|Publication number||US3192865 A|
|Publication date||Jul 6, 1965|
|Filing date||Sep 10, 1963|
|Priority date||Sep 10, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3192865 A, US 3192865A, US-A-3192865, US3192865 A, US3192865A|
|Inventors||Klempay Francis J|
|Original Assignee||Klempay Francis J|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (15), Classifications (27)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
July 6, 1965 F. J. KLEMPAY HYDRAULICALLY ACTUATED PUMP 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed sept. 1o, 1965 wf @y July 6, 1965 F. J. KLEMPAY 3,192,865
HYDRAULICALLY ACTUATED PUMP Filed Sept. l0, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 5
INVENTOR Unid states Patent o 3,192,865 HYDRAULICALLY ACTUATED PUMP Francis J. Klempay, 5635 Tippecanoe'Road,
Canfield, Ohio Filed Sept. 1l), 1963, Ser. No. 307,961
12 Claims. (Cl. 10S-152) This invention relates to improved and simplified apparatus for pumping fluids by the use of hydraulic power such as, for example, a ow of hydraulic fiuid from Aa gear or vane type pump. More particularly, the invention relates to a double-acting diaphragm'type of pump in which the forced displacement in the pumping chambers is effected directly by the ow of hydraulic fluid under pressure from a suitable source, and also to an improved automatic valvingmechanism for reversing the flow of the uid through the opposing motor chambers thereof in a cyclic manner to effect substantially continuous output from the pumping chambers of the assembly.
A principal object of the invention is the provision of apparatus of the kind and for the purpose stated which is compact in design, readily portable,` and capable of being manufactured and assembled rapidly and economically whereby the range of usefulness ofk pumps of this kind is greatly extended. Being of the diaphragm type, these pumps are well suitedV for handling abrasive and corrosive fluids, such as agricultural sprays,lmeat curing liquids, sulphurous mineV waters, and various lchemical solutions, and accordingly, another general object of the invention is to improve the capacity, dependability, output characteristics, and adaptability of pumps of this character, whereby they may find practical and advantageous use for these and other purposes.
A more specific object of the Vinvention is the provision of a double-acting diaphragm type of direct hydraulic powered fluid pump of an arrangement for utilizing long-stroke flexible diaphragms for separating the powering uid from the fiuid being pumped whereby increased pumping capacity may be attained in a unit of small overall dimension and whereby the frequency of output pressure drop, as occurs at the end of each stroke, is substantially lowered.V
A further object of the invention is the provision of an improved casing structure for apparatus of the kind described, whereby a minimum number of separable parts arerequired and whereby manufacturing and assembling of the apparatus is greatly facilitated. Thus, in accordance with this aspect of the invention, the twoopposing pumping chambers or cylinders required are incorporated in a single length of steel tubing Which contains all the expansive forces generated by the high fluid pressures involved. The passages and valves required for the powering fluidas well as for the luid being pumped are all assembled in and on separate components which are easily slid into the tubing and secured therein.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved and exceedingly simple automatic reversing valve for cyclically reversing the direction of flow of hydraulic fluid under pressure through a pair of pressure chambers which may be advantageously employed in apparatus of the character described to achieve dependability in operation, long life, high operating pressures, and reduced intervals of pressure drop at the end of each stroke. by a specially devised four-way valve mechanism which is operative to fully reverse the flow of uid upon very small movement of the principal valve part and which operates in a very quick manner so that the time required to transfer the fluid pressure from one motor chamber .to the other and vice Versa is very minute.
The last named characteristic is achieved "ice Since this minute time interval is only a very small part of the total cycle of operation, by reason of the longstroke diaphragms employed, the mean effective output pressure of the pump is only slightly below the maximum pressure potential as determined by the capacity of the hydraulic uid source or by the setting'of the output relief valve associated with the pump of the invention. Likewise, the volumetric efficiency of the apparatus is very high.
The Vabove and other objects and advantages of the invention will become, apparent upon consideration of the following specification and the accompanying drawing wherein there is disclosed a preferred embodiment of the invention. f
FIGURE l is a longitudinal section through a pumping assembly constructed in accordance with the principles of the invention; Y
FIGURES 2 and 3 are transverse sections taken along the lines II-II and III-III, respectively, of FIGURE l; and
FIGURES 4 and 5 are fragmentary sections taken Valong the lines IV-IV and V-V, respectively, of FIG- URE 3.
