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Publication numberUS3196959 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 27, 1965
Filing dateAug 14, 1961
Priority dateAug 14, 1961
Publication numberUS 3196959 A, US 3196959A, US-A-3196959, US3196959 A, US3196959A
InventorsKammerer Archer W
Original AssigneeKammerer Jr Archer W, Lamphere Jean K
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Directional drilling apparatus
US 3196959 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 27, 1965 A. w. KAMMERER 3,196,959

' DIRECTIONAL DRILLING APPARATUS Filed Aug. 14, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 ifo. 2, Ffa 2a.

INV ENTOR.

en/5,@ M Hanf/Maese BY rroeA/Ex 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Vn my@ E TE N mw m ma r E W. E 0M n E Filed Aug. 14. 1961 AJuly 27, 1.955 A. w. KAMMERER 3,196,959

nxREcTIoNAL DRILLING APPARATUS Filed Aug. 14, 1961 s sheets-sheet s INVENTOR. en/Ee IV.' KQMMEeE/e BY a 1477-7-02 Ney.

United States Patent O Mice 3,196,959 DIRECTINAL DRILLING APPARATUS Archer W. Kammerer, Fullerton, Calif., assigner of ouefiftii to ean K. Lamphere, Fullerton, Calif., and onefifth to Archer W. Kammerer, lr., Houston, Tex.

Filed Aug. 14, 1961, Ser. No. 131,279 24 Claims. (Cl. 175-73) The present invention relates to subsurface bore hole apparatus, and more particularly to subsurface apparatus for deecting or angling the direction of a well bore and to a desired degree.

An object of the present invention is to provide an improved subsurface apparatus for controlling the direction of drilling a bore hole.

Another object of the invention is to provide directional drilling apparatus which can be placed in a deiiecting attitude whenever desired and released from such attitude whenever desired, all while the apparatus remains in the bore hole.

A further object of the invention is to provide directional drilling apparatus adapted to be incorporated in a rotary drilling string disposed in a bore hole, in which the apparatus can be placed in a hole deecting condition and then returned to a normal non-hole deflecting condition, thereby permitting the continued drilling of the hole without further deflection andwithout the necessity for withdrawing the apparatus from the bore hole.

An additional object of the invention is to provide directional drilling apparatus which is actuated by the drilling fluid pumped down the drilling string, of which the apparatus forms a part, and in which hydraulic actuation of the apparatus can be prevented despite the continued pumping of the drilling fluid through it and through the drill bit therebelow.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide directional drilling apparatus capable of being actuated by a pressure differential resulting from pumping drilling uid through the apparatus, in which such pressure differential can be rendered ineffective to actuate the apparatus.

Still a further object of the invention is to provide directional drilling apparatus capable of being actuated by a pressure differential resulting from pumping drilling fluid through it, in which an adequate supply of the drilling uid to the drill bit is insured, particularly when the apparatus is in a non-hole deflecting condition.

This invention possesses many other advantages, and has other objects which may be made more clearly apparent from a consideration of a form in which it may be embodied. This form is shown in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specication. It will now be described in detail, for the purpose of illustrating the general principles of the invention; but it is to be understood that such detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of the invention is best defined by the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings:

FIGURE l is a side elevational view of the hole deiecting apparatus disposed in a well bore, and with its parts in a non-hole deiiecting condition;

FIGS. 2 and 2a together constitute a longitudinal section, on an enlarged scale, through the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 1, FIG. 2a constituting a lower continuation of FIG. 2; Y

FIG. 3 is a view corresponding to FIG. 1 illustrating the apparatus in a condition for deecting or inclining the direction of the drill bit therebelow;

FIGS. 4 and 4a together constitute a longitudinal section through the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 3, FIG. 4a constituting a lower continuation of FIG. 4;

FIG. 5 is an enlarged cross-section taken along the line 5-5 on FIG. 2;

3,196,959 Patented July 27, 1965 FIG. 6 is an enlarged cross-section taken along the line 6 6 on FIG. 2;

FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary section taken along the line 7 7 on FIG. 2a;

FIG. 8 is a longitudinal section through a portion of the hole deflecting apparatus illustrated in FIG. 2;

FIG. 9 is a side elevational View of the clutch portion of the apparatus in engaged position.

