|Publication number||US3192589 A|
|Publication date||Jul 6, 1965|
|Filing date||Jul 18, 1960|
|Priority date||Jul 18, 1960|
|Publication number||US 3192589 A, US 3192589A, US-A-3192589, US3192589 A, US3192589A|
|Inventors||Raymond C Pearson|
|Original Assignee||Raymond C Pearson|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (135), Classifications (12) |
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
US 3192589 A
July 6, 1965 R. c. PEARSON 7 3,192,589
SEPARABLE FASTENER Filed July 18. 1960 @Pema United States Patent 3,1925% SEPARABLE FASTENER Raymond C. learson, 23 Grant Ave, East Reckaway, N.Y.
Filed July 18, 1969, Ser. No. 43,594 3 Claims. (Cl. 24-204) This invention pertains to a separable fastener, whose elements are comprised of a plurality of headed studs in a fiexible base, adapted for use on garments and the like and to be connected and disconnected repeatedly by a simple manual manipulation. It is termed hermaphroditic because the fastener elements are alike and the headed studs partake of both male and female characteristics as a multistud and socket fastener.
Fasteners in common use on garments for infants and children, such as, buttons, snappers, zippers, buckles and the like, require that fastener elements be in accurate alignment before interlock can be effected. Small children are noted for their exuberant uncooperativeness while being dressed. The abounding variety of means with which they can disrupt ones every attempt to effect interlock of such fasteners can, at times, make dressing them a most vexing and time consuming chore. It is, therefore, a main object of this invention to provide a fastener needing much less precise alignment of elements for achieving interlock.
Another object is to provide a fastener which is capable of adjusmtent. This provides for take-up of slack, such as in garments. It also compensates for growth in children as more let-out is needed. Apparel, likewise, can be fitted better and more comfortably as adjustments for weather and temperature changes require more or less clothing.
Still another object is to provide a fastener capable of flying start attachments. This is to permit fastening of a childs clothing with only general aiming and partial fastening as a child ebulliently squirrns about, then progressively taking in or letting out slack as dressing progresses. Fastening can thus also start anywhere along its length and progress to either end or both ends simultaneously.
Yet another object of this invention is to have a fastener wherein interlock of the elements can be made in subdued light conditions, or in drakness even, with no other guidence than a general axial approximation of elements by feel and then pressing together.
The accompanying drawings illustrate a preferred form of construction of the invention, which is given by way of example and not of limitation.
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view, to an enlarged scale, of the fastener elements, attached to the closing edges of of a garment, interlocked at the left end, spread Way apart at the right, and in the center, about to be interlocked on closing or disengaged upon opening.
FIGURE 2 is a diametral section of a row of studs along the section line 22 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 shows the appearance of the studs before heading.
FIGURE 4 is one under a heated die.
FIGURE 5 is the invention as a single element strap or band type fastener.
Both elements of the fastener are alike in that they have a plurality of headed studs set in staggered rows in a thin resilient base 11. Attachment to garments, at edges 12, such as by means of flaps 13, may be made by any one of several different methods, of which cementing, sewing, hot pressing or welding are only a few. 7
Each stud is comprised of a shank or post,"10s, having an enlarged head, 1e11, rounded marginally and overhanging the shank.
of stud'heading by upsetting 3,192,589 Patented July 6, 1965 The fastener may be considered as hermaphroditic in that the headed studs partake of both male and female characteristics as a multistud and socket fastener. Each group of four adjacent headed studs (three along the edges) in a fastener element act, in one instance, as a springy multihook fingered socket to receive a stud from the other fastener element. The studs acting as sockets have inherent spring for opening up and snap back to latch onto the opposing studs by virtue of the resiliency in the shank of each stud and of the thin supple base in which the studs are attached. In the other instance, each stud, of both fastener elements, has another function of acting as a penetrating dovetail, wherein the overhanging head interlocks with the heads of the socket forming studs.
