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Publication numberUS3192868 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 6, 1965
Filing dateAug 22, 1961
Priority dateAug 22, 1961
Publication numberUS 3192868 A, US 3192868A, US-A-3192868, US3192868 A, US3192868A
InventorsWahlmark Gunnar A
Original AssigneeWahlmark Gunnar A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Drive connection for fluid device
US 3192868 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 6, 1965 G. A. WAHLMARK 3,192,868

DRIVE CONNECTION FOR FLUID DEVICE Filed Aug. 22, 1961 4 sheets-sheet 1 INV ENTOR.

" 51m/raf MHz/laf@ July 6, 1965 G. A. WAHLMARK DRIVE CONNECTION FOR FLUID DEVICE Filed Aug. 22, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 vits QS@ f l /az if msI INVENTOR. Wa/f'lmark,

July 6, 1965 G. A. WAHLMARK DRIVE CONNECTION FOR FLUID DEVICE 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Aug. 22, 1961 July 6, 1965 G. A. WAHLMAK 3,192,868

DRIVE CONNECTION FOR FLUID DEVICE Filed Aug. 22. 1961 im a7 v iw" 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR.

United States Patent C) ice m6, 2,238,662

3,192,868 BREVE CONNECTIN EUR FLUlD DEVICE Gunnar A. Wahlmark, 211 S. Rockford Ave., Rockford, lll. Filed Aug. 22, 1961, Ser. No. 133,233 11 Claims. (Cl. 10S-162) This invention relates in general to duid devices and more particularly to power transmission apparatus of the fluid type. It deals specifically with improvements in a swash plate type hydraulic device.

Swash plate devices have been generally well known in the power transmission eld for years. For example, Patent No. 1,062,071, Speed Adjusting Means for Rotary Hydraulic Devices, May 20, 1913, issued to H. B. Williams et al. discloses a hydraulic pump embodying the principles of swash plate construction. Generally speaking, in pumps of this nature, an obliquely mounted swash plate universally connected to a rotatable drive shaft rotates and drives a series of annularly disposed pistons which might pump hydraulic iluid in a closed circuit, for example.

The converse of such a swash plate type hydraulic pump is a swash plate fluid motor construction. When the swash plate principle is adapted to uid motors, it is common practice to drivingly connect the swash plate to a power takeoff shaft. The plate and consequently the shaft are then rotatably driven by an annularly disposed series of obliquely extending pistons powered by motive tluid.

It will be readily understood that in swash plate devices such as those hercinbefore referred to, cylinder dis placement is a function of, among other things, the angle at which the axis of rotation of the piston carrying cylinder block is otfset from the axis of rotation of the swash plate. Obviously, the greater the angle, lthe longer the stroke and consequently the greater the displacement.

In addition, in the case of a hydraulic motor embodying the swash plate concept, the force component eiective to drive the swash plate decreases relatively as the angle between the axis of rotation of the piston carrying cylinder block and the drive Vshaft carried swash plate approaches zero. Consequently, as will readily be seen, the output torque of the drive shaft decreases rapidly by virtue of a decreasing elective force component and, in conjunction therewith, decreasing cylinder displacement as the angle between the aforedescribed axes decreases.

The construction of swash plate hydraulic devices which have been developed and are known to date is substantially limiting insofar as the maximum permissible angle between the axes of the driven and driving components is concerned. An angle of about 30 is the maximum found practicable with such constructions axis of rotation of a swash plate, without neckng the piston rods down severely adjacent the ball connection, is in the neighborhood of about 30. This is because the rod contacts an edge of the overlying plate Ybefore exceeding or sometimes even reaching an angle in the neighborhood of about 30. If the piston rod is necked down severely, a substantially weakened `rod arrangement results and the construction is subject to sudden piston rod failures.

Of' course, it will be understood that the face plate construction is not the onlymeans known for completing a ball joint connection` in swash plate type iluid devices but it is exemplary andi the problemsinherent therein are found generally in other known constructions. For example, in the Wahlmark patent entitled .Pistonj No. 2,956,845, issued YOctober 18, 1960, a retaining set ring type ball joint construction is utilized. As will readily beseen, however, this ring construction limits the maximum piston rod angle everybit as muchl as the aforedescribed face plate construction. rConsequently, angles in the neighborhood of about 30 between the rods and the face plate are the maximum obtainable.

An object of the invention is to provide a new and improved drive connection in a swash platetype power transmission device. j

Another object is to provide4 a drive connection in a swash plate type power transmission device which achieves higher eliiciency using smaller cylinder bores.

Still another Vobject is to provide a drive connection which facilitates the establishment of a 45 drive angle between the axes of rotation of a swash plate and associated cylinder block.

Yet another object is to provide improved'lul'.vrication swash plate and piso cilitates a maximum of dimensional tolerance between lin which the only stock between piston sockets in the swash plate is that required for strength between the .t sockets themselves.

and consequently a device incorporating this maximum angle or less is considered conventional. A primary limiting factor, among others, in this respect has been the mechanics of construction of the drive connection between a piston carrying cylinder block and an obliquely disposed swash plate.

Normally ball and socket` joints connect the piston rods extending from a cylinder block to the adjoining face of a swash plate. It is common practice to provide 180 sockets in the plate itself and secure corresponding ball joints, carried by the piston rods, to the sockets with an overlying face plate or the like. Such a construction is shown in my Patent No. 3,136,264, issued June 9, 1964, and entitled Variable Displacement Fluid Device. Due to the restriction of such a face plate construction, the maximum angle which can be established between the axes of the piston rods and the Another object is to provide a swash plate device having piston sockets substantially greater than hemispherical' formed in an integral swash plate. o i

Still another object' is to provide a swash plate device utilizing piston ball ends of relatively larger diameter than previously possible.

Yet another object is to provide a drive connection including means adaptable to variations in the effective distance between a swash plate and a cylinder block brought about by angular variations therebetween in aY variable displacement pump.

' with thepresent invention by providing a new and improved drive connection for a swash plate typel power transmission device. "Briey, the invention contemplates a simpliiied drive connection whereinsocketsover are provided in a swash plate, andl ball type joints forming the free ends of the cylinder carried pistons are adapted to be slidably inserted in corresponding sockets in one attitude and then moved to an operative attitude where they are universally but unremovably connected in driving relationship with the swash plate. The unitary swash plate and socket construction permits an angle of in the neighborhood of 45 to be established between the axes of rotation of the swash plate and the cylinder block. Unique locking means are provided between each ball and socket when the drive connection is incorporated in a variable displacement pump. The construction embodying this invention also facilitates improved lubrication of the ball and socket joints and permits substantial axial dimensional variation in the relationship between the swash plate and cylinder block without etlecting operation of the device.

To simplify the explanation of this invention, the disclosure and discussion is generally confined to a description of aV iluid type motor of the swash plate type. In addition, the motor described is of the hydraulic Variety. In certain specic instances, however, reference is made to the features of this invention specifically applicable to variable displacement pumps and it should be kept in mind that the principles apply in many instances to other power transmission devices embodying the swash plate concept as well and should not be limited to hydraulic motors or even to fluid motors generally.

