portable shelter, andswings into an arcuate form away from the cover allowing the rib members to pivotally collapse into an adjacent condition with each other and with the cover material folded therebetween. In this position of the closed condition the strap member assumes a hoop-like shape opposed to the arcuate rib members and then is rotated into a substantially coplanar alignment with the plurality of ribs that are in the adjacent condition for the shelter in the closed position. The plurality of rib members are then yield ingly bent around the hoop formed by the strap member and the pivotally interconnected ends of the rib members are interlocked therewith to restrain them in the closed position around the strap member. Buckles or other restraining means may be provided to secure the rib members in the closed position and the ends of the rib members adjacent the hoop member.

In another embodiment of applicants invention a base rib member is also pivotally interconnected with the plurality of the rib members and is extendible from a position adjacent the last rib member in the closed position, to a position opposed thereto and substantially coplanar therewith in the open position. A base cloth is coupled to the cover material adjacent the last rib member and has a peripheral pocket for containing the base rib member. The base material thus provides a ground cover for the portable shelter when it is in an open position. In the closed position the base rib acts in a manner completely analogous to the plurality of rib members above described to provide a convenient configuration for ease in transportation and storage.

These and other embodiments of applicants invention are more completely defined in the following detailed description taken together with the accompanying drawings in which similar reference characters refer to similar,

elements throughout and in which:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of one embodiment of applicants invention;

FIGURE 2 is a sectional view along the line 2--2 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURES 3 and 4 illustrate details of one portion of embodiment shown in FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 5 is a front view of the embodiment shown in FIGURE 1;

FIGURES 6, 7 and 8 illustrate the details of other portions of the embodiment of FIGURE 1;

FIGURES 9, l0 and 11 illustrate the various steps in collapsing the embodiment shown in FIGURE 1; and

FIGURE 12 illustrates another embodiment of applicants invention.

Referring now to FIGURE 1, there is shown the structure associated with one embodiment of applicants invention. As shown in FIGURE 1, there is a portable shelter, generally designated 10, that has a flexible material covering 12 and a plurality of supporting rib members 14. The flexible cover material 12 may be of canvas,

plastic, or the like, and is preferably easily foldable into ber 14b, as shown at the connection 20.

ture of applicants invention in'the open position, that is, 7

when it is being utilized as a shelter. A bendable flexible strap member 16 is pivotally and rotationally coupled to the first rib member 14:: of the plurality of rib members at connection 18 and is also pivotally and rotationally coupled to the'last rib member 14b of the'plurality of rib members at connection- 20. that while applicant has shown six'rib memberscomprisinga plurality of rib members 14 in thisembodiment of: applicants invention, any number of rib members may be utilized, depending upon the particular arrangement desired. That is, insome arrangements only the first rib member 14a and the last rib member 14b, may be desired,

It will be appreciated 7 while in others any number of intermediate rib members v 14c-may be provided for intermediate support to the cover material 1 2 between the first rib member 14a and the'last rib member 1411. The first rib member 14a iscontained' along the top transverse edge of the flexible material ,12, and thelastrib member 14b,,is contained along the bottom transverse edge of the flexible material"12.- v The plurality of rib members 14 are pivotally interconnected at their ends as shown at-pivotal connections 22 and 24. These pivotal connections are-explained in greater detail'belowin connection with the description of FIGURES'6, 7, and 8. Supporting legs26'are pro vidediateach of the pivotal connections 22jand 24, and

also at the connection of the strap 16' to the last rib mem- Restraining means, such asthe belts 28 and 30, are providedand coupled to the flexible cover material 12' and are utilized when the portable shelter, 10 is folded; into its closed;

position for transportation. 7

FIGURE 2 is a sectional view through thest ructure of FIGURE 1' and illustrates the-manner of attaching the rib members 14 to the flexible cover 12, and the preferred:

construction thereof. a

'As shown in FIGURE 2, the intermediate ribs- 140 are contained in pockets 32 extending transversely acrossthe' flexible cover material 12 in a transverse spaced apart relationship. The pockets 32 are formed by stitching together the adjacent gores21 forming the cover mate- In this embodiment, where the cover material= rial 12.. V may be canvas, the edges of each atthe gores 21 are doubled back on themselves to provide a reinforcement of thepo'ckets 32 so that'there is a double thickness on-the outside and inside of the cover material 12. 'Each gore comprises a pre-cut section tapering" from the middle to eachend. Such a constructionof the cover material 12 is necessary when the cover material is essentially'nonstretchable; as the preferredform of the covermaterial 12 is doubly curved'and a doubly curved surface is not I However, if a stretchable material," such developable. p 7 asaplastic, forlexample polyvinyl chloride, is utilized, the

doubly curved shape couldbe achieved-in a single piece thereof by suitable forming methods, such asheating andv forming on a pre-shap ed mold. I