Referring to the drawing, the pumping mechanism `of the invention is assembled in a length of steel tubing 10 which is preferably seamless steel accurately bored and honed on its inner surface. Slideably received Within the tube 10y and secured centrally therein by the cap screws 11 is a thick disc 12 having an annular recess 12 at each of its ends. Disc 12 is formed with a first eccentric thru-opening 13 which, as will be explained below, constitutes the outlet ports of a four-way valve built into the structure, and opening 13 communicates with a radial threaded aperture 14 aligned concentrically within an aperture 15 formed in the tube 10. It should be obvious that a suitably threaded conduit may be connected to the bore 14 to convey hydraulic Oil back to Va pump or reservoir, not shown, after the disc 12 is once properly located in the tube 1li.
y A second and larger thru-opening 16 is formed in the disc 12 in spaced relation to the opening 13 and in communication with a second threaded radial bore 17 which extends to the outer periphery of the disc. In a manner to ,be later described, the opening 16 constitutes the inlet ports of the aforementioned four-Way oil valve. A third axial thru-opening 18 is formed in the disc 12 at the center of the disc and this latter opening may or may not be in communication with the opening 16. In actual practice, the end faces of the disc 12 are ma- :hined flat, parallel, and smooth, and overlying the opposite faces in the region of the openings 16 and 18 are plates 19 which are clamped to the dise by the bolts 20. VPlates 19 are apertured to receive the shouldered end portions of a bushing 21, and it should be apparent l* that the plates 19 hold the bushing 21 rigidly against radial and axial movement.
Slideably received in the bushing 21 is a rod 22 which is shouldered at either end to receive, first, a flat sheet metal disc 23, the flat end wall 24 of a sleeve-type of flexible diaphragm 25, and the flat bottom wall 26 of an outwardly facing cup-shaped piston member 27. The parts 23, 24 and 26 are rigidly secured against the shoulder on the rod 22 by a nut 28. Diaphragms 25 are phragm sleeves 25 is chosen not only for its oil resistance but also for its resistance to the kind f Huid to be pumped by the assembly. The members 27 have cylindrical side surfaces 3i) over which the side walls of the diaphragms 25 Iroll upon longitudinal movement of the members 27 in the tube 10. Y
Concentrically within the axial projection of opening 16 the plates 19 each have a pattern of holes consisting of a centrally disposed hole 31 surrounded` by a concentric circle of holes 32. Slideably received in the holes 31 is a pin 33 on which is mounted an annular magnet 34. The latter is of the permanent type, preferably alnico, and is niagnetized in a diametrical direction so that it will have maximum adherence to either of the plates 19 when in contact therewith, it being understood that the plates 19 are formed of highly magnetic material such as soft iron or low carbon steel. The pin 33, however, is preferably made of non-magnetic material such as brass. The pin 33 is brazed or sweated into a central bore formed in the magnet 34 during its manufacture so that the magnet and pin always move as a unit. Magnet 34 has smooth and parallel end faces for fluid-tight engagement with the inner surfaces of the plates 19. An annular groove is formed in either end portion of the pin 33, and held by each of these grooves is a curved leaf spring 35. As shown in FlGURE 3, the springs 35 are slit so that they may be simply snapped onto the pin 35 at the time of assembly as will Vbe understood. For a purpose to Vbe later described, the free ends of springs 35 project outwardly beyond the ends of the pin 33, as shown in `FIGURE 5.
Carried by the free ends of a pair of leaf Vsprings 36 is a pin 37 which extends concentrieally through the bore 13 in the disc 12. Springs 36 are mounted on the disc 12 by means of screws 38 and are slit at their free ends to snap onto the pin 37, the pin 37 being formed with annular grooves for this purpose as shown'in FIG- URES 1 and 4. The pin 37 carries intermediate the springs 36 a pair of valving elements each comprised of a disc 39 which is adapted to overlie an outer end face of the disc 12 and thus seal off one end of the bore 13.
From the above description, it will be apparent that there is provided a pair of expansible chambers (A and B) separated by wall 12 and each having an inlet and an outlet valve whereby while oil is being fed into one chamber the oil in the other chamber may be exhausted. For a very important reason as will appear hereafter, these valves are self-sealingin the manner of poppet valves-the loose connections and flexibility of the springs 36 permitting uniform setting about the entire peripheries of the valve discs 39 and the holes 31 being made suiciently sloppy to permit the end faces of the magnet 34 to lie flat in uniform contact against the plates 19 under all conditions. Power chambers A and B effect a reciprocating motion in the pistons 27 and diaphragmsY 25 in the manner now to be described.