The invention, both as to its organization and method of operation, taken with further objects and advantages thereof, will best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in'which:

FIGURE 1 is a front elevational view, in partial section, of a vehicle wheel and an associated swash plate type fluid motor including a drive connection embodying this invention,

FIGURE 2 is a side view of the fluid motor shown in FIGURE il, with parts broken away,

FIGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view showing the ball and socket drive connection as it is assembled,

FIGURE 4 is a View similar Ito FIGURE 3 showing the ball and socket drive connection in its assembled, operative relationship,

j FIGURE 5 shows an enlarged fragmentary view, partially exploded, of the double ended joint forming a portion of the drive connection embodying this invention,

FIGURE 6 is a view taken along line 6-6 of FIG- URE 5,

FIGURE 7 is a view taken along line 7 7 of FIG- URE 1, with parts broken away,

FIGURE 8 is an enlarged fragmentary view in section of a drive connection in a variable displacement pump, with parts broken away,

FIGURE 9 is an enlarged sectional view of a universal ball joint taken perpendicular to the axis of the ball on its circumference showing the locking means being inserted,

FIGURE 10 is a view similar to FIGURE 9 showing the locking means in operative relationship,

VFIGURE 1l is an enlarged fragmentary view showing the ball and socket, drive connection adapted to receive locking means, as it is assembled, and

FIGURE 12 is a view similar to FIGURE 11 showing the locking means being inserted into operative relationship.Y

Referring to the drawings and particularly yto FIGURE l, a conventional vehicle wheel is shown generally at 10. The wheel 10 includes a rim 11 carrying a tire 12 and rigidly secured to a conventional brake drum (not shown) in a well known manner.

The Wheel-10 through the aforedescribed brake drum, is mounted for rotation with a stub axle 15. Surrounding the axle 15 is a housing 16 which is fixed relative to the wheel 10 and rotatably supports the axle in a conventional manner. Rigidly mounted on the housing 16 in driving relationship `with the axle 15 is a swash plate type hydraulic motor 20, according to this invention.

The wheel 10 and the associated motor 24? form a selfcontained unit and might support a frame of a conventional automobile, for example, in any of a number of well known ways. A steered front wheel is illustrated in this disclosure and might include a mounting 25 forming an integral part of and extending from the housing 16. The mounting 25 carries an upwardly extending ball joint 25 as best seen in FIGURE 1, and a downwardly extending bail joint 27 as best seen in FIGURE 2. The ball joints 26 and 27 are normally connected to the frame of a vehicle through linkages which are exempliiied by the linkage 2,3, A steering arm 29 mightI be rigidly connected to the mounting 2S and incorporated in a steering linkage (not shown). The aforedescribed wheel mounting is of generally conventional and well known construction and does not form any part of this invention. Accordingly, a more detailed description is not thought to be necessary. Suce it to say that the wheel 10 and the motor 20, as a unit, turn about and are supported on the ball joints 26 and 27.

As previously pointed out, the motor 2t) is of the swash plate type fluid motor construction. It includes a casing 35 securedto the housing I6 about its open end by bolts 36. At the juncture of the housing 16 and the casing 35 and seated there within is an appropriately mounted annularly extending bearing outer race 37. The bearing race 37 is xed relative to the housing 16 and the casing 35 and a fluid seal is provided between these three members in the form of a conventional O-ring 33.

Mounted for rotation within the contines of the bearing outer race 37 on ball bearings i0 carried in a ball bearing cage or ring 4I is a generally ring-shaped swash plate r 2 having a self-contained bearing inner race 43 extending about -its periphery. The swash plate 42 is rigidly connected to a flared portion 46 on the stub axle I5 by bolts 47 in a conventional manner.

A bore 4S in the axle I5 carries a snugly seated pin 49 having a universal ball joint 50 forming its outermost extremity. The significance of this ball joint Si) and its relationship to the drive connection forming the basis for this invention will be hereinafter explained. As will be readily apparent, the swash plate 42 is the driven member of the `motor Ztl, corresponding generally to the crank lshaft of a conventional reciprocating engine, for example.

The driving portion of the motor 21) is mounted in the casing 35 and is carried by the closed end 55. A bolt 56 extends through a hole 57 in the end S5 and into the casing. The bolt 56 extends generally axially of the casing 35 and includes a lip 5S at its inner end and a reduced section 59 carrying screw threads 60 adjacent its outer end. A nut 51 is turned on the threads 60 and a coil spring 62 surrounds the reduced section 59 of the bolt. The coil spring 62 bears against the nut 6l and ends to urge the bolt 5e outwardly of the casing 35.

Fixedly seated within the casing 35 against the inner side. of the closed end 5S' is a porting plate 65. The porting plate 65 is secured to the casing 35 by pins 66 and has a` pair of annularly disposed kidney ports 67 extending therethrough.

As is best seen in FIGURE 7, the kidney .ports 67 include a liuid pressure inlet port and a iluid pressure outlet port. Surrounding the kidney ports 67 is an annularly extending depression 68 in communication with the edge of the plate 65. Within the encircling kidney ports 67 a channel 69 is formed. The channel 69 and depression 63 denea land 69;: between them in surrounding relationship with each port 67. The channel 69 is in communication through transversely extending channels 69h with a depression 69C concentric with the bolt 56. The significance of the land 69a and its relation to the operation of the hydraulic motor 20 will be discussed in Vdetail in the description of the operation Vof the motor. Sutce it to say for the present that it reduces the upper aiease surface area of the porting plate which is subjected to cylinder head pressure below a critical value and consequently prevents the effect of pressure within the cylinders from tending to force the plate 65 away from the inner side of the end wall 55. l

Carried between the lip 58 on the end of the bolt 56 and the porting plate 65 is a beating assembly including identical bearing inner races 70. The bearing inner races 70 bear against a cup-shaped spacer element 71. The depression 72 formed within the cupshaped element 71 is in communication with a branched lubrication conduit 73 within the bolt 56. The lubrication conduit 73 is in communication, in turn, with a lubrication conduit 74 within a pin 75 snugly seated in a recess 76 axially disposed in the inner end of the bolt 56. VThe conduit 74 terminates at the outer periphery of the ball joint 77 at the end of the pin 75. The significance of the lubrication conduit 73 and 74 will be hereinafter explained in detail.

Seated on a ledge 85 surrounding the pin 75 is a retaining member 86 upon which is seated a coil spring 87. The coil spring 87 biases a pair of outer bearing races 88, snugly seated within a cylinder block 89, upwardly against a retaining ring 90. The ring 90 is held in an annular recess 91 within the cylinder block 89.

It will now be readily seen that the cylinder block 89 is mounted for rotation aboutV bolt 56 on ball bearings bearing inner races 70.

The cylinder block or barrel 89 preferably has nine cylinder bores 96 formed therein. However, it will be understood, that more or'less cylinders might be utilized in a fluid device of this type. As is best seen in FIGURE 2, each cylinder bore 96 has a lluid access port V97. The ports 97 are disposed in such a manner that they underlie the kidney ports 67 formed in the porting plate 65. The inlet kidney port 67 is connected with a uid inlet pipe 100 in the casing 35. While the outletport 67 is connected to a uid outlet pipe (not shown) disposed directly opposite the pipe 100 on the closed end 55 of the casing.

