|Publication number||US3195786 A|
|Publication date||Jul 20, 1965|
|Filing date||Jul 11, 1962|
|Priority date||Jul 11, 1962|
|Publication number||US 3195786 A, US 3195786A, US-A-3195786, US3195786 A, US3195786A|
|Inventors||Vogt Clarence W|
|Original Assignee||Vogt Clarence W|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (26), Referenced by (12), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
July 20, 1965 C. w. VOGT 3,195,786
METHOD ma EQUIPMENT Fon FILLING OPEN MOUTHED REGEPI'AGLES WITH coLmINUTED MATERIAL on THE LIKE Filed July 11. 1962 FIG. l
United States Patent O M $5,786 METHD AND EQUEMENT FR FLlLlNG @PEN MUTHED RECEPTACLES WlTH QMMENUEED MATERIAL R Tim LH@ Ciarenee W. Vogt, Box 232, Westport, Conn. filed July 1i, 1952, Ser. No. 2G9,tl25 l2 Claims. (Cl. Z22-334) This invention relates to the art of packaging, and more particularly to the iilling of open mouthed receptacles or containers with predetermined weights of hnely divided or comminuted material and/or mixtures which may be in the form of powder, grains, granules, particles and the like, flowable under gaseous pressure greater or less than atmospheric.
As conducive to an understanding of the invention, it is noted that where material of the above type, all of which may hereinafter be referred to in the specification and claims Jtor convenience, as comminuted material, is charged into open mouthed containers or cavities such as bags or bottles, by sifting or discharging it through a tube, the operation is extremely time-consuming, especially Where large numbers of containers are to be lled. In addition, due to the large amounts of air entrained with some materials, the latter is not firmly packed or com pacted into the container with the result that a given volume of the material has relatively little weight and in addition, due to indeterminate quantities of air that remain in the material, the weight of a given volume varies from container to container.
Where, in an attempt to speed up the filling operation, gas under pressure is applied to a magazine containing such material to force the latter through the outlet or" the magazine into the container to be filled, it has been found in many cases, due to the inertia of the material, the gas under pressure will channel through the material and through the outlet of the magazine into the container so that such container will only till partially with the material.
Furthermore, it is to be noted that with many materials, the outlet of the magazine must be provided with a valve that will close to prevent discharge of material during successive filling operations and also sifting of material from the magazine when the latter is initially loaded.
Where the valve is of the type that has a fixed member and a movable member to effect opening and closing thereof, the comminuted material is likely to clog between such members with the result that the valve becomes dillicult to operate and often becomes inoperative and must be cleaned. This requires disassembly of the equipment which is time-consuming and results in loss of production.
It is accordingly among the objects of the invention to provide a relatively simple method and equipment for expeditiously lling open mouthed containers with comminuted material at a relatively high rate of speed with assurance that successive containers in a given run of material will be charged with substantially equal weights or such material and without likelihood of jamming of the valve utilized between the magazine and the container so that disassembly of the equipment for cleaning of the valve is eliminated.
According to one aspect of the invention, a magazine is provided having an outlet controlled by a liexible valve member which automatically opens when iiow through the valve member is desired, and will automatically restrain further iow between the charging cycles.
The equipment has means to apply a vacuum to the outlet side of the iexible valve to cause the latter to permit flow therethrough and also to cause the material in the magazine to ow through the open valve into a container immediately therebelow and in sealing engageigh Patented .July 26, 1965 ICC ment with the outlet end of the magazine and encompassing said valve.
According to anothher aspect of the invention, means are provided to apply a source of gas under superatmospheric pressure to the contents of the magazine immediately after such contents have begun to iiow through the open valve by the application of such vacuum, thereby assisting such movement of the contents and increasing its ilow velocity to provide a charge of material in the container that is in compacted form and of relatively heavy weight for a given volume.