Assuming first that the interconnected pistons 27 are intermediate the ends of their stroke and that the oulet and inlet valves are positioned as shown in FIGURES 4 and 5, respectively, it will be evident that pressurized oil coming into the system through inlet port 17 will enter chamber 16 and then pass into chamber B through holes 32. The resultant pressure in chamber B will hold the right valve disc 39 tightly sealed and thereby move the pistons 27 to the right. Valve 34 remains seated by this pressure and by magnetic attraction. The oil in chamber A will be forced out of the system past the left or open outlet valve disc 39 and thence through chamber 13 back to the pump or resrvoir through port 14. Springs 36 are rather light and serve only to bias the valve discs 39 to neutral positionsv where both are evenly spaced from their seats. As the piston assemblies approach the right end of their stroke, as viewed in FIGURE 1, the disc 26 which is in chamber A contacts the spring 35, which is also in this chamber and a force is built up on the pin 33 tending to unseat the magnet valve 34. However, because of magnetic contact and surface tension the magnet tends to stay put and adheres to the adjacent plate 19. A considerable force is built up in the spring 35 and eventually the adjacent disc 23 contacts the end of the pin 33 and nudges the same forwardly under force. As soon as contact between parts 19 and 34 is broken the magnetic attraction as well as surface tension decreases precipitously and the energy stored in spring 35 snaps the magnetic valve 34 over to the other side in contact with the plate 19-which is in chamber B. Immediately the holes 32 leading to chamber B are sealed off and the oil now rushes into chamber A. Pin 37 is so dimensioned that it is also engaged by the disc 23 in chamber A to break the surface tension of the valve disc V39 in chamber B to permit the valve discs 39 to instantly move to neutral positions during shifting of the magnetic valve 34 and the consequent momentary decreases of pressure of both chambers A and B. Thereafter the appear ance of increased pressure in chamber A causes the valve disc 39 in chamber A to close and seat to seal this chamber A While permitting oil to be exhausted from chamber B through the now open valve disc 39 which is in chamber B.
`In models actually constructed and tested, the above described sequence of operation of the component parts takes place very rapidly at the end of stroke in either direction, causing only a momentary decrease in output of the pump even without the use of any accumulating devices.
Outwardly of the motor chambers A and B but yet within the tube 10 are the pumping chambers C and D. These latter are sealed olf by plugs 40 which are snugly received within the ends of the tube 10 and each of which is formed adjacent its inner end with an annular groove 41 to receive an O-ring seal 42. The plugs 40 are secured in position by radial cap screws 43 which extend through apertures formed in the tube 10. Each of the plugs 40 is provided with an axial recess 44 communicating with radial bores 45 and 46. A spring-biased outlet check valve 47 is built into bore 45 and a similar inlet check valve 48 is built into bore 46, all as shown in FIGURE 2. The outer ends of the bores 45 and 46 provide threaded inlet and outlet ports 49 and 50, respectively, whereby the pump may be connected to output and input conduits. It will be yunderstood that the tube 10 may be apertured or relieved as shown at 51 in FIGURE 1 to permit these connections to be made.
An important advantage of the specific embodiment of the .invention described above is that the reversing valve for the powering hydraulic fluid may be combined with (mounted in and on) the disc 12 as a sub-assembly, and such sub-assembly may also include the diaphragms 25, pistons 27 and connecting rod 22. This greatly facilitates mass production and assembly of the units, reducing their cost. Pistons 27 may, if desired, be provided with ribs as shown to increase transfer of heat from the powering uid which is preferably oil. All moving parts of the reversing valve are permanently bathed in the oil and consequently no appreciable wear of these vital parts takes place. Since the valve elements are self-sealing thin dimensions are not critical.
The pumping apparatus 'described above is essentially a double-acting positive-displacement pump in which the seals for the movable walls of the compression charnbers, both for the hydraulic motive fluid and for the fluid being pumped, is provided by the flexible diaphragm 25. Since all pumping pressures appear on both sides of these diaphragms, enormous pressures may be developed, lmited only by the pressure capacity of the hydraulic fluid pump employed. The only unbalanced pressure that can appear on these diaphragms is that of atmospheric on the suction stroke or that required to develop suicient force to overcenter ythe reversing valve. Since in each side of the pump the pressure in `the motor chamber is always encaisse .Y slightly greater than the pressure in the pumping' chamber, the long-stroke diaphragms employed will always tend to roll in the annular interstices between the piston skirts 30 and the adjacent cylindrical walls of the pressure chambers. Since these interstices may be small in radial dimension and'since pressure differentials on opposite sides of the diaphragm-s 'are low, as explained, the diaphragms are subjected only to low'tensile stresses and consequently, have long life even though cheaply and inexpensively made.
