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Publication numberUS3191073 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 22, 1965
Filing dateMar 14, 1963
Priority dateMar 14, 1963
Publication numberUS 3191073 A, US 3191073A, US-A-3191073, US3191073 A, US3191073A
InventorsMooney Lawrence K
Original AssigneeMooney Lawrence K
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Threshold indicator
US 3191073 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 22, 1965 MOONEY THRESHOLD INDICATOR IN VENTOR. 80580?! aap7 Filed March 14. 1963 MLM United States Patent 3,191,073 THRESHOLD INDICATOR Lawrence K. Mooney, Alexandria, Va., assignor, by mesne assignments, to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy Filed Mar. 14, 1963, Ser. No. 265,296 Claims. (Cl. 307-885) The present invention relates to novel and improved electrical detection apparatus and more particularly to novel and improved apparatus of high sensitivity for monitoring a variable input signal for the detection of a predetermined threshold potential.

Various types of conventional trigger circuits are often used to indicate receipt of a signal having a potential in excess of a predetermined threshold level. One circuit, which is commonly used for this purpose, is known as the Schmitt trigger circuit which is a regenerative bistable circuit whose state depends upon the amplitude of the input signal. Due, however, to'a phenomenon known as hysteresis whereby the potential at which triggering occurs depends upon whether the input voltage is increasing or decreasing as it crosses the threshold potential, considerable difiiculty has been experienced in the past in monitoring variable directcurrent voltages. Moreover conventional threshold detection circuits devised in the past have been incapable ofdetecting signals of either polarity in excess of the predetermined threshold value.

It is therefore a principal object of the present invention to provide a novel and improved triggering circuit which monitors input signals which vary at random in polarity and in potential above and below a predetermined threshold potential.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide novel and improved highly sensitive threshold detection circuitry which minimizes hysteresis or backlash as the input signal varies about the threshold potential.

Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by'reference to the following detailed description when considering in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein:

The single figure of the drawing is a diagrammatic view of a preferred embodiment vof the present invention.

As shown in the drawing, the variable direct current input voltage is coupled to the base of transistor T through input conductor 3. The collector-emitter circuit of NPN transistor T extends from the positive direct current voltage supply line 5 through transistor T and through resistor R to the negative direct current voltage supply line 7. The positive and negative voltage supply lines 5 and 7 are also interconnected by the voltage divider circuit that includes the series connected resistor R potentiometer R potentiometer R and rheostat R The junction of the emitter of transistor T with resistor R is coupled at as shown to the junction of potentiometers R and R The variable arms of potentiometers R and R which are mechanically ganged together, are respectively coupled to the bases of transistors T and T Potentiometers R and R are preferably of a vernier heliopot design and as will be more apparent hereinafter thereby permit highly accurate adjustment of the desired threshold level. The collector-emitter circuit of the NPN transistor T in the Schmitt trigger circuit 9 extends from the positive voltage supply line 5 through resistor R through transistor T and through resistor R to its junction 12 with the Schmitt trigger circuit 11. The collector of transistor T is coupled to the base of the NPN transistor T through the resistor R and resistor R The collector-emitter circuit of the NPN transistor T extends from the positive voltage supply line 5 through the parallel arrangement of diode D and the energizing coil 13 of relay K through transistor T and through resistors R and R to the junction 12 with the Schmitt trigger circuit 11. Lamp 14, which indicates the condition of energization of the emitter-collector circuit of transistor T is energized by a circuit that extends from the power supply line 5 through contact 15 of relay K and through the lamp to ground. The emitter-collector circuit of the PNP transistor T in the Schmitt trigger circuit 11 extends from its junction with the Schmitt trigger circuit 9 through resistor R through transistor T and through resistor R to the negative voltage supply line 7. The collector of transistor T is coupled to the base of transistor T through the resistor R and resistor R The emittercollector circuit of the PNP transistor T extends from its junction with the Schmitt trigger circuit 9 through resistor R and resistor R through transistor T and through the parallel arrangement of diode D and the energizing coil 16 of relay K to the negative voltage supply line .7. Lamp 17 which indicates the condition of energization of the emitter-collector circuit of transistor T is energized by a circuit that extends from the power supply line 7 through contact 18 of relay K and through the lamp to ground.