In the accompanying drawings in which is shown one or more of various possible embodiments of the several features of the invention:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of the iilling equipment according to one embodiment of the invention,
FIG. 2 is an exploded detail plan view on a larger scale of the valve portion of the equipment of PEG. 1,
FIG. 3 is a view taken along line 3-3 o PEG. l,
FIG. 4 is a detail View similar to FIG. 2 of the valve portion assembled,
FIG. 5 is a detail view of another embodiment of the valve member showing in broken lines the valve iiaps in spaced position, and
FIG. 6 is a perspective View showing the valve member and liner as separate elements.
Referring now to the drawings, the equipment desirably comprises a cylindrical casing l1 having an annular liange at its upper end which extends laterally inward and outward of the casing l1 as at l2 and 13.
Associated with the casing 1l is a gas chamber which desirably comprises a casing ld having opposed walls l5 and 16 and an enlarged portion i7 defining a gas reservoir. The walls l5 and 16 have vertically aligned openings 13 and 19, and the wall l5 has an upstanding rim 2l coaxial with opening 18 and of inner diameter greater than that of opening 18 to deline an annular shoulder 22.
The rim 21 and the casing l1 are secured together as by screws 23; the inner surface of rim 21; the opposed wall lll of casing l1; the undersurface of liange portion 13 and the shoulder 22 defining an annular chamber 24.
Extending through the opening 19 in wall 16 is an elongated sleeve 28 of inner diameter slightly less than that of casing lll. The sleeve 2S adjacent its lower end which has a beveled annular ange 29, has an annular flange 3l which is secured to the undersurface of wall i6 as by screws 32. The length of the sleeve 28 is such that when so mounted, its upper end 33, which is beveled as at 34 on its inner surface, will extend slightly into opening 1S, being vertically spaced from the lower end 3S of casing 11 to define an annular port 36, the outer diameter of sleeve 23 being less than the inner diameter of opening l to define an annular gas inlet port 37.
As the diameter of opening 1S is greater than the outer diameter of the cylindrical portion ll of casing ll, an annular passageway is provided, to accommodate the annular skirt 39 of an annular piston 4l slidably mounted in chamber Zei, the portion of chamber 24 beneath the piston being vented as at 4l. The lower end of skirt 39 has an inwardly extending annular iange 42 which is movable in port 36, between the opposed ends 33 and 35 of the sleeve 2S and the casing 1l respectively and delines a valve member.
To provide an eiective seal for the .piston 4l, annular .seals 43, 44 rare provided in its inner and outer periphenies and the skirt 39 is provided with an external annula-r 'seal 45 which engages the w-all surface of opening 18. In addition, t-he upper end 33 of sleeve 28 has an annular seal 46 against which the valve member or flange 42 may abut.
n Desirably, the dimensions of the piston 41, the llange 42 and the port 36 are such that when the flange 42 is in its uppermost position against the end 35 of cas-ing 11, the top surface, of the piston 41 will be spaced from the 'undersurface of flange portion 13 as sho-Wn.
Secured as by `screws 51 to the flangeportion 13 is a cover plate 52 which has a beveled central port 53 aligned with lthe casing 111. The cover -plate 52 has an elongated recess 54 in its undersurface which in conjunction with the ilange of .casing :11 defines .a channel in which a plate 55 having an aperture 56 is slidably mounted to open and close the port 53 as desired. An annular gasket S7 is provided in the flange portion of the casing 11 coaxial with the port 53 to provide a seal with respect to plate 55 and port E13. A hopper 58 is mounted on the top surface of the cover plate 52.
Positioned in the casing I1'1 and .sleeve 28 and extending coaxially therewith is Ia cylindrical lilter liner or sleeve 61 which is laterally `spaced from the lcasing 11 and the sleeve 28 .to define an .annular chamber 62. To this end, the inner flange portion 12 has -a reduced diameter portion 6,3 on its undersurface which encompasses the upper portion of liner 61. The lower end Aofthe liner has an outwardly extending annular ange 64 which seats in an annular recess 65 in the lower end of the sleeve V2:8.
