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Publication numberUS3194360 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 13, 1965
Filing dateMar 16, 1962
Priority dateMar 16, 1962
Publication numberUS 3194360 A, US 3194360A, US-A-3194360, US3194360 A, US3194360A
InventorsRichter Donald L
Original AssigneeKaiser Aluminium Chem Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 3194360 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 13, 1965 Filed March 16, 1962 FIG! D. L. RICHTER STRUCTURE 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. BOA 440 4 FM?? D. L. RICHTER July 13, 1965 STRUCTURE 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed March 16, 1962 INVENTOR. Dan 4w L P/c'A TEQ United States Patent 3,194,360 STRUCTURE Donald L. Richter, Mount Prospect, 111., assignor to Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation, Uakland, Calif., a corporation of Delaware Filed Mar. 16, 1962, Ser. No. 180,169 7 (Ilaims. ((31. 1892) This invention relates to ground anchoring arrangements for building structures. More particularly, this invention relates to improved ground anchoring arrangements for geodesic building structures of the type disclosed in my previously filed application, Serial No. 676,223 which matured as Patent No. 3,026,651 on March 27, 1962, filed August 5, 1957.

Accordingly, it is a primary purpose of the instant invention to provide a ground anchoring arrangement for a building structure of the type shown in the aforesaid patent application wherein improved means are utilized to secure the building structure to the ground.

Other purposes and advantages of the instant invention will become more apparent from a review of the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the appended drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a geodesic dome structure, the base perimeter of which can be anchored to the ground by the anchoring means of the instant invention;

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view of a portion of the base perimeter of the building structure shown in FIG. 1 and discloses in more detail the unique arrangement for anchoring the building structure to the ground;

FIG. 3 is a view with parts added and generally taken along line 3--3 of FIG. 2; and

FIG. 4 is an exploded view of the flanged column elements, etc., making up the ground anchoring arrangement of the instant invention.

With further reference to the drawings and in particular FIG. 2, the base perimeter anchoring means of the instant invention can be advantageously employed with the type of geodesic structure generally disclosed in my previously filed patent application Serial No. 676,223, filed August 5, 1957, wherein specially formed panels are employed. Since the structure of these panels and the manner in which they are secured together is fully disclosed in my previous application, no detailed discussion of the same is believed to be required.

The geodesic building structure, as indicated in FIG. 1 is generally made up of a plurality of panel members or structural units 2. These panels are four-cornered and are ,so formed that they are preferably diamondshaped in plan and have a major axis MM and a minor axis NN. The structural unit or panel includes corners or vertices 3, 4, 5 and 6, the corners or vertices 3 and 4 lying along the major axis and corners 5 and 6 lying along the minor. axis. Corners 5 and 6 are also displaced upwardly from the normal plane of rest of the sheet and, in turn, are connected by suitably shaped strut members 7 which lie along and generally coincide with the minor axis NN. The strut 7 is secured to a panel 2 by means of an apertured sleeve member which fits over the end of the strut or the ends of the strut can be provided with apertured flanged portions 8. Bolts or rivets (not shown) pass through suitable openings in the flanged portions 8 and corresponding openings in the panel adjacent the corners 5 and 6. Y

The sheet or panel 2 can also be advantageously provided with a plurality of delineations or creases 12 and 13, emanating from the major axial points or vertices 4 and 3 of the sheet.

The marginal edges of a structural unit or panel 2 are provided with reinforcing marginal flanges 9 which act as integrally formed frame elements for a building structure in which the panels 2 are incorporated.

As indicated in my previous application, the formed panel along with its strut 7 defines a tetrahedron-like solid or building block wherein certain integral portions of the panel serve as a framework While other integral portions of the panel serve as a covering for the building in which they are incorporated.

When one structural unit 2 is joined to another structural unit or panel 2 to form a series of building blocks, each panel, in effect, serves as a three-dimensional beam unit in a three-dimensional space truss structure. The mathematical arrangement of these structural units is such that load stresses are distributed substantially through all of the material in each unit and are directed to the diamond vertices or tips 3, 4, 5 and 6. These tetrahedron-like elements are of considerable three-dimensional strength and the central portion of a panel 2 located along the line or plane MM, i.e., a long diagonal, also advantageously acts in the manner of a strut or frame member.

When a plurality of the units 2 including a strut 7, are joined at a common point X, six of the units having adjacent flanged edges are located in abutting relation while the struts 7 of each of the six units are joined together and approximately define a regular hexagon, all as described more fully in my previous application.