Surrounding the ports 97 on thetop of the cylinder block 89 is an annular channel 101. Radially disposedv channels 102 provide communication between the channel 101 and the space within the casing 35 surrounding the cylinder block 89, which space remains under atmospheric or casing pressure. Referring to FIGURE 1, a land 103 remains surrounding the access ports 97. The annular inside edge of the land 103 is separated from the outer periphery of the cup-shaped spacer element 71 such that the under surface of the porting plate 65, on the circular line along which it communicates with the separation between the annular inside edge of land 103 and the outer periphery of cupfshaped element 71, is in communication with the core formed within the cylinder block 89 and consequently with an area which is under substantially atmospheric or casing pressure.

The surface area of the land 103 surrounding the access ports 97 is particularly significant in relation to the effective transverse surface area of the interior of the cylinder bores 96, which transverse surface area surrounds the access ports 97 within the bores 96. The significance of this area relationship will be discussed in detail in the explanation of the operation of this motor. `In general, again suffice it to say for the present that the upper surface area of the cylinder block which is-subjected to cylinder head pressure is reduced below a critical value and consequently prevents the eiect of pressure within the cylinders from tending to force the cylinder block 89 away from the under surface of the porting plate 65.

Nine piston rods 105, each having a piston head 106, are seated within the cylinder bores 96 and extend outwardly therefrom. The piston heads are preferably constructed as described in the aforementioned Wahlmark Patent No. 2,956,845. The rods 105 each have necked down portion 107 adjacent their outer ends and a universal spherical Vball joint 103 at the outer extremity of the necked down portion.

In general, the construction which has been described to this point forms no specic part of this invention. As fluid under pressure, hydraulic iuid for example, enters the inlet pipe and passes through the inlet kidney port 67 associated therewith, it drivingly impinges on the piston heads 106 lying forward of top dead center and forces these pistons outwardly toward bottom dead center. It is this outwardly directed force of the pistons that provides the driving force for the swash plate 42 and consequently the wheel 10. As the'pistons move the cylinder block 89 rotates on the anti-friction bearings 95.

The swash plate 42 reacts in turn upon the pistons 105 which are rearward of bottom deadcenter to force these pistons inwardly of their corresponding cylinder bores and consequently toward top dead center. The uid in the latter cylinder bores is forced outwardly through correspondingV access ports 97 and outlet kidney port 67 to the outlet pipe (not shown) to be recirculated through any suitable type of iluid pump (not shown) which pressurizes the fluid and delivers it to the inlet pipe 100 of the motor 20 again.

Since a swash plate type uid motor of the type generally described above is known inthe art a detailed description of its use and operation is not thought to be necessary. In brief, the pistons 105 on the forward or driving side of the motor 20 provide al rotating or driving com ponent of force on the swash plate 42, while those on the opposite or rearward side are forced upwardly into their corresponding cylinder bores by the swash plate to return the fluid therein through a closed circuit to a iiuid pumpV where, as has been pointed out above, it is pumped againto the inlet pipe 100 and the power side of the motor 20; Y

As Yhas previously been pointed out, the surface area of the land 69a on the upper surface of the` portion plate 65 must be less than a critical value. Consequently, it is established at a value slightly less than twice the eifective transverse surface area of the interior of cylinders 96, which effective surface area is that transverse area surrounding the access ports 97 therein. As is well known in the art, the force tending to separate the porting plate 65 from the closed end 55 of the casing 35 is equal to the cylinder pressure plus the casing pressure times the surface area of the land 69a divided by two. This, in effect, 1s the average of the cylinder'pressure and casing pressure times the surface area of the land. Of course, it will be readily understood that in actuality the force tending to separate the porting plate 65 from the end wall 55 must be calculated for each cylinder, along with the surface area of the land69a, in the area of its cylinder accessl port 97. Then the integrated average is taken of thel resultant force acting around each of the annular ring of cylinder bores 96. However, the foregoing general formula for all cylinders is accurate enough to generally explain the problem and theory of operation.

The force acting upwardly to hold the porting plate 65 agalnst the end wall 55 of casing 35 is the force generated by cylinder pressure against the transverse internal surface area of the cylinder bores 96 surrounding access ports 97. In practice, the force acting upwardly should be in excess of, and in the case of the relationship between the porting plate 65 and the end wall 55, substantially in excess of the force which is effective to act downwardly upon the kporting plate 65. With thisrelationship properly established, the porting plate 65 has no tendency to be forced away from the inner wall 55.

The problem is very similar with the cylinder block 89 and the porting plate 65. In this case, the eiective force tending to separate the cylinder block from the porting plate 65 is equal to the cylinder pressure plus the casing pressure times'the surface area of land 103 divided by two. Again, to be precise, it will be understood that 7. calculations should be made with respect to each cylinder bore 95 and access port 97 associanti therewith and their relationship to the surface arca of the land 1% immediately surrounding that access port but Vfor general'explanation purposes the at'oredcscribed formula 1s sul'ncientiy accurate. Again, the effective force acting to hold tne cylinder block 89 against the porting plate 65 is that force which is equal to the cylinder pressure times the eilective transverse area within the cylinder bore surrounding the access port 97 in each bore.

In the case of the cylinder block S9 and the portmg plate 65, the force dierential is established in such Aa manner, by controlling the surface area of the land 10a, as to maintain slightly more force tending to hold the cylinder block E9 against the porting plate e5 than that force which tends to move it away during iluid motor operation. VThe effect of this slight lorce dillerential is such that the cylinder block S9 seats well on the porting plate 65 but not so tightly as to break down the lubricating oil film therebetween. Gn the other hand, if the force differential is not quite great enough, too much oil escapes out of the cylinders between the plate 65 and cylinder block 89 to the periphery of the cylinder block within the casing 35.

The foregoing description of the pressure differential relationship bet veen the cylinder block and porting plate 65 and the plate and end wall 55 of casing 35 is generally well known in the art. Accordingly, no attempt has been made to be specilic, therdetails of this relationship forming no part of the present invention.

Referring again to FIGURE l, it will be seen that the cylinder block 89 of the motor 20 extends at an angle of approximately 45 from the normally horizontal axis of rotation of the wheel ill. In other Words, the axis of rotation of the cylinder block 89 is disposed at approximately a 45 angle to the axis of rotation of the swash plato 42. This angle is extremely important, as will readily be understood, since the larger it is, the larger the downward or working component of force becomes relative to the total force exerted on the swash plate 42 by the piston rods 105. ln addition, as has previously been pointed out, as this angle increases the Working stroke of each piston rod 16S in a corresponding bore 96 is increased and consequently the displacement of the'fluid motor 20 itself, is increased. As has also been pointed out, it has in the past been standard procedure, by necessity, to establish the maximum angle between these axes at approximately 30.