,The liner 61 -is of gas permeable material such as sintered metal, sintered polyethylene, paper impregnated with epoxy or other suitable resins, porous Teflon and Kel-1F.
The liner 61 is releasably held in position as by a cup.- shaped retainer 66 which has an annular top surface 67 with an opstanding peripheral rim 68 that encompasses the lower end 29 of sleeve 28V, the beveledportion of end Z9 ,being engaged by inclined screws 69 through rim 68 releasably to mount theV retainer 66.
The inner surface 72 of the retainer `tapers inwardly to a port in the lower end thereof, said port being axially .aligned with the liner 61.
The retainer 66 -in its undersurface, coaxial with said kport has an annular recess 74, the upper surface of which il llaps S8 are more strongly urged towards their normal closed positions of `FIG..4 than that closing act-ion due to the resiliency of the material from which the liner Sil is formed.
The outer surface of the side wall 32 of the liner has an annular laterally extending l-ange S9 with an annular groove 91 in the top surface thereof deining a peripheral ridge 93 adapted to be positioned in the annular groove 75 in the recess 7 4in the retainer.
Means are provided securely to clamp the lower end of the liner 81m position.
To this end, :as is clearly shown in FIGS. 1 and.2 and 4, a rigid disc or plate 94 is provi-ded which has an an- Y nular rim 160 on its outer periphery defining a recess and a large centr-al opening 95 therethrough with a plural-ity of perforations 96 through the portion thereof outwardly of the central opening l' and inwardly of .the rim 1Go. The disc or plate 94 is positioned against the under-surface of the retainer 66 as is clearly shown in FIG.
1. Positioned in the recess of the disc 94 is a disc 161 of porous material which may be of impregnated paper, if desired, or of sintered polyethylene or the like.V The disc 1411 als-o has a central opening 192 therethrough aligned With the opening 95 in theplate 94.
To ret-ain the parts together, a clamp plate 77 is provided which has a central opening 7.8 Ihaving a curved inner periphery '79. An annular resilient gasket 89 is positioned between the clamp plate 77 and the plate 94, and the parts are secured to the undersurface :of the retainer 66 as by recessed screws 98. -It is to be noted that the gasket 86 is of width .such that its inner periphery will extend beyond the outer periphery of disc 161 to form a seal. ln addition, a locking ring 163 is provided which, as is clearly shown in FIG. 2, has lan inwardly extending annular ilange 1114 and an outwardly extending annular flange .165, the outer periphery of the locking ring being eter end 83 of the liner has .an outwardly extending annular ange 84 which is positioned on the top surface 67 of the retainer member and which will be clamped in place when the screws 69 are tightened to provide a seal.
The lower reduced diameter por-tion end ofithe linerother, said cross .slits also extending through the portion Y of the body portion or side wall 82 of the liner adjacent the transverse Portion 85V as at 87, as is clearly shown in FIG. 4. The cross slits thus illustratively define four closure aps 88 which have their root ends at the outer periphery of the wall portion 85 and which, by reason of the resilience of the liner, are normally in closed position .as is clearly shown in FIG. 4, to define a valve 90.
It is noted .that each of the closure flaps 88 has its root end along a curved line, that is a segment of the extreme lower portion of the side wall 82 of the liner. It is well known that the resistance to bending of a curved member threaded as at 106 so that it may coact with the threads 76 in recess 74.
The locking ring is so conformed that it will fit through the aligned openings` and 192 iny plate $4 and disc 101 and engage the threads 76, the ring being rotated as by means of a Spanner wrench applied to the openings 167 in flange 1613. When the locking ring Vis tightened. the top surface 1% of flange 1533 will react against the bottom surface of annular flange S9 to force the ridge 93 of the latter into annular groove '75 in recess74 and the lange 1&5 will press against the undersurface of the margin of the opening 1432 in disc 101 thereby retaining the assembly in securely clamped position. Desirably as shown, the inner periphery 111 of the ange 104 is rounded tok prevent cutting of the outer surface of the side wall 82 of the liner S1.