It shouldfnot be apparent that I have provided improved hydraulically actuated pumping apparatus which accomplishes the objects initially set out. The apparatus is simple in principle, employs few parts which can readily be produced by economical methods, and is extremely yrugged and durable in operation even when pumping liquids at very high pressures. Since all movable parts of the motor section of the apparatus may be permanently bathed in oil, lthere is very little wear in any of the parts and the operating eiciency is very high. It should be apparent that the apparatusmay be mounted either close to or widely spaced from the hydraulic power. source employed, and that the apparatus may be positioned either directly in a bath of the liquid being pumped or on or adjacent to a tank containing such liquid. This versatility is highly advantageous for many applications and, by selecting suitable materials for the walls of the pumping chambers land suitable inlet and outlet valve designs for the pumping chambers the apparatus may be adapted for pumping a wide variety of abrasive and/or corrosive materials. Fur-ther, since the physical size .of the apparatus is not lat all determinative of its capacity the same may be scaled to fit in assemblies and environments not heretobefore considered available vfor pumping apparatus.
The above specically described embodiment of the apparatus should be considered as illustrative only as many changes may be made therein without departing from the principles of the invention disclosed. For example, the diaphragm walled compression chambers of the assembly mar, if desired, be replaced with conventional piston and cylinder assemblies, and other specic means than that shown herein may be employed to snap the reversing valve in the motor section of the assembly from one of its opera-ting positions to the other and vice versa. An important 4aspect of the invention is thought to reside in the development of the simple snap-acting and .self-sealing four-way valve in the motor section of the `assembly incorporated entirely within the hydraulic uid stream without having any exposed par-ts. Reference should therefore be had to the appended claims in determining the true scope of the invention.
1. In a hydraulically lactuated diaphragm-type ii-uid pump a thick disk-like moun-ting member having a cenltrally disposed axial bore therethrough, a rod passing through and slideably received in said bore and mounting 4at each of its ends a cup-shaped piston having its open end extending away from said mounting member, sleevelike flexible diaphragms having ends secured in fluid-tight relation to the outer peripheral portion of said mounting member and having their outer ends secured to inner portions of said cup-shaped members in fluid-tight relation thereto, a tube enclosing said diaphragms and pistons to thereby provide pumping chambers which are duid-tight with relation to the pressure chambers encompassed by said diaphragms and existing between opposite sides of said mounting member and said pistons, and means to supply hydraulic fluid under pressure to said pressure chambers alternately while simultaneously exhausting hydra-ulic fluid from the opposite chamber.
2. Apparatus `according to claim 1 further characterized in that said means comprises fluid inlet and outlet passages extending radially inward from the outer periphery of said mounting member, and further including a snap-acting four-way valve interconnecting said passages .and said pressure chambers and being carried by said mounting member, and means in said pressure chambers to operate said valve in responseV to movement of said rod and pistons.
`3. Apparatus according to claim 2 further characterized in that Ysaid four-way valve comprises apair of spaced axial bores extending through said mounting member and interconnecting intermediate their ends with `said inlet and outlet passages, respectively, valve elements slideably received in said bores to close ott the ends thereof alternately, and means operated by said pistons to actua-te said Vvalve elements whereby said inlet passage is connected to one of said chambers while .said outlet passage is connected to the other of said chambers and vice versa.
4. A hydraulically Vpowered pump comprising ya unitary tube, a transverse wall in said tube intermediate the ends thereof, discs in the ends of said tube to thereby form two longitudinally spaced `chambers separated by said wall, a piston in each of said chambers to divide the same into la power chamber adjacent said wall and a pump chamber adjacent one of said discs, a rod extending slideably through saidwall for interconnecting said pistons, inlet and outlet passages for said pump chambers in said discs, radially extending inlet and outlet passages for powering vloil in said wall, and a snap-acting four-way valveV assembly built into said wall and connected with the passages in the wall for :reversing the iiow of powering oil through said power chambers.