In-thepreferred embodiment of applicants invention, the ribs 14 are spring-like and not preformed to an arcuate shape prior. to insertion in the pockets 32. The

curvature of the pockets 32 resistingly curves the ribs 14 intorthe desiredarcuate shape and the spring-like action of the ribs 14 against the cover material 12 imparts rigidity 1 to thestructure 10 inthe open position shown in FIG- 7 It will be appreciated that, if desired, the ribs URE 1. 14imay be preformed to an arcuate shape prior to inser tion in the pockets :32. p 7 W 3 1 When the ribs '14 are formed by the cover material 12 in the-same arcuate shape, then the surface defined by the portable shelter 10 is essentially a sector of the sur face of a body of revolution. 7 However, if there are differences in the exact shape of the arcuate form of the ribs 14, then-the surface formed will not be such a sector. In thepreferred embodiment of applicants invention'the shape of-the portable-shelter 10 is asector of a body Off revolution.

14a and the last rib member 1412 stiffer than the intermediate rib14c, This can be provided easily, when all the rib members714 are made of the same material, by

making the ribs 14a and 14b of a heavier gauge. For example, preferably, all the ribs 14 are formed: from a steel. wire which provides ayielding, fiexible-spring-like bending action to the ribs 14 without permanentdeformar tion thereof during utilizationof the portable shelter 10. The intermediate ribs 14c may be formed fromv a No. 8 gauge and the front rib 14a and last rib 14b formed from a No. 10 gauge. a The stakesor. legs 26 may be inserted, in

the ground/surface to provide greater support thereon.

for the shelter 10.. V H

For convenience, one or more pockets 36 may be. provided, on the interior surface '12, of the cover. material.

12. Such pockets may be utilized for-the convenientstorage of items during utilization of the portable shelter 10.

p the first. rib member 14a and the. last rib member 1412,.

. Theporta-ble shelter 10 is maintained in-the open position shown on FIGURES, 1 and 2 by the action of the strap 16. FIGURES 3 and4. illustrate the-details of the attachment of the. strap 16-to the portable shelter-10 As shown thereon; the strap means.16Iis.pivotally androtatably connected to the first ribmember -14a.-through.

a mounting bracket 38- and is pivotally and rotatably coupled to the last rib member 14b by a similar mounting bracket4t). The connectionof the strap v16 to the first rib, member 14:: is generallyv designatedlS, and the connection of thee-trap 16 to the last rib member 14b,is. generally designated 20. These two connections-are substantially identical. The mounting plates. 38 and 40.generally comprise a body portion 42, rotatably. engaging respectively, and a bracket portion extending therefrom and protruding from the cover material 12.

and 40, for example, by rivets 46. Thus, the mounting plate 38and the mounting platejltl are freeto rotate in the direction indicated by the arrows 48' aboutthe axis of the first rib member 14aand last rib member 14b,

respectively, and the strap 16 is free to pivot about the.

rivets 46 in the direction,indicatediby the arrow 50. In the open position' the, strap, 16 bears 'against'the inside surface 12" of thercoverrnaterial, 12,. and against the pockets .32 containing the intermediate ribs 140., In this position the strap 16 spreads apart the first rib member 1411 from' the last ribmember 14band the cover material 12, so moved by the the spreading 'apart of the firsttrib member 14a and the last" rib member 1412, spreads apart the intermediate rib members 14c, throughaction of the pockets 321thereon. 'I?hus,the-stra1:v-16 preferably has a length equivalent to the lengtth of the covermaterial 12 between the connections 18. and 20; Further,

the strap 16 is also spring-like, flexible andbendable without permanent deformation within the required struc tural arrangement of the portable shelter=10, to achieve the easy opening and easy. closing thereof,and may be formed of steel-sheet, for example, one inchwide and of aninch thick. I

FIGURE 5- is a-partial front view of theshelter lO illustrating the location of the strap 16 thereon. In the preferred embodiment of applicants invention astrap 16-is locate-dat the mid-point of the transverse length,

. of the cover 12 and ribs 14. However, it will .beappreciated that other locations could equally well be utilized for location of thestrap 16.. Thus, 'a pairof straps (not The strap 16 is pivotally connected to the mounting platesBS.

shown) could be utilized on either side of the center to achieve the necessary support, or detents provided in the pivotal connections 22 and 24 to hold the ribs apart in the open position.