The undersurface of the retaining member 66 has an annular groove 115 encompassing the port thereof and in communication with a port 116 leading into the an- By alternately subjecting the interior and exterior surfaces of the wall d2 of liner S1 with different pressures, through ports Y-1, Y-Z, the liner will alternately move inwardly and outwardly loosening the material remaining in the liner after the filling operation.
t This is especially useful at the end of a run so that all residual material can readily be discharged from the liner and valve.
Means are provided to actuate the piston 41 and valve member 42 and to relieve the gas under pressure in liner 61 at the end of the lling cycle, which is necessary when the filling is accomplished at least in part by the use of pressure greater than atmosphere in the manner hereinafter described. To this end, as shown, passageways 121 and 122 are provided in the flanged portion 13 leading respectively from the chamber 24' between the top surface of piston 41 and ange 13 of casing 11 to a port 123 and from the annular chamber 62 between the casing 11 and the liner 61 to a port 124.
With the slide plate 5d in open position and the hopper S8 charged with the comminuted material to be packaged, which will flow into the liner 61, which deiines a magazine, and into liner 81 to till such liner, a container R is positioned in a holder H on a support S beneath the retainer member d6. As illustratively shown, the diameter of the container R is such that its mouth 125 may press against the undersurface of the resilient gasket 36, the container being centered by the curved inner periphery 7% of clamp plate 77.
To control the operation of the equipment, a valve V-l is provided which has a port P-1 connected to port 124 and a port P-Z connected to port 123. The valve has a pressure inlet port P-3 and an exhaust port P-ft. ln the blow position of the valve 5J-1 as shown, ports P-Z and P-4 are connected and in the normal position of the valve, ports P-2 and P-S are connected and ports P-1 and P-4 are connected, the port P-4 leading to atmosphere.
The port 116 of the retainer is also connected to a second valve V-2. This valve has a port X-1 which is connected to port 116 and two additional ports X-2 and X-3 connected respectively to a source of gas under pressure and to a vacuum source. The valve is so designed that normally all of the ports may be closed as shown. In one position of the valve, the ports X-1 and X-2 may be connected and in another position of the valve, ports X-l and X-S may be connected for the purpose hereinafter to be described.
With the valve V-l in the normal position, gas under pressure is applied through ports P-3, P-2 to port 123, the ports P-1 and P- also being connected, so that port 124 is connected to atmosphere to exhaust the annular chamber 62.
The valves V-1, V-2, V-3 preferably are of the solenoid operated spool type for fast action.
As the upper surface area of the piston [i1 exposed to the air pressure in chamber 24 from port 123 is greater than the undersurface area of the valve member 42 eX- posed to the gas pressure in reservoir 17 which is charged to the same pressure as that applied to port P-3, the piston 41 will be normally retained in its downward position so that the valve member 42 engages the gasket d6 to provide a seal between the reservoir 17 and the annular chamber 62.
To operate the unit, according to one illustrative embodiment of the invention, the slide plate S5 is closed after the liners o1 and 31 are iilled with material. By reason of the resilience of the material from which the liner is made, the aps d3 of the valve 11 will be in closed position with their adjacent edges in engagement as shown, restraining ow of the material from the magazine liners 61 and $1. A
Thereupon, the valve V-2 is actuated to connect the ports X-1 and X-3. Switch SVV-1 is then closed so that solenoid valve SV will substantially instantaneously apply vacuum through connected ports X-1, X-3 to port 116 of the retainer 66 and through the openings 9e and porous disc 191, such vacuum will be applied to the interior of the container R. As a result of such vacuum, gas in the container will immediately be exhausted therefrom and in addition, due to the vacuum created, the ilexible flaps 8d of the valve 99 of the liner 31 will move downwardly and outwardly pivoting about their curved root ends, thereby opening the valve so that the vacuum applied will draw material from the magazine and start flow of such material into the container. As a result of such vacuum, the side wall S2 or" the flexible liner 81 d would tend to bow inwardly yand restrict the passageway.