To the aforesaid basic pattern there may be added additional series of structural units so arranged that the struts 7 are connected to the various vertex points B which comprise the conveying points of the short diagonals of the various four-sided and four-cornered panels. I

By securing the panels together in this fashion along with the struts 7 and the short diagonals thereof, the struts on adjacent units are also interconnected with each other, whereby the struts advantageously transfer loads from one to the other. By use of the structural panels herein described, the unique structure, as formed, has a geometrically patterned spider-like framework comprised of struts 7 and a surface wall of undulating marginally joined four-sided sheets. The geometric pattern or frame is generally a series of re-occurring hexagons. The total arrangement of the panels becomes that of a hexagonal strut overlying a three-dimensional covering of bowed panels 2. The structure formed from these panels 2 is also geodesic in that the vertices of all tetrahedronlike building blocks or structural elements 2 fall in a series of great circles which generally define a sphere in the case of the building structure shown in FIG. 1. In the building structure as shown in FIG. 1 each strut 7, the long and short diagonals and the marginal flanges 9 of any two contiguous units are positioned along great circle arcs.

The novel arrangement for anchoring a structure as shown in FIG. 1 to the ground will now be described. As illustrated, particularly in FIGS. 2-4, this arrangement contemplates that the bottom extremities of a plurality of panels located adjacent the bottom perimerical portions of the building structure will be directly anchored to a series of base supports or ground piers 14.

7 Base perimeter portions of the building are connected 7 etc. (not shown).

to piers 14 through the useof unique flanged columns 16. r Each of the flanged columns is generally comprised of i a webor base 17 and sideslfi. Each of the sides 18 is further provided with outwardly and somewhat downwardly disposed flange members 19. The sides lil pro-- ject in a converging fashionwith web 17 from one end 20 of the flanged column until they merge with the web 17 and flanges 19 adjacent the other extremity 21v of the flanged column. Thus, the other extremity 21 of the columnis somewhat triangular in cross-section.

The inclined'flanges 19 of the flanged column 16 which Q 1 building structurecomprised of a plurality of 1 y structural units said units each comprising a four-cornered sheet, said. sheetfbeingflbowed such that twoIopposing corners thereofjare displaced upwardly from .the.;normal plane of rest; of-said s'heetand'astrut' extending across 1 said sheet and connected; solely at :its iends to said upward-g ly displaced cornersgthemarginal edges, of said sheet being flanged and said units beingconnected together in' a fixed geometric pattern-such, that a; series of regulara'polygons are formed .by saidstfuts, means anchoring the,l ase peri;

. metrical portions of i the building. structure stormed from:

are also generally of triangular shape in plan are each secured to a marginal side edge of a separate panel 2 in such a fashion by bolts or rivets .22 that the lower iex-v tremity 20 of the flanged column 16 is a'iiixed to a vertex .orrtip 3 located along the major axis of a panel 2 while the upper; portion or extremity 21 is locatedor secured to contiguous panels 2 adjacent a vertex point and 6 of .the panels 2 whi ch fall along the minor. axis thereof.

Stated another way, each'flanged column is secured adjacent to the contiguous side marginal edges of a pair of V contiguous panels 2, such that the one extremity. 21' of a 1 flanged column 16 is secured to panels 2 adjacent the;upwardly displaced corners and the minor axis thereof,.

" while the other or lower extremity of the column 16-is secured to theportions of the panel units 2 which are located along the major axis of the panels. This same lower portion of the flanged column is also-the part of the column which is directly secured to an anchoring pier "14 by means of an'apertured, anchoring cap 23. Anchoring cap, 23 is a generally channel-shaped member which i the said contiguous pair of units.

saidunitsto ground piers, 'saidmeansiincludinga column provided.withflangesaffixedto-a pair of contiguous structural units located adjacent the? base perimeteroff' the' building structure,v one extremity. offthe, columnterminat ing adjacent the displaced corners of-said pairo ot units. and the otherextremity off the flanged column ibeing at fixed to a pier, the flanges-of the columnoverlying and 7 being affixed to the 'saidpairjof units adjacentjthe con tiguous'side edges of said unit's; 1

2.:In a structure 1 as set. forth in claim 1,; wherein the flangedzcolumn of.said'anchoringmeans is aligned with; the strut of aiurther' unit," the ,displaced gco'rner' of ,saidf 7 displacedcorners oi last mentioned unit mating with the 3.2111 a structure as 'settorthtm claiin lipvhereinrsaid anchoring; means furtherincludes shoe mealisfaflixed ,to'

fits over and is welded to the bottom extremity of H a column 16. Atfixed to each of the sides 24 of the cap 23 is a fitting 25. Fitting 25 includes an angular portion 25" welded or otherwise secured to cap 23 and a tongue portion 26 boltedto the underside of a panel 2. It is to be understood, of course, that the two contiguous panels 2 'to which the flanged coluninl6 isattached are secured together by means of rivets or bolts 27 passing through their contiguous flanges 9.

' The flanged column'is aflixed to .apier 14 by fitting the capped lower portion of the, flanged column 16 over the upwardly projecting shoe element 28 mounted within bracket 29, bracket 29 in turn being sccuredtoth'c top] of concrete, pier 14 through the medium of-boltfmembers ,1

. 3t} and leveling platef31; As the cap 23,,and column 16 thefla'ngesof said flanged columnv overlying arid being affixed-to a pair of, contiguous panels located adjacent the base perimeter; of the building andadjacentthe contigurf1 a .ous marginaledges thereof, oneextremityoftheflanged 7 column terminatingadjacentcertain-displaced corners oi,

are fitted over the shoe'ZSQthe hole 33 of shoe 28-is;

aligned with openings 34in cap 23 and openings 35 ;in

V thesides 18 of the column 1'6 and a bolt36 isthen thrust throughrthese' openings and locked in place.