The drive mechanism which forms a basis for this invention is shown generally and collectively at 169 in FlGURE l. lt includes a novel ball and socket connection 109a between the pistons and the swash plate, acting in conjunction with the improved constant velocity joint 18%, hereinbefore generally referred to. The drive mechanism lill) facilitates establishment of an angle of. approximately 45 between the axis of rotation of the swash plate KS2 and the axis of rotation of the associated cylinder block S9* in the swash plate type iiuid motor 20. In conjunction with this, the joint 10% embodies a construction which affords a predetermined maximum amount of axial dimensional latitude between the swash plate 42, and the cylinder block 89 without effecting the power transmission between these components to any noticeable degree.

The ball and socket connection 109g: preferably includes an annularly disposed series of nine spherical sockets 111 in the fact of the swash plate 42. More or less sockets 111 might be utilized of course, depending upon the number of cylinders used in the motor 20. The sockets 111 are spaced at intervals corresponding generally to the annular spacing of the cylinder bores 96 in the cylinder block 89. Accordingly, each socket 111 is adapted to receive the ball joint 108 on the end of a corresponding piston rod 105. As is best seen in FlG- 8 URES 3 and 4, the spherical surface of each socket 111 encompasses an arc of greater than a hemisphere, herein approximately 220. Thus, the diameter of t-he opening Illia in the swash plate for each of the sockets 111 is less than the spherical diameter of the socket.

Each of the ball joints 108 is of a spherical diameter substantially equal to the spherical diameter of a corresponding socket 111 and has a circumferentially disposed recess 112 symmetrically formed with respect to a great circle plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the corresponding piston rod 105. Slightly rounded edges 113 facilitating lubrication of the ball and socket joints are provided at the junctures of the recesses 112 with the surface of each ball 108.

Since a recess 112 has been cut in the surface of each of the balls 108 about its circumference, it will be obvious that the projected diameter of each ball, in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the piston rod 105, will be smaller than the spherical diameter of the ball. In this respect of course, the rounded edges 113 contribute to the reduction of diameter of each ball 10S. This projected diameter is arranged to be the same or slightly smaller than the opening diameter 111a for each socket. Accordingly, a ball may be inserted in a corresponding 220 socket 111, in the manner shown in FIGURE 3, when the longitudinal axis of the piston rod is perpendicular to the face of the swash plate 42. Since the diameter of each of the sockets 111 is substantially equal to the spherical diameter of a corresponding ball 108,

once the ball is inserted in the socket 111 and turned into the position seen in FIGURE 4, a snug but sliding fit is established between the ball and socket. The piston rods 105 thus cannot be removed from this universal relationship with the swash plate 42 as long as they remain oblique to the face of the plate.

In establishing an angle of in the neighborhood of 45 between the axis of rotation of the cylinder block 89 and the axis of rotation of the swash plate 42, it will be seen in referring to FIGURE 1 that the longitudinal axis of each piston rod 105, as it approaches and passes through its uppermost position (top dead center) in a rotative cycle, will extend at a greater angle to the axis ofrotation of the swash plate 42 than when the piston rod is in the region of its lowermost position (bottom dead center). This is due, of course, to the fact that as the axis of the rotating cylinder block is tilted from the horizontally disposed swash plate axis, the effective vertical diameter of the circle of sockets 111 in the swash plate 42 grows smaller. Consequently, the piston rods 105 are forced to converge slightly as they approach and pass through the uppermost and lowermost positions in their generally {circular path. This relationship makes the angle between the piston rods and the axis of rotation of the swash plate 42 less than 45 in the region of bottom dead center and greater than 45 in the region of the top dead center.

To partially compensate for this narrowing of the effective vertical diameter of the circle of sockets 111 in the swash plate 42, the diameter of the circle is initially established at a value somewhat larger than the diameter of the circle of cylinder bores 96 in the cylinder block 89. If such a relationship were not established, at top and bottom dead center the piston rods 105 would tend to engage that side of the cylinder bore 96 which is closest to the center of the cylinder block 89.- As a result, damage to the piston rods and cylinder bores might easily result. The circle of sockets 111 is made just large enough so that the necked down piston rods 105 as seen in FIG- URE l, come into closely adjacent relationship with the aforementioned innermost sides of the cylinder bores but do not actually contact the sides of the bore.

It follows then, as will be readily understood, that when the pistons are half way between top dead center and bottom dead center, that is in the center of a power stroke o`r an exhaust stroke, they will diverge slightly due to the fact that the diameter of the circle of sockets 111 is slightly larger than that of thecircle of cylinder bores 96. Consequently, the necked down portion 107 of the piston rods 105 cornes into closely adjacent relationship with the outermost sides of the cylinder bores 96. Thus it will be seen that a compromise must be made in establishing the diameter of the circle of sockets 111 and the diameter of the circle of cylinder bores 96 to obtain proper fluid motor operation without setting up an interference relationship between the piston rods 105 and the cylinder bores 96.

The extreme angular relationship hereinbefore described with regard to the drive connection between the ball joints 108 and the sockets 111.in the swash plate 42 is made possible by the utilization of a swash plate having aunitary, greater-than-hemispherical socket and a ball joint having a reduced projected diameter perpendicular to its longitudinal axis through formation of the recess 112, in conjunction with the necked down portion 107 of the piston rod 105. It is this unitary construction of the swash plate 42 and theV piston rod retaining sockets 111, made possible by the unique construction of the ball joints 108, which permits establishing an angular relationship between the rods and the axis of rotation of the swash plate 42 in excess of 45, far greater than the 30 maximum angle of prior swash plate devices. The 220 socket and reduced projected-area ball joint construction .eliminates the need for a retaining plate and yet provides a drive connection which is, for all practical purposes, every bit as strong as the swash plate itself. Only a slight necking down of the piston rod 105 is necessary, as seen at 107, to facilitate moving the rod into an angular relationship in excess ofv 45 from the axis of4 rotation of the swash plate and consequently the piston rods themselves are not weakened to any noticeable extent. The benefits of such a construction have been carefully elicited above and include, among others, increased cylinder displacement without a corresponding increase in bore diameter as well as a relatively larger effective force component insofar as the driving pistons are concerned.

In addition, by virtue of this unique construction which eliminates. the necessity for utilizating a clamping plate or the like to retain the ball joints 108 in theircorresponding sockets 111, the internal walls of the sockets 111 may extend closer together. This is due to the fact that it is not necessary to provide stock between the sockets 111 for receiving attachment means such as plate holding bolts, for example, as required in prior art constructions. There need only be enough stock between the walls of adjoining sockets to provide Athe swash plate 42 withV sufficient strength to retain the ball joints 108 under operational conditions.

As a result, of course, larger diameter ball joints 108 can be utilized ,thanV found possible in the aforementioned prior art constructions. Even larger diameter ball joints are permitted than under my Patent N o. 2,947,182, dated August 2, 1960, entitled Piston Ball End. As a consequence of the utilization of larger diameter ball joints 108, piston forces are more evenly distributed and balanced throughout the swash plate and wear Vis substantially reduced.