In operation the variable resistor or rheostat R is first adjusted such that the junction of potentiometers R3 and R at '10 isset at ground potential. Due to the choice of magnitude of various parameters of the circuit, the junction of Schmitt circuits 9 and 11 at 12 is also fixed at ground potential. and R are then simultaneously adjusted such that the cascaded Schmitt trigger circuits 9 and 11 fire at desired preset respective positive and negative input potentials in a manner which is described more fully hereinafter. The variable direct current signal which is to be monitored and detected at the preset threshold potential is then'coupled to the based the emitter follower circuit of transistorT through input line 3. The high input impedance of the emitter follower circuit of transistor T serves to minimize loading of the circuit that generates the threshold signal. Unitil the potential of the input signal on conductor 3 reaches or exceeds the preset threshold potential, the flow of current from the positive voltage supply line 5 successively through resistors R R and R to junction point 12 establishes a positive potential and a forward 'bias on the base of transistor T The collector-emitter circuit of transistor T therefore conducts current, the coil 13 of relay K is energized and lamp 14 is deenergized. The flow of current through resistor R develops a positive potential at the emitter of the transistor T that exceeds the positive potential at the variable arm of potentiometer R This establishes a normal reverse bias across the base-emitter circuit of transistor T and maintains transistor T in a normal cut-off condition. In a similar manner, before the input signal on conductor 3 reaches or exceeds the preset threshold potential, the flow of current from the negative voltage supply line 7 successively through resistors R R and R to junction point 12 establishes a negative potential and a forward bias on the base of transistor T The collector-emitter circuit of transistor T therefore conducts current, coil 16 of relay K is energized and lamp 17 is deenergized. The flow of current through resistor R develops a negative potential at the emitter of transistor T that exceeds the negative potential at the variable arm of potentiometer R This establishes a normal reverse bias across the base-emitter circuit of transistor T and maintains transistor T in a normal cut-off condition. When the input signal on line 3 is positive in polarity and exceeds the preset threshold potential in magnitude, a positive pulse is applied to the base of the normally cut-off transistor T This provides a forward Ganged potentiometers R bias across transistor T and energizes its emitter-collector circuit. When this occurs, the resulting drop in potential at the collector of transistor T is transmitted to the base of transistor T and transistor T is cut off. This deenergizes the coil of relay K 'andenergizes the lamp 14 through contact of the relay. When the potential of the input signal subsequently falls below the preset threshold potential, transistor T 'deenergizes, transistor T conducts again, relay K is reenergized and lamp 14 is again deenergized. 1

Similarly, when the input signal on line 3 is negative in polarity and exceeds the preset threshold potential in magnitude, a'negative pulse is applied to the base ofthe normally cut-off transistor T This provides a forward bias across transistor T and energizes its emitter-c01 lector circuit. Whenthis occurs, the resulting decrease in potential at the collector of transistor T is transmitted to the base of transistor T and transistor T 'is cut ofi. This deenergizes the coil of relay K and energizes the lamp 17 through contact 18 of the relay. When the negative potential of the input'signal falls below the preset threshold potential, transistor T deenergizes,

transistor T conducts again, relay K is reenergized and lamp 17 is again deenergized.

The presence of resistors R and R in the emitter circuits of transistors T and T respectively minimizes the hysteresis or'backlash effect in the Schmitt trigger circuits 9 and 11.

Obviously many modifications and variations of the" present invention are possible in the light of the above It is therefore to be understood thatwithin teachings. the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.

