US 3192098 A
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June 29, 1965 J. 'r. PHILLIPS ROUGH-COAT PLAS'IER PANEL Filed Dec. 8, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fauna alien- (amp one/73 ATTORNEY June 29, 1965 4.1-. PHILLIPS ROUGH-COAT PLASTER PANEL fir 4 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 8, 1958 ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,192,098 ROUGH-COAT PLASTER PANEL James T. Phillips, 500 Park Ave., Kenilworth, Ill. Filed Dec. 8, 1958, Ser. No. 778,898 1 Claim. cum-41 Since man first devised plaster walls and ceilings. for his various habitats, the practice has required first the application of plaster-supporting lath over which is spread a rough coat of base plaster, generally referred to as browncoat, upon which finally is spread a fine-grain finish coat.
Originally, narrow strips of wood were used for lath. Later for certain types of structure metal was used for this purpose. Currently, and for many years past, a product commonly called roc lath is being used almost universally and exclusively for support of the brown plaster base. This rock lath is a lamination of fine-grain plaster between two exterior layers of heavy and somewhat rough, readily-absorbent paper. It usually is marketed in sheets 16" x 48" size.
Regardless of what form of lath is used in building operations, the lath is put up by artisans known as lathers. Once the lath is up, plasterers come on the job first to apply the brown coat and later to apply a finish coat. The procedure is to mix the ingredients for this first coat into the desired consistency for proper spreading over the lath. After the brown coat has cured sufliciently, the same procedure is followed in preparing and applying the finish coat.
In unionized areas, none but authorized lathers may put up any of various kinds of lath, only certified plasterers can apply 'the plaster coats, and only approved helpers can mix and deliver the plaster to the point of its application.
Ever since such a practice was devised, the plastering 'of walls and ceilings has been beset with annoying problems which it is the purpose of this invention to completely eliminate and, in addition, achieve a wall structure equal if not superior to that generally attained by this prevailing practice.
Perhaps the greatest problem encountered in this current and universal plastering procedure relates to the inconveniences and time delays incident to the proper dehydration of the brown coat to a point which will permit safe application of the finish coat. The problem arises from the fact that the brown coat must attain a certain reduction in moisture content before the finish coat can be applied with assurance that itwill constitute an enduring and acceptable structure.
So many factors combine to determine the facility with which this necessary dehydration of the brown coat can be attained. Most prominent among these are the generalclimate, the ambient humidity, the character of the adjacent surroundings such as the presence or absence of closely-placed trees and buildings, and the openings in the building under construction. There are areas and conditions when some form of artificial heating facilities has to be employed in an effort to accelerate the dehydrating process. On the other hand, there are circumstances Which so accelerate dehydration of the brown I coat as to result in such a crystallization of the prime coat as to preclude spreading the finish coat without supplemental treatment of the over-dry base coat.
These several factors often combine to greatly delay operations beyond predetermined schedules formulated to make the most expeditious and economical use of workmen.
Another major problem is the inherent condition developed over the floors and other surroundings by spilled and tread-upon plaster.
In certain less temperate climates, there is the further In a comparatively rece'ntattempt to obviate some of r these problems, resort has been made to a substitute for plastered walls, commonly called dry-wall constructions. This employs large panels (generally 4' x 8) of a plaster core with laminated exterior layers of heavy paper such as is used with the so-called rock" lath. These panels are nailed to the supporting structures and an attempt is made to conceal the lines of panel abutment by the skillful application of a perforate tape overlaying the abutting edges and embedded in carefully-feathered quickly-drying plastic adhesive.
While economical factors have caused the building industry to sanction an extensive use of dry-wall, more generally in dwellings, it is with the awareness thatsuch wall and ceiling structures do not possess the resistance to deterioration, the hazards of fire and, occasionally floods, in certain areas. Moreover, this dry-wall construction tends to facilitate noise transmission over plastered walls.
The main objects of this invention, therefore, are'to provide an improved preform of plaster panel of brown coat character and quality and permitting the subsequent application of a finish plaster coat to attain a wall structure inherently comparable to the now conventionallyplastered wall; to provide an improved mass produce d prime or brown plaster panel deliverable to the job ready for fastening to the conventional supporting structure so as to permit the. immediate application of the finish plaster coat; to provide an improved base plastercoat panel of this kind on a foundation component which insures the integrity of the plaster facing equal if not superior to that of the job-applied brown coat; to provide an improved plaster panel of this kind capable of transportation from the point of production to the point of use free of-all likelihood of damage incident to the normal conditions of transport; to provide an improved plaster panel of this kind which precludes all possibility of shattering during the nailing or otherwise fastening the panel to a supporting structure; and to provide an improved plaster panel of this kind which is economical to mass produce, store, transport and use.
In the adaption of this invention shown in the accompanying drawings:
FIG. 1 isa perspective view of-a section of wall studding to which has been nailed prime-coat plaster panels constructed in accordance with this invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged, corner section of a basic-type prime-coat plaster panel illustrative of this invention;
FIG. 3 is a similar view showing the brown coat applied to a foundation component of conventional. wallboard;;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged corner view of a plaster panel of this kind in which two layers of the prime coat are applied to opposite sides of a foundation core of perforate paper;
FIG. 5 is a similar view wherein two layers of the prime-coat plaster are applied to the opposite faces of a foundation core of wire fabricyand Patented June 29, 1965 prime, or brown coat for plastered building walls, adhered to a stable foundation component either as a backing or as a core, the panel being capable of mass production for delivery to a building for fastening to a supporting structure to'permit the immediate application of a finish plaster coat.