All interlocking studs display this dual role of stud and socket formation, simultaneously. Because of this, a fastener element can be a unitary and self suflicient strap or band type fastener by itself, merely by making it long enough to be bent back and fastened upon itself, as indicated in FIG. 5. In one instance the studs, while restricted to the end portions of the strap, are all on one side of the base member, and in another, they may be along the top side at one end and on the bottom side at the other end.
While this invention can be compositely made of metal, textiles, elastomers and other materials, I prefer to utilize non-metallic synthetic organic plastic materials. Among formulations of plastic material known to me as suitable for the intended use of this fastener are polyethylene and vinylchloride. As there is a continuing development of polymeric materials, it is quite logical to assume that other plastics may be equally suitable, as long as they possess: thermo-plasticity for formability; resiliency to permit distortion of shape under strain as required of a separable fastener in normal action; resistance to water, soaps and detergents; non brittleness at low outdoor temperatures; retentivity of molded shape in hot to boiling water. Determining suitability of a material does not require experimenting of an inventive character-routine tests under simulated practical conditions sulfice.
The drawings illustrate the fastener in proper proportion. Dimensions and proportions can very over quite a range, but as a general idea of what is involved, the following specific information is advanced for' one particular size embodiment of this invention (a) pitch or center to center distancebetween adjacent studs in the same row, inch; (b) diagonal pitch or distance between centers of studs in adjacent rows, inch; (c) stud head diameter, inch by inch thickness; (d) stud shank grip or length under head, /s inch; (e) stud shank diameter inch; (f) base thickness, 6 inch.
Interlock of the fastener elements is obtained bysqueezing both together. In a long run fastener, a combination squeeze-pull-motion between thumb and forefinger eifects rapid closure. Opening or disconnecting is simply performed by peeling the elements apart. Stud interlock and disengagement occurs because the fastener bases, 11, being supple, act as hinges between studs, bending to permit spreading or opening up the space between stud heads. This permits the passage of stud heads of one element past those of the mating element. If the fastener is entirely of a plastic material then the individual studs will also bend thru-out their length and reduce the amount of flexing required of the base. The resiliency of the base and stud shanks restores them to their former shape. This serves to effectively lock the stud heads of one element in between those of the other. Guidance of studs, for entrance between each other, is aided by taper shaping the heads, to that type which in rivetting terminology would be described as a high button or acorn type of head.
After interlock, the fastener is a ositive lock in all the thin supple base material.
directions, laterally and axially, against separation to any except grossly excessive forces, or any involving an edge tipping and separation by a peeling pull. Lateral movement is prevented because the stud heads of one element bear up against the stud shanks of the opposing element, in shear. Axial separation isprevented because the overhanging stud heads interlock, in a dovetail fashion, under each other, as indicated in FIG. 2. Separation can normally be made only from an outside edge by bending back on the thin supple base, 11, so that the studs are tipped to spread the heads apart in one member for withdrawal of the studs'in the opposing member.
The all plastic fastener is made essentially in two operations by taking advantage of a characteristic of thermoplastic materials in that they can be repeatedly softened by heat, molded to shape, hardenedby cooling to retain the shape and not undergo a chemical change. The first step is molding the base, 11, integrally with the studs, 10, in headless form, PEG. 3. The stud lengths have to be such that they contain enough material to form the required size heads for the selected design. They should also be tapered enough to facilitate ejection of the unit from the mold. The second operation involves heat softening and upsetting the tips of the studs, such as in a heading die, 14, of FIG. 4.
The heading operation is a relatively slow squeezing action rather than an impact. The studs are given no support other than what they have at their base and that furnished by the heated heading die. The die needs to shape the heads only from the top and sides because the combined heat and squeeze action gives an effective rolling upset to the heads. The size of the heads is easily and uniformly maintained by merely controlling the movement of the heated heading die. No special attempt need be made to control the shape of the underside of the head if the head diameter is not made much larger than about three times the shank diameter. The speed of heading is controlled in a large measure by the temperature of the heading die and its heat input. The only real high temperature limitation to the process is that it not be so high that thermal degradation sets in on the particular plastic formulation being used. Lubricants as common to the plastics molding art may be used to minimize adhesion of the plastics to the molding and heading dies, as required.