It is also a desired object of such portable shelters as the portable shleter 10, that the cover material 12 be removable therefrom so that it may be conveniently washed and clean-ed. In the preferred embodiment of applicants invention removal of the cover material 12 from the ribs 14 may be easily achieved by a small dif ference in the pivotal connections of the rib members 14 between the pivotal connection 22 and the pivotal connection 24. FIGURE 6 illustrates the preferred form of the pivotal connection 22. As shown thereon, there is .a pivot plate 52 provided with a plurality of rib end receiving apertures 54 in a spaced array. The ends of the ribs 14 are inserted through the apertures 54 and bent back upon themselves to form a hook-like portion for securing these ends of the ribs 14 in the pivot plate 52. In this embodiment of applicants invention the pivotal connection 22 is substantially permanent, that is, the ribs !14 cannot be removed from the pivot plate 52 without unbending the hooks thus formed. Further, in the preferred embodiment of applicants invention the pivot plate 52 is planar and the connection of the rib ends thereto are in a coplanar spaced apart array.

A pair of guard plates 58 are provided on either side of the pivot plate 52. Applicant has found it desirable to provide these guard plates so that possible danger to utilizers of the structure 10, such as pinching of fingers and the like, will be substantially eliminated. Further, these guard plates provide protection of the pivot plate 52 and the connection of the end of the rib members 14 therein from inadvertent dam-age thereto. As shown in FIGURE 7, which is a sectional view along the line 7-7 of FIGURE 6, the guard plates are spaced apart a preselected distance from the pivot plate 52 by tubular members 60. A fastening device such as -a rivet 62 secures the assembly of the guard plates 58, pivot plate 52 and tubular members 60 together. Also, as shown in FIG- URE 7, it can be seen that the stake or leg member 26 is pivotally connected on the tube member 60 to allow free swinging thereof.

The other pivotal connection 24 may be made similar to that shown in FIGURES 6 and 7, or, in the preferred embodiment of applicants invention, may be fabricated slightly different to allow removal of the cover material 12 from the ribs 14. This arrangement is illustrated in FIGURE 8. As shown in FIGURE 8, the pivotal connection 24 is similar to the pivotal connection 22 and comprises a pivot plate 52', a pair of spaced apart guard plates 58' and a pair of tube members 69', all of which are similar to the structural items of the pivotal connection 22 illustrated in FIGURES 6 and 7. The pivot plate 52' has rib-receiving apertures 54 therein in a spaced apart coplanar array similar to the aperture 54 arrangement on the pivot plate 52. The ends of the rib members 14 are inserted through the rib end receiving apertures 54' but are only bent in a U-shape rather than into a complete hook as achieved in the pivotal connection 22. By achieving just this U-shaped for the connection of the ribs 14 to the pivot plate 54', by flexing the rib members 14, and moving the pivotal connection 24 around the ends of the rib members 14, the rib members 14 may be removed from the apertures 54'. The cover material 12 may then be slid off the rib members 14 for washing or replacing if necessary, with a new cover material. It will be appreciated, however, that both the pivot connection 22 and the pivot connection 24 may be made identical in either the form shown in FIGURES 6 and 7, or the form shown in FIGURE 8, depending upon the particular application desired.

Further, it will be appreciated that many other arrangements for providing the guards =58 spaced from the pivot plate 52 may be provided other than that shown in FIG URES 6 and 7. Thus, for example, bell-shaped washers (not shown) may be utilized to provide the functions of both the guard plates 58 and the tube members 60, or tabs may be suitably bent out of the plane of the pivot plate 52 and guard plates 58 to spacially separate guard plates 58 from the pivot plate 52. It is only necessary that the particular arrangement utilized space the guard plate 53 far enough from the pivot plate 52 to allow free pivotal motion of the rib members 14 therein.

Applicant also prefers that the cover material 12 terminate, in the transverse direction, as shown on FIG- URE 1, a pre-selected, spaced distance from the pivotal connections 22 and 24. Applicant has found that this minimizes the chance that the cover material 12 might be torn or otherwise damaged during the pivotal opening and closing of the portable shelter '10.