It is common practice .in generally conventional swash plate type motors to provide means for synchronizing rotation of the cylinder block 8.9 with respect to the swashplate 42 so that `these elements will rotate at exactly the same lspeed at all times. For reasons which are well known, a drive connection made solely between the .cylinder carried piston rods -105 and the rotating swash plate 42 Vis inadequate for satisfactory motor operation. The plate and cylinder block frequently drift out of phase as the motor rotates because of the lateral play permitted the rods by the -universal type connection of the ball and socket joints. In other words, the cylinder block tends to lead or lag the swash plate as they rotate. For

10 proper operation of the motor, of course, it is necessary that the cylinder block `89 rotate at a constant veloci-ty wi-threspect to the swash plate 42. Consequently,it is conventional :to provide a constant velocity universal joint as part of the drive connection 109 between the cylinder block 89 land the swa-sh plate 42.

The new and improved constant velocity, or homokinetic, universal joint 10911 is shown generally in FIG- URE 1 and best seen 4in FIGURE 5, in exploded relationship. The improved construction of the joint 109b allows a substantial amount of axial dimensional tolerance between the swash plate `42 and the cylinder yblock 89. In. other words, it is not necessary that the dimensional relationship 'between the cylinder block 89 and the swash plate 42, as it is established in the casing 35, be exact when this new and improved constant velocity joint 10% is utilized. `It readily adapts itself to slight differences in overall -axial dimensions of the liuid motor. In addition, since swash plate type devices of this general construction might be used, in modified form, as variable dsplacement pumps rather than iluid motors, any axial dimensional variation resulting from a change of the angle between the cylinder block and the swash VAplate is` readily taken up by this new and improved constants-peed joint 109b. The ramications of the use of a drive connection embodying this invention with a variable displacement uid device will be hereinafterdiscussed in `more detail. f

The new and improved joint 1095 includes joint member having a set 121 of annularlydisposed gear teeth at .one end thereof and another vs et 122 of annularly disposed .gear teeth at the other end. VThe gear teeth -123 and.124 of sets 121 and 122, respectively, are preferably constructed in the manner disclosed in Patent N o. 3,013,411, issued December 19, 1961, and entitled Gear Type, Constant Velocity Joint. These teeth might be characterized as having double helix configurations, In plan'view, each tooth `appears substantially diamond shaped. l i

The set V121 of double helix gear teeth 123 is adapted to mesh with an annularly dispose-d internal set of identical double helix gear teethv Within the contines of the ring-,shaped `swash plate 42. fFor reasons which will be hereinafter pointed out, the longitudinal axis of the joint member 120 extends at an angle of in the neighborhood of 30 from the axis of rotation of the swashplate 42. The helical angles of opposed faces of the meshing gear tee-th I123 and 1 26 are consequently established at one-half of 30 er inthe neighborhood of 15, for example, to insure generally co-planar engagement of corresponding geartooth "faces as the swash plate and connector joint rotate. i

This relationship is clearly described in the aforementioned co-pending application Gear Type .Constant Velocity Join and .provides a constant speed relationship between the jointmember 120 and the swash plate 42. As was `also pointed out in the aforementioned co-pending application, the lworking clearance between corresponding mternal and external 4gear teethV remains constant regardless of the angle between the axis of the joint member and the lswash plate 42.` Y

. Since the angle between .the axis of rotation of the joint member 120 and the axis of rotation of the swash plate 42 is 4in the neighborhood of 30, it will be obvious that the angle between the former land :the axis o'f rotation of the cylinder block 89 is in the neighborhood of 15, or 45 minus 30. The significance of this angle will be presently discussed.

Referring again to FIGURE 5, it will be seen that the cylinder block 89 `is provided with an annularly disposed set 128 of internal gear teeth 129. The gear teeth 129, unlike the internal gear teeth -125 described in relation to theV swash plate 42, have planar faces which are substantially parallel to the axis of rotation of the cylinder block The vdouble helix gear. teeth 124 associated with the set 122 on the corresponding end of connector joint 1t9b are formed in such a manner that their vhelical faces extend lat an angle to the axis of rotation of the joint member 126i which is substantially equal to the angle between the axis of rotation of the connector joint and that of the cylinder block 89. Consequently, a generally axially sliding relationship is established 'between the set `122 of helical gear teeth 124 and the set y128 of planar faced gear teeth 129.

As will be understood, since the helical faced gear teeth 124 Iare entering and leaving meshing relationship with the planar faced gear teeth 4128 at an angle of approximately 15, a certain amount of play must be established between the teeth to facilitate unimpeded entry and departure of the helical faced teeth from engagement with the planar faced teeth without distortion of the metal adjacent the outer edges of the planar faced teeth. However, because the Iangle is small, this amount of play does not ha Ye to be substantial and consequently does not materially affect the operation of the joint.

This swash plate type fluid motor might be lubricated by iiuid introduced to the motor from an outside source or it might he lubricated primarily by fluid leakage from the operation of .the motor itself. Consequently, though in this case a leakage type system is illustrated, it will be understood that the illustration is merely exemplary.

The connector joint member 126 has a lubrication conduit 130 extending through its length, and a socket 131 at one end thereof seats over the ball joint 5t) while a socket 132fat the other end seats over the ball joint 77. These ball and socket joints establish a fixed axis of rotation for the joint member., A series of three or more lubrication channels 133 (one of which is shown) extend from the lower end of lubrication conduit 130 into open communication with the interior of the casing 35. In the alternative, as seen in dotted lines at 134, a lubrication conduit or a plurality of these conduits might extend from further up in the lubrication conduit 13@ into communication with the interior of the casing 35. Either type of lubrication conduit, 133 or 134 might be utilized, the only difference between the two being the fact that the discharge point of conduit 133 is closer to the axis of rotation than that of conduit 134 and consequently, as will be readily seen, iluid flowing therefrom is not discharged with the same amount of centrifugal force as it would be if discharged from conduit 134. The use of one or the other conduiting arrangement is but a matter of choice.

Assuming that a certain amount of lubricating iiuid has been provided in the bottom of the casing 35 adjacent the junction with housing 16, and that more fluid leaks from the fluid motor during operation, it `will be seen that as the motor 20A drives the swash plate 42, fluid will be thrown out by centrifugal force and tend to ride up the cylinder wall to a point where it loops over adjacent the peripheryof the porting plate 65 and passes through a plurality of lubrication conduits 140 (only one of which is shown) and is carried inwardly into communication with lubrication ports 141 in the porting plate 65. Here I the fluid passes into the depression 72 in cup-shaped element 71 and then through lubrication conduits 73 and 74 to empty into the socket 132 in the connector joint 109b. 'At this point the fluid lubricates the ball and socket joint 77, 132. Additional fiuid passes on down the lubrication conduit 130 in the connector joint 10% to the lubrication conduit 133 where it lubricates ball and socket joint Sti, 131 and passes outwardly by centrifugal force from the center of the ring-shaped swash plate 42 toward the edges thereof. This centrifugally dispersed lubricating fluid passes outwardly of the swash plate 42 and some of it provides lubrication for the ball bearings 4G. At the same time, some of the oil is picked up in the recesses 112 surrounding the ball joints 108 on the ends of piston rods 105. As the fluid which is picked up in the recesses 112 is carried around while the swash plate rotates and each ball 10S moves in its socket 111, it is drawn between the surface of the balls 198 and the sockets 111 due to the rounded edges 113 of recesses 112 moving over the film of oil as the ball slides and rotates in the socket. As a result, important lubrication of the ball and socket joints is effected and substantial longer drive connection life is the result.