In the practical use of the fastener, the number of rows of studs required is determined by the amount of adjustability desired, such as, for slack take up or let out in a garment. Its length may range from approximately thumb print size to the full length of a garment joint. The shank diameter of the outermost row(s) of studs and the corresponding edge(s) of the base can be thickened or not, as desired, to increase their stiffness and the resistance of the fastener elements to separation at these points. Likewise, the use or absence of an outside edge flap is dependent upon the ease with which it is desired to separate the fastener.
This invention can be embodied in forms other than that indicated up to this point, without departing from the essential attributes thereof. For example: (a) The studs of FIG. 3 could be headed by dipping or passing them by conveyor means thru a viscous melt or solution of plastic compound, inverting the studs so that the adhering tear drop can reverse flow and harden, substantially into the desired head shape. Head size can be controlled by the number of passes and viscosity of the solution. (b) The studs could be made individually like rivets, gathered and spaced on a spreader plate such as by vacuum or electrostatic means, the foot end wetted with an adhesive or rendered plastic, then implanted on (c) Integrally molding the studs and base with the garment so that the plastic permeates the weave of the fabric.
Having described my invention, what I claim is:
1. In hermaphroditic fasteners of the character described, a fastener element comprising a sheet, a multiplicity of studs disposed on one surface of the sheet; each stud-being in the form of a solid of revolution, comprising a post surmounted by an enlarged head; said studs being disposed in staggered rows, the spacing between said stud posts being substantially equal to that of the enlarged heads, in directions longitudinal and transverse to said rows, the spacing between stud heads corresponding substantially to post thickness; said sheet being adapted to be secured to a flexible support; said studs being adapted to secure themselves to studs of a companion member of like construction, whereby upon axial approximation of the studs for interlock, said sheet elastically deforms, that heads of studs may pass and settle under each other and resist separation against forces perpendicular and parallel to axis of interlocked studs, and under radially applied strain to said sheet release and effect separation of companion member.
2. In hermaphroditic fasteners of the character described, a fastener element comprising a sheet adapted to be secured to a flexible support, a multiplicity of studs disposed on one surface of said sheet; each stud being in the form of a solid of revolution, comprising a post.
surmounted by an enlarged head; said studs being disposed in staggered rows; the spacing between adjacent stud posts in directions longitudinal and transverse to said rows being substantially equal to that of the stud reads, the spacing between stud heads corresponding substantially to the post diameter; said studs being adapted to interlock with studs of another fastener element of like construction, coupling being thru the medium of elastic deformation in said sheet and heads of studs passing and settling under each other upon being axially pressed together, effectively resisting separation against forces perpendicular and parallel to axis of interlocked studs, and under radially applied strain to said sheet release studs and effect separation of fastener elements.
3. A hermaphroditic fastener of the character described, comprising an elongated sheet, a multiplicity of studs disposed on one surface in juxtaposition to the ends of said sheet; each stud being in the form of a solid of revolution, comprising a post surmounted by an enlarged head; said studs being disposed in staggered rows; the spacing between adjacent stud posts in directions longitudinal and transverse to said rows being substantially equal to that of the stud heads, that between stud heads substantially equal to the post diameter; said sheet being resilient and adapted to be folded end to end for'interlock of said studs; coupling being thru the medium of elastic deformation in said sheet and heads of studs passing and settling under each other upon being axially pressed together; said coupling resisting separation of said sheet ends against forces perpendicular and parallel to axis of interlocked studs; decoupling being thru radially applied strainto ends of said sheet.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,499,898 3/50 Anderson 24204 2,541,728 2/51 Wahl 18-5 2,772,469 12/56 Staller 24-204 2,841,850 7/58 Zahorski 24-204 2,907,066 10/59 Wahl 18-1 3,020,613 2/62 Morin 24-204 FOREIGN PATENTS 956,320 l/50 France. 1,037,455 9/ 53 France.
715,587 1/ 42 Germany.
DONLEY I. STOCKING, Primary Examiner. ABRAHAM G. STONE, Examiner.
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