What is claimed is:

1. Threshold detection apparatus for monitoring a direct currentinput signal of any amplitude between predetermined positive and negative potentials, said apparatus comprising:

(a) a first Schmitt trigger circuit including a pair of NPN transistors, one of the NPN' transistors of said trigger circuit being normally energized and being deenergized when a predetermined positive potential is applied to the base of'the other NPN transistor; (b) a first indicator device;

(0) means for coupling the first indicator'device to the 1 collector circuit of the said one NPN transistor of the first Schmitt trigger circuit; (d) a second Schmitt trigger circuit including a pair 4 of PNP transistors, one of the PNP transistors of said second trigger circuit being'normally energized and being deenergized when a predetermined negative potential is applied to the base of the other PNP transistor; (e) a second indicator device;

(f) means for coupling the second indicator device to the collector circuit of the said one PNP transistor of the second Schmitt trigger circuit;

(g) a positive DC. potential source;

(h). a negative DC. potential source;

(i) a voltage divider network which is connected across said positive and negative potential sources and which includes a pair of series connected otentiometers;

(j) means connecting the variable arm of one of the potentiometers to the base of'the said other NPN transistor;

(k) means connecting the variable arm of the other potentiometer to the base of the said other PNP tran sistor;

(l) and means coupling the input signal to be monitored to the junction of the series connected potentiometers. V g I 2. The apparatus set forth in. claim 1 wherein each Schmitt trigger circuit includes means for minimizing its hysteresis effect.

3. The apparatus set forth in claim 1 wherein the variable arms of the potentiometers are mechanically;

ganged together. I

4. The apparatus set forth in claim 1 and'further comprising means for'maintaining the potential at the junc-- tion of the series connected potentiometers substantially at ground when no input signal is present.

5. The apparatus set forth in claim 1 and further comprising an emitter follower coupled between the voltage divider network and the input signal.

References Cited by the Examiner V UNITED STATES PATENTS JOHN W. I-IUCKERT, Primary Examiner. ARTHUR GAUSS, Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2911545 *Aug 14, 1957Nov 3, 1959Honeywell Regulator CoSemiconductor apparatus
US2985774 *Aug 27, 1959May 23, 1961Westinghouse Electric CorpPolarity sensing amplifier circuit
US3099000 *May 20, 1959Jul 23, 1963IbmSignal monitor
US3117238 *Aug 25, 1960Jan 7, 1964Bell Telephone Labor IncVoltage detector utilizing opposite con, ductivity type transistors and zener diodes
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3331026 *Feb 28, 1964Jul 11, 1967Crosfield Electronics LtdElectronic trigger circuit peak detecting and inhibiting means
US3351857 *Feb 26, 1964Nov 7, 1967Guillen JohnCircuit for determining the frequency of occurrence of random noise excursions in an intelligence signal
US3404294 *Mar 10, 1965Oct 1, 1968Solartron Electronic GroupPoly-stable transistor circuits
US3464017 *Jun 24, 1966Aug 26, 1969Susquehanna CorpElectrical square wave generating circuit
US3480795 *Jun 15, 1966Nov 25, 1969IbmSample and hold circuit
US3544983 *Sep 30, 1968Dec 1, 1970Susquehanna CorpSignal level detector
US3590281 *Jul 14, 1969Jun 29, 1971Electrohome LtdElectronic latching networks employing elements having positive temperature coefficients of resistance
US3679916 *Jul 17, 1970Jul 25, 1972Landis & Gyr AgControlled hysteresis integrated circuit switching circuit
US4754166 *Dec 3, 1986Jun 28, 1988Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki KaishaReset circuit for integrated injection logic
US5886283 *May 25, 1971Mar 23, 1999The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyDesensitized firing circuit
US9000827 *Dec 1, 2010Apr 7, 2015Abb Technology AbSystem and method for controlling at least two power semiconductors connected in parallel
US20120262218 *Dec 1, 2010Oct 18, 2012Abb Technology AgSystem and method for controlling at least two power semiconductors connected in parallel
WO1989012928A1 *Jun 16, 1988Dec 28, 1989Bosch Gmbh RobertApparatus for detecting the condition of switches on one transmission line
Classifications
U.S. Classification327/74, 327/205
International ClassificationH03K17/30, H03K17/18
Cooperative ClassificationH03K17/18, H03K17/30
European ClassificationH03K17/18, H03K17/30