As has previously been pointed out, a drive connection embodying this invention, when utilized with a variable displacement uid device, for example, incorporates additional unique features. An understanding of the peculiarities of use and operation of a variable displacement pump facilitates a clearerunderstanding of these features.

As will readily be understood, the angle between the axis of rotation of the swash plate and the axis of rotation of the cylinder block in a variable displacement pump might vary between zero and a maximum angle during operation, depending upon the pump output desired. Utilizing a ball and socket connection such as has been described herein in relation to a fluid motor, this maximum angle might be inthe neighborhood of 45. It will also be seen that ball and socket connections constructed in accordance With this invention are designed to be slidably assembled and disassembled when an angle of approximately zero exists between the axis of rotation of the swash plate and the axis of rotation ofthe cylinder block. In other words, though they are satisfactorily locked at any other angle but zero, or thereabouts, at this minimum angle the balls are freely removable from the sockets. Since such a relationship might exist frequently with a variable displacement liuid pump, it will be seen that it is highly desirable to have the balls locked in their corresponding sockets at all relative angles of the corresponding axes of rotation.

Referring to FIGURE S, pertinent components of a swash plate type variable displacement pump are shown. They are substantially identical to the components of the swash plate type motor hereinbefore shown and described. In particular, a portion of a drive shaft 215 is rigidly secured in driving reiationship to a fluid pump shown generally 220. The pump 220 includes a ring shaped swash plate 242 secured to the shaft 215, which in turn carries a pin 249 having a universal ball joint 259 forming its outermost extremity and extending into the ring shaped swash plate.

Mounted opposite the swash plate 242, for rotation within a casing of well known construction (not shown), is a cylinder block 239. The block rotates about a supporting shaft of well known construction (not shown), which slidably carries a pin 275 having a universal ball joint 277 at its outermost extremity.

Nine piston rods 365, each having a piston head (not shown) are seated within cylinder bores in the cylinder block 89. The piston rods 3&5 each have a necked down portion 307 adjacent their outer ends and a spherical ball joint 308 at the outer extremity of the necked down pory tion. As with the swash plate type uid motor 20 hereinbefore discussed, the immediately foregoing description of specific components of the swash plate type liuid pump 22% is general in nature. The construction described up to this point is well known or covered in other of the applicants patents or patent applications and forms no part of this invention. Consequently, the brief description hereinbefore set out is thought sufficient to lay groundwork for an understanding of this facet of the invention.

The drive mechanism which forms a basis for this invention, in its adaptation to a swash plate type variable displacement pump, is shown generally and collectively at 309 in FIGURES 8 and 9. It includes the novel ball and socket connection 309e substantially identical to ball and socket connection 1l9a described in relation to the swash plate type fiuid motor 2i), acting in conjunction with an improved constant velocity joint 30%. This drive mechanism 309 facilitates the establishment of an angle of approximately 45 between the axis of rotation of the swash plate 242 and the axis `of rotationy of the associated cylinder block 239 in the swash plate type fluid pump 220. In addition, it contemplates means whereby a ball and socket connection is freely and easily assembled in a unique manner and readily provided with locking means forholding it in connected relationship at all angles of the axis of rotation of the swash plate A242 relative to the axis of rotation of the cylinder block 289.

In conjunction with these features, the joint 309b embodies a construction which readily adapts itself to a sub-V stantial axial dimensional variation between the swash plate 242 and the cylinder block 2,89 encountered during normal operation of the pump without effecting ythe power transmission between these components to any noticeable degree.

The ball and socket connection 309a preferably includes an annularly disposed series of nine spherical sockets 311 in the face of the swash plate 242,. Each socket 311 yis adapted to receive a ball joint 3087on the end of a corresponding piston rod 305. As seenin FIGURE .11, the spherical surface of each socket 311 encompasses an arc of greater than a hemisphere, herein approximately 220.

Thus, the diameter of the opening 311a in the swash plate for each of the sockets 311 is less than the spherical diameter of the socket.

Each of the ball joints 308 is of a spherical diameter substantially equal to the spherical diameter of the corresponding socket 311 and'has a circumferentiall-y disposed recess 312 symmetrically formed with respect to a great circle plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the corresponding piston rod 305. Slightly rounded ledges 313, facilitating the lubrication of the ball and socket joints, are provided at the junctures of the recesses 312 with the surface of each ball 308. As seen in FIGURES 1l and 12, flats 314 are formed on opposite sides of the ball 308 within the confines of the recess 312. These flats 314 facilitate the insertion of a unique split locking washer shown generally at 315 in FIGURES 8 and 9.

Since a recess 312 has been cut in the surface` of each of the balls 308 about its circumference, it will be obvious that the projected diameter of each ball, in a plane perf pendicular to the longitudinal axis of the piston rod f105, will be smaller than the spherical diameter of the ball. This projected diameter is arranged to be the same or slightly smaller than the opening diameter 311a for each socket. responding 220 socket 311 in the manner shown in FIG- URE 11, when the longitudinal axis of the piston rod 305 is perpendicular to the face Vof the swash plate 242. :Since the diameter of each of the sockets 311 is substantially equal to the spherical diameter of a corresponding ball 308, once the ball is inserted in the socket 311 and turned into the position seen in FIGURE l2, -a snug but sliding t is established 'between the ball and socket. The piston rods 305 thus cannot be removed from this universal relationship with swashplate 242 as long as they lremain oblique to the face-of the plate.

As has been pointed out, however, when the axis of rotation of the cylinder block 89 is moved -into general axial alignment with the laxis of rotation of the swash plate 242, `in varying theoutput of the variable displacement pump, means must be provided for holding the ball and socket connection vtogether or the balls 308 might inadvertently pop out of the sockets 311, which result would be, as can well be understood, highly undesirable. It is the unique locking washer 315 inV combination with the ball and socket construction which provides this'eunique locking means.

Illustrations of the construction, `use and operation of the locking clip 315 are shown clearly in ,FIGURES 9 through 12. As will be seen in FIGURES 9 and V1.0, for example, the clip 315 is generally horse-shoe shaped in construction having opposed ends 316and flattened portions 317 along its sides. The diameter -of .the arcuate'or Accordingly, a ball may be inserted in a cor- L of the openingr311a into the socket 3,11. The distance between the opposed open ends 316 is Calculated to be,

and established at, a figure slightly less than the distance,

between the ats 314 formed within the confines of the recess 312 surrounding each ball point 308.