One of the advantages of applicants improved portable shelter 10 is that it may be conveniently opened and closed, and, in the closed position, easily transportable. FIGURES 9, 10 and 11 show the various steps in closing the portable shelter 10 from the open position shown in FIGURE 1. As shown in FIGURE 9, the first step is that the strap 16 is moved outwardly from its position adjacent the interior surface portion 12' of the cover material 12 into a hoop-like shape opposed to the curvature of the rib members 14. In achieving this configuration the strap 16 moves pivotally on the rivets 46 in the connections 18 and 20, as shown in FIGURE 3, and the mounting plates '38 and 40, respectively, rotate about the first rib member 14a and the last rib member 14b. This permits the collapsing of the rib members 14 together into an adjacent position, as shown in FIGURE 9, with the cover material 12 bundled between the rib members 14. The leg members 26 may be rotated into alignment with the transverse direction of the cover material 12 so they do not protrude therefrom.

FIGURE 10 shows the second step of the closing of the structure 10 and the strap 16, in this step, is pivotally rotated :on the rivets 46 into a hoop tangential to the arouate curvature of the rib members 14, bringing the pivotal .and rotational connections 18 and 20 into close juxtaposition. The strap 30 is then fastened around the bundled together cover material 12 and rib members 14 at approximately the center thereof to hold them in this position.

FIGURE 11 shows the final position of the folded portable structure 10 when it is closed into a convenient package for easy transportation. From the position shown in FIGURE 10 the pivotal ends 22 and 24 are moved upwardly around the hoop formed by the strap 16 and interlocked therewith as shown. The strap 28 is then fastened around the ends of the rib members 14 adjacent the pivotal connections 22 and 24 and around the strap .16 to hold the structure in the hoop-like structure illustrated.

In utilizing a portable shelter such as that illustrated in FIGURE 1, it is often desirable that there also be provided a ground cover for utilization while the portable shelter '10 is in use. Another embodiment of applicants invention incorporating such a ground cover is illustrated in FIGURE 12. As shown thereon, there is a portable shelter 70 which may be similar to the portable shelter 10 illustrated in FIGURE 1 and includes a cover material 72, a plurality of rib members 74 and a strap member 76. The cover material 72 is similar to the cover material 12 of FIGURE 1, the rib members 74 are similar to the rib members 14 of FIGURE 1, and the strap 76 is similar to the strap 16 of FIG- URE 1. However, in this embodiment there is provided a base rib member 78 sewn in a pocket formed at the periphery of a base cloth 80. The base rib 78 is pivotally connected at pivotal connections 82 and 84, which, respectively, may be similar to the pivotal connections 22 and 24 described above. Thus, the base rib 78 is pivotally connected to the same pivot plate that forms the pivotal connection arrangement for the ribs 74.- If desired, one end ofthe base 'rib 7=8'may be re-" movable from such a pivot plate by an arrangement similar to that shown in FIGURE 8.

The base cloth 80 is coupled'to the cover material 72 by a plurality, for example, of snap fasteners 86,,0r, if desired, the base cloth St) may be permanently secured to the cover material 72, adjacent the last rib member 74b. When provided with the snap fasteners 86' and having the base rib78 removable from at least one ofthe pivotal connections, thebase cloth 89 may be conveniently removed for washing and/or replacement.

In the open position as illustrated in FIGURE 12, the

base rib 78 is formed into a similar arcuate curvature as the ribs 74 by the base cloth Strand lies. in a substantially coplanar arrangement with the last rib member 74b. In the folded position, not shown, the base rib 78 pivots around the connections. to the pivot plates in the pivotal connections 82 and 84 and achievesa posi-- tion adjacent the last rib member 74b. Thus, the base cloth 80- may be utilized or not, as desired, whenthe portable shelter 7tl'is in the open position: as illustrated on FIGURE 12.

.In the preferred-embodiment of applicants invention V the first rib member and the last rib-member are, in the open position, spread apart approximately 90 degrees. As such it will be appreciated'that two of the portable shelters 10, illustrated on FIGURE 1, may be placed adjacent-to each other to provide acompletely enclosed space fora shelter to achieve substantially greater protection from the elements. Thus, two such shelters could serve the function of a more conventional tentfor extended camping or other outdoor activities. Snap fasten-' ers or other similar devices of-atommon nature may be employed to fasten together the two portable, shelters along the topperipneral edge thereof. If desired, however, the shelter 10 of FIGURE 1, for example, may be openable to more than'90 degrees by providing additional gores'zl and rib members 14c. Further, itwillbe appreciated that many variations may be made to the preferred embodiments illustrated. and described herein. Thus, as mentioned, the location of the strap 161 may be moved to positions away from the center of vthe cover 12, and, if desired, more than one such strap could be provided. Similarly, any desired arcua te shape maybe employed in the curvature of the rib members 14 Thus, they need not be in the form of any recognized curve 7 such as a circle, ellipse, hyperbola or the like,'but may be any arbitrarily desired form. 1

This concludes the description of applicants invention.