However, the valve V-3 at this time, illustrativery is in position to connect port 113 to port Y-1 which is connected to a source of vacuum to overcome the inward movement of the liner.
At this time valve V-l is in normal position so that chamber 62 is connected to atmosphere through ports P-1, P41. This permits unimpeded suction action. Substantially immediately after such vacuum is applied through valve V-2, the Valve V-1 is moved to the blow position and valve V-S is moved to connect port 11S to port Y-Z which is connected to a source of pressure.
As a result, ports P-Z and P-4 will be connected to cut off the gas under pressure to port 123 and chamber 2li and vent said chamber to atmosphere and port 124 will be closed. Consequently, the greater pressure against the valve member 42 due to the gas pressure in reservoir 17 will rapidly lift the valve member 42, to provide communication from reservoir 17 and port 37 through port 36 to the annular chamber 62. This surge of gas under pressure will dow through th-e porous liner 61 to react against the top and sides of the column of material in the liner, forcing such material downwardly and through the open valve flaps 88 into the container at relatively high velocity so that the container will be filled with the comminuted material in compacted form. As the liner S1 has been retained in substantially its normal position by reason of the pressure applied to port 11S, ow of material through the liner is unimpeded.
As a substantial portion of the air in the container R was exhausted when the vacuum was initially applied thereto and as almost all of the entrained air forced into the container R will be immediately removed therefrom by the continuation of such vacuum, it is apparent that the compaction will be to a relatively great extent so that a relatively heavy weight of material may be charged into a container of a given volume.
Since the material in the magazine has started to move by the application of the vacuum, the subsequent application of the gas under pressure will not result in funneling of gas through the material which would interfere with proper lling ot the container, but the material will ow readily through the open valve flaps 38 into the container.
1t is to be noted that the vacuum is applied extremely rapidly by reason of the rapid opening o solenoid valve SV. This insures dependable starting movement of the material through the valve 90 which will open substantially simultaneously with the application of the vacuum to port 116.
After the container R is filled, which is almost instantaneously, the valve V-l is actuated to normaF position, which will again connect the source of gas under pressure to port 123 which will reclose the valve member 42, and vent 41', permitting downward movement of the valve member 42, and which will connect port 124 through ports P-ll, P-4 of valve V-1 to atmosphere to release the gas in the liner o1, the latter, by reason of its porosity, permitting passage of gas therethrough, but restraining escape of the comminuted material. At substantially the same time, the valve V-2 is moved to the closed position shown. This will cut oft the vacuum and switch SVI-1 is then opened.
It is to be noted that the filling continues until such time as the receptacle is filled and the material charged into the receptacle backs up against the valve 913 preventing additional material from llowing therethrough. This is irrespective of any pressure or vacuum that may be applied after the receptacle has been lilled. After the release of the pressure and vacuum, the valve aps SS will tend to move inwardly by reason of their natural resilience and because the bending of the fold line for each valve flap is along a curved surface. This tendency of the valve flaps 83 to move toward closed position, as shown in broken lines in FIG. 5, serves gently to retain between the valve flaps the material which has not passed through the valve 91B so as to prevent leakage or filtering of the material through the valve 91) at the time the filled receptacle is being removed so that no additional material will be delivered to the receptacle after the termination of the filling operation. This provides fine control of the volume and weight of material charged into the receptacle.