A directional drilling apparatus A is illustrated in the drawings, which is adapted to form part of a drilling string B, such as a string of drill pipe, extending to the top of the well bore C being drilled. The drilling string terminates in the usual drill bit D adapted to operate upon the bottom E of the hole. It is desired to deviate the direction of drilling of the hole by the bit D to a desired degree, and when the desired extent of deviation has been achieved to discontinue further inclination or deviation of the hole, so that drilling of the hole can proceed in the direction to which it has been inclined, all Without withdrawing the apparatus from the well bore.

As illustrated, the directional drilling apparatus A includes a central inner tubular drive shaft or mandrel 1), which actually forms part of the drilling string B. This drive shaft may have a threaded pin 11 at its upper end for threaded attachment to a companion threaded box 12 of an adjacent upper drill pipe section 13. The lower end of the shaft may be constituted as a threaded box 14 adapted to be threadedly connected to the upper pin end 15 of a lower drill pipe section 16, or to the shank or body 17 of the drill bit D of any suitable type adapted to operate upon the bottom of the hole. This drill bit has suitable passages and nozzles (not shown) through it, so that the drilling fluid pumped down the drill string B and through the central passage 1S of the drive shaft may discharge from the bit for action upon the bottom E of the hole C, for the purpose of removing the cuttings therefrom and to convey such cuttings around the exterior of the apparatus A and the drill pipe B to the top of the bore hole for suitable disposal.

Disposed on the exterior of the tubular drive shaft or mandrel 1t) and in an elongate, peripheral recess 19 therein is a lateral movable actuating portion 20 of the apparatus, which is adapted to bear against the wall of the hole C, and thereby shift the tubular drive shaft 10 and the parts surrounding it in the diametrically opposite direction toward or against the opposite wall portion of the hole. As specifically illustrated, a pair of upper and lower actuating arms 21, 22 are disposed intially in a retracted position within the drive shaft recess 19. The

upper arm 21 is pivotally mounted on a hinge or fulcrum pin 23 disposed in aligned bores 24 in spaced portions 25 of a block 26 secured within a recess 27 in the lower portion of an upper sleeve 28 mounted on the exterior of the drive shaft 1i) in a manner to permit the drive shaft to rotate therewithin, the upper sleeve being prevented from moving axially of the drive shaft 10. As disclosed, the sleeve 23 is swivelly connected to the drive shaft 10 through one or a plurality of sets of balls 2.9 disposed in external races 30 in the periphery of the drive shaft and in opposed inner races 31 in the sleeve. The balls are insertable into the companion races in a known manner, as through openings 32 in the sleeve 28, which are then closed by plugs 33 welded to the sleeve. Free rotation of the drive shaft 10 within the sleeve 28, when .such rotation can occur, is insured by disposing radial roller bearing elements 34 in races 35 in the drive shaft and adapted to roll upon the inner surface 36 of the upper sleeve. For the purpose of preventing drilling mud and foreign substances from moving freely into the clearance space between the drive shaft 10 and outer sleeve 28, suitable side seals 37 are provided on the shaft engaging the inner surface 36 of the sleeve at opposite sides of the ball bearing and rollerV bearing elements 29, 34. A radial bleeder hole 38 maybe provided through the sleeve 2S to the region between the roller bearing elements 34 to allow egress of any drilling mud, or other fluids, that may have entered the sealedvregions between the sleeve 28 and the drive shaft 10.