It will be appreciatedof an improved portable shelter. I that those skilled in the art may find many other variations and adaptations of the preferred'embodiments de-. scribed and shown herein. Therefore, the following claim. isintended to cover allv such variations and adaptations falling within the true scope and'spirit thcreoof. I claim:

A portable collapsible shelter of the kind foldable to.

a closed position and extendible to an open position to form a canopy-like structure comprising, in combination: a plurality of flexible, bendable spring-like rib members of substantially equal length and comprising a first rib member and alast rib member and at least 7 one middle rib member intermediate said first and i said last rib members, and at least said one intermediate rib member having a greater degree of flexibility than said first and said last rib members; a flexible cover material extendible to form a doublycurved surface structure comprising a part of the.

surface of a body of revolution and having a 'plurality of transversely extending rib-receiving pockets on the inside thereof and having a preselected trans verse length less than the length of said plurality of ribmembers and a width at the middle thereof substantially greater than the width at the endsthereof and one of said plurality of rib members removably contained in each ofsaid rib-receiving pockets and formed into an arcuate shape thereby, and'each of the ends of each of saidplurality of rib members extending a preselected distance therefrom;

'means for pivotally'connecting each of the ends of each of said plurality ofrib members each means comprising a pivot plate having a plurality of ribreceiving apertures therein in a preselected spaced array and a first end of each of said plurality of rib members pivotally and substantially permanently contained in said rib-receiving apertures in a first pivot plate ina sequential orderedarrayand the other end of each of said plurality of vrib members pivotally and detachably contained in said rib-receiving apertures in a second pivot plate in said sequential. ordered array to permit removal of said cover material from said plurality of rib members when said. rib members are" detached from said second pivot plate, and. a guard plate on each side of said first and said second pivot plates and spacer means for spacing each of said guard plates a pres-selecteda flexible, bendable spring-like strap means pivotally coupled to said first and said second mounting plates.

for spreading apart said first and said lastrib members inthe open position and yieldingly bendable intoan arcuate curve therebetween adjacent the inside of said cover material for said plurality of rib members in the open position, and; said strap member pivotally movable away from said cover material for allowing said plurality of rib members to pivotintothe closed position and said strap means yieldingly bendable into a hoop-like curve substantially coplanar with said plurality 'of rib members in said closed position, and said plurality of rib, members yieldingly bendable into a hoop-like curve around said strap means in said hoop-like curve in said closed position; i i

a first restraining means adjacent, the said'mounting plates for holdingsaid plurality of rib members and said cover, material in the closed position and a second restraining means for holding said pairs of pivot plates adjacent said strap means, in said closed position;

a fiexible, bendable, spring-like base rib member pivotally coupled to said first pivot plate and pivotally and detachably coupled to'said second pivot plate, said base rib member pivotally movable on said first and'said. secondpivot plates from a first condition adjacent said last rib member in said closed position to a second condition'substantially coplanar and'opposed to said last rib'member'in the open condition.

and. said base rib'rnember being substantially the same length as said plurality of rib members; and a basecloth detachably coupled to said cover material adjacent said last rib member and having a 7 pocket therein for receiving said base rib member along an outer periphery thereof to form said base ribmember into a preselected arcuate shape for providing a groundcover clothin the open position and said base cloth removable from said base rib 9 10 member for the condition of said base rib member 2,266,853 12/41 Dabney 1355 detached from said second pivot plate. 2,543,597 2/51 Peery 135-7.1

References Citeml by the Examiner FOREIGN PATENTS UNITED STATES PATENTS 5 1,040,992 5/53 France. 1,603,084 10/26 Katz 135-33 645,192 5/37 Germany- 2,142,851 1/ 39 Jolly 1357.1 HARRISON R. MOSELEY, Primary Examiner,

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U.S. Classification135/126, 135/906, D21/837, 135/132
International ClassificationE04H15/38, E04H15/00
Cooperative ClassificationE04H15/003, Y10S135/906, E04H15/38
European ClassificationE04H15/00B, E04H15/38