The end purpose of this concept is to make possible the mass production of preformed, hardened, wall-forming panels having all the characteristics inherent in a dried-out wall such as currently is formed by first nailing up lathand then spreading over the lath a traditional brown or initial plaster coat, which, only when it has properly dried out, is ready for the application of the final and finish plaster coat. The attainment of such a purpose will provide the building industry with brown coat plaster panels which can be delivered to buildings under construction as soon as the wall-supporting structures are in place and enable workmen to fasten the.
panels in place and thereby accomplishingtwo signal results; first, obviating the need for putting up lath and applying thereto the brown plaster coat; secondly, permitting the. application of the finish plaster coat as soon as the panels are fixed in place. Thus all of the hereinbefore-rnentioned problems currently plaguing the building industry will be eliminated and the completion ofbuildings can be greatly expedited over the present conventional practice.
A plaster panel embodying the foregoing concept and capable of attaining the indicated purpose comprises, a layer, of dehydrated plaster 11 of predetermined thickness adhered to foundation component 12.
The layer of dehydrated plaster 11 is composed of the ingredient commonly used for the initial, prime, brown or base coat spread on lathed walls and ceilings. Such abase coat of plaster is a mixture of gypsum and an aggregate with enough water to constitute a degree of plasticity which will permit ready spreading in a stable, self-contained condition on vertical and overhead surfaces.
The aggregate may be sand, perlite or vermiculite. The mixture, of gypsum and the aggregate usually are in the ratios of one part gypsum and two to three parts aggregate by volume. In actual practice some contractors are disposed to alter these ratios, seemingly to their economical advantage but likely later to show up in an early deterioration of the structure. However, in the production of plaster panels embodying this invention, the ratio of the gypsum and aggregate always can be controlled so as to insure a product possessing all the characteristics of the dehydrated lath-supported, manually-applied plaster coat formed by the most proficient tradesmen.
The layer of dehydrated plaster 11, for the finished panel of this development, on the side exposed for the later application of a finish coat of plaster, would be between /s" and one-inch thick. Such an exposed layer, to all intents and purposes, would have the same rough surface characteristics of the brown coat plaster conventionally overlaid by plasterers on any of the forms of lath hereinbeforementioned.
The foundation component may be any of several forms-backing or core. FIG. 3 shows the layer of plaster as applied to the conventional paper-faced wall-board 13. FIG. 4 shows layers of plaster 11 and 11' applied to both sides of a perforate paper core 14 with the unexposed layer 11' covered with another sheet of paper 15. FIGURE 5 shows two layers of the prime-coat plaster 11 and 11' applied to a wire fabric core 16, likewise with the unexposed layer covered with a sheet of paper 17.
4. FIGURE 6 shows a layer of prime-coat plaster 11 applied to one surface of a special foundation of a styrenetype plastic material 18.
Panels in any of these forms would be machine-processed in much the same manner as is currently done with rock-lath and wall-board. As with these conventional products, panel-s embodying this invention would be formed in the more-or-less standard size of 4 x 8'. After complete dehydration the panels would be ready either for storing or for delivery to the job where they are to be used. Deliveries to the job, can be made as they are needed and workmen forthwith can secure them in place precisely as now is done with wall-board where that is used. The abutting edges of adjacent panels would have the cracks filled with fresh prime-coat plaster or with a suitable plastic and a perforate tape such as is used with wall-board. However, with plaster panels of this type the sealing of the cracks does not have to be perfected as with wall-board, since these plaster panels are to have a fresh coat of plaster spread over the panels including the joints, which will become completely obscured.
Plaster panels constructed in accordance with this invention can be handled, transported, and secured in place with a facility, and no more loss from damage, characteristic with the currently used Wall-board. As soon as such panels are set in place, the plasterers immediately are able to apply the finish coat.
Variations and modifications in the details of this structure have been shown and it will be understood that other variations and modifications may-be resorted to Within the spirit and coverage of the appended claim.
A factory-produced, dehydrated, exposed, rough-coat plaster panel ready for transport to a building site for anchoring to building studding to form an interior Wall subject to a later'on-the-job application of the finish plaster coating, comprising (a) a foundation component of stable material approximately three-eighths of an inch thickness and not less than four feet square in planar dimension, mounting (b) a layer of a mixture of gypsum and an aggregate in proportions conventional for rough-coat plaster of a thickness approximating that of the foundation component overlaid on one face of the foundation component, and dehydrated to a condition possessing a hardness unalterable by the application of moisture, and exposing a rough surface comparable to that of conventional brown. coat plaster applied to lath, and such as will permit anchoring thereto an on-the-job overlay of conventional finish plaster.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 971,967 5/08 Brock 72-124 1,173,362 2/16 Linkletter 72124 1,355,667 10/20 Haire 50377 1,439,954 12/22 Emerson 154-53 2,687,3259 8/54 Cleary 50377 2,692,496 10/54 Thomas 72124 2,884,779 5/59 Buergin et al 50--413 2,972,559 2/61 Allen etal. 154l39 EARL M. BERGERT, Primary Examiner.
ALEXANDER WYMAN, CARL F. KRAFFT, JOEL REZNEK, Examiners.