5. `In hydraulically. powered reciprocating vapparatus having a pair of expansible power chambers each having a movable outer end wall and separated by a iixed barrier wall, a pair of spaced thru-bores in said barrier wall interconnecting said chambers and communicating, respectively, with an inlet passage and an outlet passage formed in said barrier wall, a valve element comprising a pair of discs spaced greater than the thickness of said barrier wall movable into alternate engagement with the opposite side surfaces of the barrier wall about the bore connected to the outlet passage to seal off alternate ends of the last mentioned bore, apertured plates overlyingV said side surfaces about the other bore, a second valve element in the form of a block movable in said other bore to seal ott the apertures in said plates alternately, and means driven by said movable outer end walls to actuate the second of said valve elements, the other of said valve elements moving in response to the change in direction of fluid ow which results from movement of the said second valve element.
6. Apparatus according to claim 5 further characterized in that plates are formed of magnetic material, and
said second valve element being a magnet whereby said second element will always be attracted to one or the other of said plates.
'7. Apparatus according to claim 6 further including spring means to bias said first mentioned valve element to neutral position whereby both of said discs are equally spaced outwardly from said side surfaces.
3. Apparatus according to claim 7 further including means for moving said iirst mentioned rvalve element by said movable outer end walls upon the said end walls approaching said barrier wall.
`Si. In hydraulically powered reciprocating apparatus having a pair kof expansi'ble power chambers each having a movable outer end Vwall and separated by a ixed barrier wall, an opening through said barrier Wall interconnecting said chambers, an apertured plate ofmagnetic material closing off each end of said opening, a magnet in said opening having spaced end surfaces adapted to have alternate contact with the inner Ifaces of said plates to seal off the apertures, an inlet passage in said barrier wall leading to said opening, and means operated Vby said outer end walls to bias said magnet into Contact with one or the other of said plates.
10. In hydraulically powered reciprocating apparat-us having a pair of expansible power chambers each having a movable outer en-d wall and separated'by a lixed barrier wall, an opening through said `barrier Wall inter,- connecting said chambers, a fluid passage in said barrier wall communicating with said opening, magnetic means forming a sealing surface at either end of said opening, and a magnet structure slideable in said opening and having energized surfaces to contact said sealing surfaces alternately whereby said structure is always biased to one of two positions so that a port interconnecting one of said chambers With said passage is open while the port interconnecting the other of said chambers with said passage is closed.
11. Apparatus of the character described having means comprising a separating wall for providing a pair of adjacent pressure chambers and having valve means for reversing the flow of hydraulic Huid under pressure -into and out of said chambers, said valve means comprising a pair of spaced thru bores in said wall, an inlet passage within said wall communicating with the rst of said bores intermediate the ends thereof, van outlet passage in said wall communicating with 'the second of said bores intermediate the ends thereof, valve elements slideably received in said bores to close off the ends thereof alternately, and means in said chambers to actuate said valve elements whereby said inlet passage is connected to one of said chambers while said outlet passage is connected to the other of said chambers `and vice versa, the valve element in the bore communicating with the outlet passage comprising valving discs separated by more than the thickness of said-wall and adapted to close onto kthe side surfaces of said wall to close opposite ends of the last mentioned bore alternately, apertured plates overlying said side surfaces at thek ends of the other bore, and said valve element in said other bore comprising a block of less thickness than the space between said plates and slideable into alternate engagement with said plates, said plates being formed of -magnetic material and said block being a magnet `whereby said block moves 4from one plate to the -other with a Vsnap action.
12. Apparatus according to claim 11 furthe-1' including a spring at each end of said block, and said means to actuate being positioned to engage said springs `and preload the same before the block is disengaged from either of said plates.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 821,926 5/06 Cornish 230-l62 862,867 8/07 Eggleston 230-52 1,164,926 12/15 Clark 103-51 2,644,477 7/53 King 261-65 2,679,209 5/54 Fischer et al 103-152 2,798,440 7/57 Hall l03-152 LAURENCE V. EFNER, Primula Examiner.
ROBERT M; WALKER, Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||417/393, 91/268, 417/397, 91/329, 91/275, 417/395, 91/273, 91/344|
|International Classification||F16J3/06, F04B9/115, F16J3/00, F01L25/08, F01L25/00, F01L23/00, F04B43/113, F04B43/00, F04B9/00|
|Cooperative Classification||F01L25/08, F04B43/1136, F01L23/00, F16J3/06, F04B9/115|
|European Classification||F16J3/06, F01L25/08, F01L23/00, F04B9/115, F04B43/113C|