Referring again to FIGURE 8, it will be seen that the cross section of the clip 3,15 shows slightly beveled edges 318 formed onvthe annular inner surface of the clip while annular recesses 319 are formed in oppositely disposed relationship on its sides. These. details of construction are providedto facilitate proper lubrication of the ring and ball joint in its Seated relationship within the socket 108 and are not basic to the principles of the finvention. Consequently, the cross section Aofthe clip 4315 might vary within limits, although the width of `the. broadest portion of the clip should be substantially equal to the width of recess 312. Y

Returning to FIGURE ,12, when a ball joint 308 is inserted in a corresponding socket .311 and moved to its extreme angular relationship; the ilats 314,011 theopPQSite sides of the recess 312 are established such that they lie in a plane generally perpendicular .to the Plane of. rotation ofthe swash plate 24,2. In that relationship, the clip 3 15, with its free ends 316 slightly spread to slide over the flats 314,as seen 4in FIGURE 9, can be inserted through the `opening 311:1 of the socket 311. The flattened sides 317 of the clip 31,5 allow the c lip to pass through the,

smaller opening 31141,. In inserted relationship, the clipv 315 appears substantially as its does in FlGURE 1-0, with the free ends 316 of the horse-,shoe shaped `clip hooked slightly over the en ds of the llats 314 the recess 312,315 at 320. The .Clip is Securelylidld is place by virtue of the fact that its generally horse-shoed shaped coniiguration provides it with resilient qualities..

It will now be seen that the ball and socket joint 309:1 will not become disengaged when an obliqueV angle between the axis ofrotation of the swash plate 242 and the axis of yrotation of the cylinder block 2,89, by virtue of the fact that the ball itself, in this relationship, is larger in diameter than the opening 311a to the socket 311. When the relationship of the aforedescribed axes is such that an angle of substantially zero exists therebetween, the clip 315 prevents disengagement of the ball and socket connection since `its outside diameter is substantially equal tothe inside .diameterof the socket 311 and larger than the diameter of the socket opening 311a. To remove the clip .and consequently the ball 308 from the socket 311, the maximum angle of 45 is established between a piston rod 305 and the axis of rotation of the swash plate 242, the .clip 3135 is sprung out with a `screw driver, for example,

Y, the ball 308 rotated downwardly until the piston rod 305 lies generally parallel to the axis of rotation of the swash plate 242 andthe ball then removed from the socket-311.`

A s has hereinbefore been pointed out, it is common practice in swash plate4 t-ype fluid devices to provide a constant velocity universal joint Vas part of the drive connection between the` cylinder block and swash plate. The constant velocity universal joint309bshown Ain FIGURES 8 and 9 permits the necessary axial dimensional variationV 75 application entitled Gear Type 4Constant Velocity Joint.

a,19a,eea

An annularly disposed internal set 325 of identical double helix gear teeth is formed within the ring shaped swash plate 242, while the cylinder block 289 is provided with an annularly disposed set 323 of internal gear teeth 329 which have planar faces substantially parallel to the axis of rotation of the cylinder block 289. The axial length of the internal gear teeth 329 of the set 32S is substantial for reasons which will be described immediately hereinafter.

It will be seen in FIGURE 8 that the axis about which the cylinder block 89 pivots in varying its displacement is substantially at A. On the contrary, however, the axis about which the joint member 320 pivots is B. Consequently, when the axes of rotation of the cylinder block 289 and the swash plate 242 are substantially in alignment, the' pivotal point B and the pivotal point C of the other end of the joint member 320 will be farther apart than they are when any other angle exists between the aforedescribed axes and substantially farther apart than they are when the maximum angle of 45 exists between these axes.

As a result of this varying dimensional relationship, one end of the joint member 320 must move relative to either the swash plate 242 or the cylinder block 289. It is the relationship between the double helical set of gear teeth 322 on the joint member 320 and the planarfaced gear teeth 329 within the cylinder block which facilitates this movement. The slidably mounted pin 275 permits the set 322. of helical teeth to slide relative to the planar faced gear teeth 329 as the angle between the axes of rotation of the swash plate 242 and the cylinder block 239 is varied in varying the displacement of the pump.

Again, as will be understood, since the set 322 of helical faced gear teeth are entering and leaving meshing relationship withthe planar faced gear teeth 329 at an angle preferably in the neighborhood of 15, a certain amount of play must be established between the teeth to facilitate unimpeded entry and departure of the helical faced teeth from engagement with the planar faced teeth without distortion of the metal adjacent the outer edges of the teeth. However, because the angle is small this amount of play does not have to be substantial, and does not materially aiect the operation of the joint.

The lubrication system for the swash plate type fluid pump 220 generally and the ball 308 and socket 311 joint construction specifically is substantially identical to that described in relation to the swash plate type uid pump 20. Consequently, it is not thought necessary that the lubrication system be discussed again since it is ancillary -to the invention. Y

In essence, it will be seen that an improved drive connection kbetween the piston carrying cylinder and swash plate of a swash plate type iiuid device has been shown and descri-bed. Y It embodies a simpler construction than any heretofore known while facilitating the establishment of a 45 angle between the axis of rotation of the cylinder block and that of a corresponding swash pla-te. This, in effect, provides increased displacement and relatively eieetive force components exerted by the piston rods and consequently results in an increased torque output. Where the iluid device is a variable displacement swash plate type uid pump, unique locking means are provided for retaining the ball and socket in action in operative relationship throughout the range of operation of the variable displacement pump.

In addition, the drive connection includes new and improved constant speed joint means which permit a substantial amount of axial dimensional tolerance between the swash plate andthe cylinder block and consequently lower manufacturing costs for the motor since precision tolerances between cylinder, joint, and block are not required in the manufacture and assembly of the motors.L In conjunction with this, of course, a substantially constant speed joint is provided between the rotating cylinder blocks and the swash plate. In the event a swash plate device incor- 15 porating such a joint is utilized in its variable displacement form, substantially no variation is realized in the constant speed properties of the joint throughout its variable speed range.

Although several variations on this invention have been described herein, it will be understood that others might fall within its purview and that various modifications and improvements might be made therein. It is intended to cover in the appended claims all such variations, modifications and improvements as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

\Vhat is desired to be claimed and secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. A swash plate type iluid device compri-sing a swash plate mounted for rotation about a predetermined axis, a cylinder block mounted for rotation about an axis oblique to said first mentioned axis, the maximum permissible angle between said axes being substantially in excess of 30, said block having a plurality of cylinders therein, piston rods reciprocable in said cylinders and a drive connection betweensaid cylinder block and said swash plate, said drive connection includ-ing ball joints on the free ends of said piston rods and corresponding sockets in said swash plate, each of said sockets being unitary with said plate and enclosing an arc inV excess of said ball joints having circumferentially disposed reiief means thereon decreasing the projected circumference thereof in a plane perpendicular to the axes of corresponding piston rods whereby said ball joints are freely insertable in said sockets when said rods are generally parallel to the axis of rotation of said swash plate and universally retained therein when said rods extend obliquely to said last mentioned axis throughout each rotational cycle of said swash plate and cylinder block.

2. The device of claim l further characterized in that the angle between the axis of rotation of said cylinder block and the axis of rotation of said swash plate is in the neighborhood of about 45.