Thereupon, the support S is moved downwardly a very small amount, in the first instance, and the valve V-Z is moved to position to connect ports X-1, X-Z so that a relatively slight amount of gas under pressure which may be but slightly abouve atmospheric will be applied to port 116 to pass through the perforations 95 in disc 94 and through the porous disc 1111 to clean any material Iadhering thereto so that the equipment will be ready for the next cycle. The valve V-2 is then moved to closed position and then the support is moved downwardly for removal of the container and the operation then can be repeated.
1n FIG. 5 there is illustrated a liner 81 which is provided at the lower end thereof with a modified form of valve 9d' which generally corresponds to the valve at the bottom of the liner 81 and specifically illustrated in FlGS. 2 and 4. The valve 91) differs from the valve of FIGS. 2 and 4 in that it is of an inverted conical configuration and is formed of a plurality of closure flaps 131 which are separated by means of cross slits 132; It is to be understood that the cross section of each of the closure fiaps 131 is arcuate with the result that any torce exerted on the closure flaps 131 to move the same from the solid line positions of FIG. 5 to the dotted line positions of the same figure will require the bending or folding of each closure ap 131 along a line disposed around an arc-uate surface with the result that the resistance of' each closure flap 131 to movement toa valve opening position is greater than that of the'normal resistance of the material of the liner S1 to bending. In addition, when each closure flap 131 is bentfrom its normal solid line position of FTG. 5 to the dotted line position of the same figure, energy is stored within the closure fiap, due to the resiliency of the material from which it -is formed, urging the closure flap to its valve closing position. Y
It will be readily apparent that when any upward pressure is directed against the valve 90', the effect of this pressure on the closure fiaps 131 merely serves to urge the closure fiaps together more tightly due to the conical arrangement of the valve flaps and the fact that each flap serves to support the other as the valve flaps are forced together. Such an upward pressure may occur due to the sudden release of the blow pressure which creates somewhat of a suction effect on the magazine above the valve 911 and unless the valve 99 properly operates, the suction efiect would permit some of the material deposited in the receptacle to be drawn back into the magazine.
It is to be understood that it is not necessary for either of the two valves gil, gli to be integrally connected to the associated liner 81 or 81. Thus, the valve may be formed separate from the liner and the valve may be provided with an annular flange 141 which may be formed complementary to the lia-nge 89a of the liner This construction is shown in FIG. 6 in which parts corresponding to those in FIG. 5 have the same reference numerals. By reason of the fiexible valve members 9d, 96B employed, sifting of material from the magazine when it is initially charged and during successive filling operations is precluded.
As the valve members 90, 90 have no mechanical parts which are in engagement with each other and between which material may accumulate, there is no pos- Y It is within the scope of the invention to utilize the equipment with merely the suction or vacuum action and without applying any blow pressure.
in such case the valve V-ll is retained in its normal position so that no gas under pressure can enter into the magazine and the slide plate 55 is maintained in open position so that its opening 56 is aligned with the hopper andthe magazine.
, Thereupon, the filling action may be performed by merely applying the vacuum to the port 116 so that it is the vacuum alone that affects the filling action.
The use of vacuum alone to effect the filling action does.
not generally provide the degree of compaction that will be afforded by the use of vacuum and blow pressure, but in many cases it is sufiicient to accomplish the desired filling action.
As the surface areaV of the porous portion of the disc 1111 exposed in the container R is relatively great, even though when the vacuum is applied to port 116, some of the material drawn into the container from the magazine may tend to adhere to the undersurface of the porous disc 1131, sufficient area is provided so that the container R will fill completely before there is any complete blocking of the surface of the porous disc 1111 in communication with the annular recess thereby insuring dependable filling action. Y
In the illustrative embodiments herein, the cross sectional area of the filter liner 61 is approximately one Vsquare inch and the cross sectional area of each of the valves Si), 9u when full open .is approximately .027 square inch. As a result of the relatively small valve opening, as compared to the diameter of the liner 61, material passing therethrough do so at relatively high velocity.
The high velocities obtainable by using the pressure differntials in connection with the equipment and methods disclosed herein result in portions of extremely accurate weights of air entrained fiowable solids.