-It will be further noted that, if desired, the strut menu, bet 7 can be omitted from the panels to whichra flanged column'16 is; attached' In the case where the strut is employed with the panel, members, vit is to ,be observed that'thc upper extremity of the flanged column ,16 terminates adjacent to but short of the vertices 5 and 6 so as not to interferewiththe normal'attachment of a'strut to'a,

panel member. r

Ifdesired, filler panel, segments 40' may be disposed intermediate the piers 14, to which the'flanged columns 16 are secured. In such instances, the extremities of the filler panel segments 40-w-ould be suitably connected to:

the angular portions 25 of the fittings 25 by bolt'means,

7 It will be observed that the'flanged column 16 ha en tageously forms continuations'ofthe struts on certain of the panels or units used in the building structure. Thus;

they form, in etfect, eontinuations of the geodesicarcs or V V circles formed by these struts An advantageous embodiment of the invention has beendisclosed and described. It will be appreciatedlthat'various changes can be made in the described invention which are within the scope thereof, the invention being'limited only as defined in'the following claimsgwherein what is. claimed is: 5 Y

a pier, a cap 'rneansaflixed to theglastrmention ed extremity; l of thefla nged columnand 'said .cap means also being a affix'ed to said shoe means.

4.;In a buildi'g construction a plurality ,ofhtructural: 7

units so disposed. and secured to pach otherfastorform a three-dimensional spaceftruss, eachigot' saidQunitsEcomg prising a four cornered panel, said' panel 'inr-t urn being bowed about-an axis, coinciding witha diagonal; center line in' the said panel, such that two opposing ;corners thereof are displaced upwardly t am: the normal plane 7 of rest of the panel; thefpanels being securedtog ether'in 1 a'fixed geometric pattermimeans anchoring the base pe rl- I metrical, portions of the building formedfrom saidpanels;

to base supportgsaid means including aflangedjcolumm;

, the pair of contiguousvpanels'andthei other extremity. of}

the flanged column being vaffixed to a basesupPQ fl SJA buiIding structure'as set'forthin claim 4 wherein I said anchoring ,means includes shoemeans affixed: to a base support, a. cap meansaifixedxtolthe last rnentionedi extremity of the flanged column, sairfcapfme'ansialso being affixed to said shoe means.

6 A building: having an outer 'js urfaee" conforming :to. 1

the contour of a sphere co.mprising ,a plurality of: panel members of diamond shape, body portionsofwhichise'rve asacovering for the buildingand flan gejportions of which have downturnededges. united to .form a framework for thebuilding, each of. said panelinembers beingbow ed such that two opposingfcorners thereof arefdisplalced .up' wardly from the normal plane .of'rest of alpanelr'nember',

point where ,certain'tips of a group of {panel members 7 converge to form a reaction point and the lower'extremityi it 3 i ans-mes 5 6 of each of the flanged columns being anchored to a pier References Cited by the Examiner to forrrra continuation of the arc of the great circle formed UNITED STATES PATENTS by portions of certain of the panel members.

7. A building as set forth in claim 6, wherein said an- 2,918,992 12/59 Gelsavage 5052 X choring means includes a shoe affixed to each pier and a 5 3,049,201 8/62 Kmg et a1 139-36 cap means aflixed to the lower extremity of each of the flanged columns, said cap means also being aifixed to said RICHARD 000KB Primary Examiner shoe. 7 JACOB L. NACKENOFF, Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2918992 *Mar 26, 1956Dec 29, 1959John Z GelsavageBuilding structure
US3049201 *Feb 3, 1959Aug 14, 1962Farnsworth Lee PBase details
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3341989 *Jul 16, 1965Sep 19, 1967Emmerich David GeorgesConstruction of stereometric domes
US3731450 *Aug 14, 1969May 8, 1973Du Chateau SMetal structure and sections
US4611442 *May 3, 1985Sep 16, 1986TemcorLarge span dome
US4711063 *Apr 16, 1986Dec 8, 1987TemcorLarge span dome
US5704169 *Sep 9, 1983Jan 6, 1998TemcorSpace truss dome
WO1995007392A1 *Sep 9, 1993Mar 16, 1995TemcorSpace truss dome
U.S. Classification52/81.3, 52/86, 52/801.11, 52/745.8, 52/222, D25/13
International ClassificationE04B1/32, E04B7/10
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2001/3235, E04B7/105, E04B1/3211, E04B2001/3252, E04B2001/3288, E04B2001/3276, E04B2001/3294
European ClassificationE04B7/10C, E04B1/32C