3. The device of claim 1 further characterized in that each of said sockets encloses an arc in the neighborhood of 220.

4. A swash plate type fluid device comprising a swash plate mounted for rotation about a predetermined axis, a cylinder block mounted for rotation about an axis angularly displaceable from said predetermined axis in excess of 30, said block having a plurality of cylinders therein,

piston rods reciproca-ble in said cylinders and a drive connection between said cylinder block and said swash plate, said drive connection including a plurality of annularly disposed sockets in said swash plate, each of said sockets being unitary with said plate and enclosing an arc in excess of 180, and ball joints on the free ends of said piston rods, said ball joints having circumferentially disposed recesses thereon decreasing the projected circumference of said ball joints in a plane generally perpendicular to the axes of corresponding piston rods such that said ball joints are adapted to be freely insertable in corresponding sockets when said rods are generally parallel to the axis of rotation of said swash plate and luniversally retained therein when said rods are in operative position oblique to said last mentioned axis, and locking means insertable in said recesses between said ball joints and said sockets only when said rods extend at an oblique angle to said predetermined axis, whereby said ball joints are then universally held in said sockets when they are generally parallel to the axis of rotation of said swash plate.

5. The Vdevice of claim 4 further characterized in that each of said sockets encloses an arc of in the neighborhood of 220.

6. The device of claim 4 further characterized in that said locking means includes generally U-shaped snap rings adapted to be snapped around each ball joint and seated in a corresponding recess when said rods extend at said oblique angle to said predetermined axis.

7, The device of claim 6 further character-ized in that `disposed flat surfaces being formed on each `of said ball joints in corresponding recesses, the distance between said jaws being slightly less than the distance between said dat surfaces .on each ball joint such that a corresponding snap right can be snapped over said ring and :seated in a corresponding recess with said jaws overlying the ends of said dat surfaces whereby said snap rings are resiliently locked in place.

9. A swash plate type uid device comprising a swash plate mounted for rotation about a predetermined axis, aV

cylinder block mounted for rotation about an axis angu larly displaceable from said predetermined axis in excess of 30, said block having a plurality of cylinders therein,

piston rods reciprocable in `said cylinders and a drive con` nection between said cylinder block and said swash plate, said drive connection including a plurality of annularly disposed sockets in said swash plate, each of said sockets being unitary with said plate and enclosing an arc in excess of 180, and ball joints on the free ends of said piston rods, said ball joints having circumferentially disposed recesses `thereon decreasing the projected circumference of each of said balljoints in a plane generally perpendicular to the axis of said piston rods such that'said ball joints are adapted to be -freely insertable in said sockets when said rods are generally parallel to the axis of ,rotation of said swash plate and universally reta-ined therein when said rods extend obliquely to .said last mentioned axis, the juncture `of said recesses with the surface of said balls being slightly rounded to facilitate the entry of lubricating fluid between the surfaces of said balls and said sockets, and locking means insertable in said recesses between saidr ball joints and said sockets only when said rods extend atan oblique angle to said predetermined axis, whereby said ball joints are then universally held in said sockets when theylare generally parallel to the axis of rotation of said swash plates.

10. A variable displacement duid pump including a swash plate mounted for rotation about a predetermined axis, a cylinder block mounted for rotation about an axis angularly displaceable from said predetermined axis in excess of 30 degrees, said block having a plurality of cylinders therein, piston rods reciprocable in said cylinders and a drive connection between said cylinder block and said swash plate, said drive connection including ball joints on the free ends of said piston rods and corresponding sockets in said swash plate, each of said sockets being unitary with said plate and enclosing an arc in excess of 180 degrees, said ball joints adapted t-o be freely insertable in said sockets when said rods are generally parallel to the axis of ,rotation .of said swash plate and slidably retained therein when said rods extend obliquely to saidV last mentioned axis, and locking means insertable between said ball joints and said sockets only whensaid rods extend at a predetermined obliqueangle'to said predetermined axis such that said ball joints are then universally held in said sockets when they are generally parallel t0 the "-axisof rotation of said -swash plate during the'operation of said variable displacement pump.

11. A variable displacement uid pump including a. 'swash plate mounted for rotation about a predetermined axis, a cylinder block mounted for rotation about an axis Iangularly `displaceable from saidpredetermined axis yin excess of 30l degrees, said block having a plurality of cylinders therein, piston rods reciprocable in said cylinders and a drive connection between said cylinder block and said swash plate, -said drive connection including ball and socket joints between said .piston rods and said swash plate, locking means insertable in said ball and socket joints only kwhen said rods extend at an oblique angle to said predetermined axis, whereby said locking means iS adapted to retain said ball and socket joints in cooperative relationship throughout the operational range of said uid pump, said drive connection further including a constant speed joint for rigidly synchronizing the rotation of said cylinder yblock and said swash plate, Vsaid constant speed joint comprising an annularly disposedlset of gear teeth having double helicalY faces on said swash plate, a double ended connector joint, an annularly disposed set of gear Vteeth having double helical faces on one end of said connector joint,-said external and internal double helical gear teeth being in mesh and establishing a sub- .stantially constant speed joint between said swash plate and said connector joint, an annularly disposedinternal set of generally planar faced gear teeth in said cylinder block, the planar faces of said gear teeth being substantially parallel to the axis of rotationV of said cylinder block and being of substantial length, an annularly disposed eX- ternal set of gear teeth having rdouble helical faces on Ithe 4other end of said connector joint, saidlast mentioned external and internal gear teeth being in mesh through- `out the operational range of said fluid pump as the angle between said axes varies.

References Cited by the Examiner y UNITED STATES PATENTS Sullivan 103-162 LAURENCE V. EFNER, Primary Examiner.

JOSEP-H =BRANSON,JR., Examiner.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE 0E CORRECTION Patent N6. 3,192,868 July 6, 1965 Gunnar A., Wahlmark It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column 14, line 9, for "point" read joint Column 17, line l2, for "right" read ring Signed and sealed this 28th day of December 1965.

(SEAL) Attest:

ERNEST W. SWIDER EDWARD I. BRENNER Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3391753 *Oct 27, 1965Jul 9, 1968Ulrich Hydraulics IncFluid power wheel
US3439766 *Dec 29, 1966Apr 22, 1969Clark Equipment CoHydraulic-motor-in-wheel assembly
US3612204 *Apr 7, 1969Oct 12, 1971Rolls RoyceVehicle wheel suspension
US3802278 *Jan 24, 1972Apr 9, 1974Baker Perkins IncMixer drive mechanism
US3871782 *Dec 26, 1973Mar 18, 1975Volvo Flygmotor AbDevice for positively retaining a ball-shaped bearing member in a mating bearing seat
US4279041 *Jul 5, 1979Jul 21, 1981Buchholz Hans WilhelmEndoprosthesis composed of a socket and a head receivable and lockable in the socket
US4515336 *Apr 14, 1983May 7, 1985Opcon, Inc.Ball and socket mount for optical sensing system source and/or detector devices
US4641393 *Jul 31, 1985Feb 10, 1987Karl Lautenschlager Kg, MobelbeschlagfabrikCabinet hinge
US5114261 *Jul 30, 1990May 19, 1992Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaSwashplate type hydraulic device having a ball joint connection
US5153976 *Mar 23, 1992Oct 13, 1992Allied-Signal Inc.Ball-and-socket assembly and method of making
Classifications
U.S. Classification74/22.00R, 180/307, 403/122, 180/253, 91/486, 74/60
International ClassificationF01B3/00
Cooperative ClassificationF01B3/0076, F01B3/0055, F01B3/0044, F01B3/0088
European ClassificationF01B3/00B4D, F01B3/00D3R, F01B3/00B6, F01B3/00B4