As many changes could be made in the above method and equipment and many apparently widely different ernbodiment-s of this invention could be made without departing from the scope of the claims, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative'and not in a limiting sense.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is: Y
1. Equipment of the character described comprising a magazine for comminuted materialhaving an outlet port at one end, a valve in said outlet port, said valve comprising a flexible member extending across said'outlet port and having a plurality of' slits therethrough defining valve fiaps normally urged to closed positions, and means to apply gas under pressure deviating from atmospheric pressure in direction to react against said valve flaps to cause the latter to open, thereby permitting flow of material through the open valve from the magazine, the lower end of the magazine having a substantially tapering wall surface having said outlet, port at its smaller end, a liner of resilient deformable material positioned in the lower end of said magazine, said liner having a tapering side wall being spaced from the taperingl wall surface of the lower portion of the magazine to define a chamber therebetween, and means to apply gas under pressure deviating from atmospheric into said chamber to react against the side wall of said liner. Y
2. The combination set forth in claim 1 in which said means for supplying the gas under pressure supplies the gas at a pressure less than atmospheric and the gas is applied downstream of said valve flaps to react against the valve flaps to move the latter to open position.
3. As an article of manufacture a substantially frustoconical member of resilient deformable material having a transverse Wall at the smaller diameter end thereof, said wall having a plurality of slits therethrough defining closure flaps, said fiaps forming a valve and normally being in position with adjacent edges in engagement to effect closure of said valve, the portion of said frusto-conical member adjacent said transverse wall having a plurality of slits extending longitudinally thereof and in communication respectively with the slits in the transverse wall.
4. The article set forth in claim 3 in which the larger diameter end of said truste-conical member has an outwardly extending annular flange formed integral therewith.
5. As an article of manufacture, a tubular liner o resilient deformable material and having a downwardly converging upstanding wall portion terminating in a lower end of reduced cross section as compared to the upper end thereof, a transverse wall at said lower end, a mounting flange extending radially outwardly from said liner at said transverse wall, said transverse wall being divided into a plurality of closure flaps having edges and with said closure flaps combining to define a valve, and said closure flaps being resiliently urged to a normal position wherein adjacent ones of said edges are in substantially contiguous relation to effect closure of said valve.
6. Equipment for delivering owable solid material under the influence of differential gaseous pressure, comprising a magazine having a material delivering opening, said magazine having a lower portion thereof defined by a downwardly tapering liner of resilient deformable material, said liner having a lower end of reduced cross section as compared to the upper end thereof, a housing surrounding said liner in at least partially spaced relation thereto, a transverse wall at said lower end, said transverse wall being divided into a plurality of closure flaps having edges and with said closure flaps combining to define a valve, and said closure flaps being resiliently urged to a normal position wherein adjacent ones of said edges are in substantially contiguous relation to effect closure of said valve, means for applying a differential gaseous pressure to material within said magazine for forcing material through said valve and effecting the opening thereof, and means for alternately applying different gaseous pressure into the space between said housing and said liner exteriorly on said liner for alternately moving said liner inwardly and outwardly and loosening material within said liner at the termination or" a material dispensing operation.
7. Equipment for delivering flowable solid material under the influence of differential gaseous pressure, comprising a magazine having a material delivering opening, said magazine having a lower portion thereof defined by a downwardly tapering liner of resilient deformable material, said liner having a lower end of reduced cross section as compared to the upper end thereof, a housing surrounding said .liner in at least partially spaced relation thereto, a transverse wall at said lower end, said transverse wall being divided into a plurality of closure flaps having edges and with said closure flaps combining to deiine a valve, and said closure flaps being resiliently urged to a normal position wherein adjacent ones of said edges are in substantially contiguous relation to effect closure of said valve, means for applying a differential gaseous pressure to material within said magazine for forcing material through said valve and effecting the opening thereof, the differential gaseous pressure applying means being downstream of said valve and of the sub-atmospheric type normally directing an inward pressure on the interior of said liner tending -to restrict flow therethrough, and means for applying a balancing sub-atmospheric pressure externally of said liner in the space between said housing and said liner during the application of the firstmentioned sub-atmospheric pressure to prevent the undesired inward deiiection of said liner.
3. Equipment for delivering owable solids under the influence of differential gaseous pressure, comprising a magazine having a discharge end, a hollow extension releasably clamped to said magazine at said discharge end a resilient liner. within said hollow extension, said liner having a discharge opening remote from said magazine and a flow control Valve normally closing said discharge opening, said liner having outwardly directed mounting flanges at the opposite ends thereof, one of said mounting iianges being clamped between said extension and said magazine, and a clamp member releasably carried by said extension clamping the other of said flanges to said extension.
9. The equipment of claim 8 wherein said liner and said extension are of configurations to define a space with said housing surrounding said liner, and means are connected to said extension for varying the pressure within said housing to control the shape of said liner.
10. The equipment of claim 8 wherein said extension has a vent passage therethrough with one end of said vent passage having an entrance opening through an end of said extension remote from said magazine, and a lter member covering said entrance opening, said filter member being secured in place by said clamp member.
11. As an article of manufacture, a substantially frustoconical member of resilient deformable material, flanged adjacent both its upper and lower ends for maintaining said ends in spaced relationship, and having a transverse wall at the smaller, lower diameter thereof, said wall having a plurality of slits therethrough defining closure flaps, said flaps forming a valve normally being in position with adjacent edges in engagement to effect closure of said valve.
12. Equipment of the character described comprising a magazine for comminuted material having an outlet port at one end, a valve in said outlet port, said valve comprising a flexible member extending across said outlet port and having a plurality of slits therethrough defining valve iiaps normally urged to closed positions, said flexible member being of a regular geometrical configuration generatable by pivoting a straight line about an axis, and means to apply gas under pressure deviating from atmospheric pressure in a direction to act against said valve flaps to cause the latter to open, thereby permitting flow of material through the open valve from the magazine, said means for applying gas under pressure supplying the gas at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure downstream of said valve flaps to react against said valve flaps to move the latter to open position, and said means for applying gas under pressure also supplying gas under superatmospheric pressure to the contents of the magazine uptream of said valve flaps to react against said valve flaps, whereby the material in the magazine will react against the valve flaps to open the latter for discharge of such material from the magazine.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 431,950 7/90 Martin 222-394 1,345,347 7/20 Chaney 141-7 2,092,757 9/37 Groeniger 137-5251 X 2,138,356 11/38 Ryan et al. 141-7 2,270,737 l/42 Langdon 137-218 2,292,373 8/42 Groeniger 137-218 2,322,631 6/43 Groeniger 137-218 2,605,784 8/52 Snider 137-5251 2,642,216 6/53 Carter 141-51 2,642,259 6/53 Catlin 137-5251 2,662,724 12/53 Kravagna IS7-525.1 2,708,542 5/ 55 Gray et al. 141-7 2,710,623 6/55 Kolos 137-5251 X 2,772,817 12/56 Jauch 222-207 2,815,621 12/57 Carter 141-51 X 2,818,089 12/57 Mayhill 141-67 2,822,819 2/58 Geeraert 137-5251 X 2,839,093 6/58 McCarthy 141-59 2,962,195 11/60 Greenlee 222-394 (Other references on following page) 11' UNITED STATES PATENTS Vogt 141-5 Vogtl 141-54 Vogt 141-5 Vogt 141-5 Moreland L 141-67 12 3,125,114-l 3/64 Langdon 137-5251 X 3,148,696 9/64 Hoke 137-5251 X RAPHAEL M. LUPO, Primary Examiner. v 5 LAVERNE D.A GEIGER, Examiner.
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