The upper lever 21 is bifurcated, with its arms 40 straddling the upper end of the lower lever 22, there being a pin 41 extended through aligned bores 42 in Ythe arms and passing through a longitudinal slot 43 in the lower lever arm. VThe lower end of the lower lever Y arm 22 is mounted upon a hinge pin 44 extending between and disposed in alignedubores 45 in spaced portions 4'6 `of a block 47 received in an end recess 48 in a lower lever arm. The lower end `of the lower lever block 47 being welded, lor otherwise suitablyV attached, to the sleeve 49. Endwise movement of such hinge pin 23, 44 is prevented by retainer screws 56 secured in the blocks. The lever arms 21, 22 themselves are urged toward their retracted position by upper andV lower leaf -retractor springs 51 engaging the `outer surfaces of the arms 21, 22 and secured to the blocks 26, 47 in any suitable `manner, as by clamping the ends of the springs between the blocks and clamp elements 52 fastened to the blocks by screws 53.

The drive shaft 10 may also rotate within the lower sleeve 49 when uncoupled therefrom, as described hereinbelow. The'upper portion of this sleeve engages a plurality of radial roller thrust bearings 54 mounted in races 55 in the vdrive shaft, the sleeve also engaging a lower set of radial thrust bearings 56 mounted in races 57"in the drive shaft 10. The lower end of the sleeve 49 is connected by a swivel 53 to a lower actuating sleeve k59 surrounding the drive shaft 1Q. Thus, sets of ball bearing elements 6G are mounted in external raceways 61 in the reduced diameter upper portion 62 of the actuating sleeve 59 and in inner 'races 63 in the upper sleeve 49, there being suitable side seals 64 in the actuating sleeve disposed on opposite sides of the ball elements and engaging the inner wall of the sleeve 49 to prevent ready entry of drilling mud and other foreign substances into the ball races. However, a suitable bleeder hole 65 `may also be provided through the sleeve 49 between the upper and lower seals 64 to insure the dispelling of foreign substances, to prevent their interference with the free rolling action of the balls 60 in the opposed races 61, 63 upon relative rotation between the drive shaft 10 and actuating sleeve 59 and the relatively stationary sleeve member 49. Y f

The actuating sleeve59 is movable longitudinally along the drive shaft 10, but is rotatable therewith, the longitudinal movement occurring for the purpose of shifting the lower stationary sleeve 49 upwardly along the drive shaft 10 to cause outward expansion of the actuating arms 21, 22 and engagement of the upper end of the lower arm 22 with the wall of the well bore C, in order to shift the remainder ofthe apparatus laterally in thel opposite direction. The upper portion of the arm 22 may have longitudinally kextending teeth 67 thereon capable of gripping the wall of the hole C and resisting or preventing rotation of the arms 21, 22 in thehole C. Longitudinal movement of the actuating sleeve 59 along the shaft 10 is permitted, but its relative rotation is prevented by a slidable splined connection between these members. Opposed keys 68 are secured to the drive shaft 19 as by means of screws 69, these keys being received in elongate slots 70 in the actuating sleeve 59. Accordingly, rotation of the drive shaft 1t) will carry the actuating sleeve 59 with it, but the sleeve 59 can still be shifted,

as described hereinbelow, upwardly and downwardly of the drive shaftv 10.

Normally, the actuating sleeve 59 and Vthe lower stationary sleeve 49 swivelly connected thereto occupy a lower position on the drive shaft 10, in which the actuatsie Cir

ing arms 21, 22 are in their retracted position. When in this condition, the lower sleeve 49 is releasably coupled to the drive shaft 16. Thus, a two-part clutch ring 72 extends into a peripheral groove 73 in the drive shaft 1%) and is secured to the sleeve member 49 by means of screws 74, or the like. This clutch ring '/'2 has depending axial clutch teeth 75 thereon adapted to mesh with companion clutch teeth 76 at the upper end of a lower two-piece clutch ring 77 disposed in the peripheral groove 73 of the drive shaft and secured to the latter by screws 78. The clutch teeth 75, y'76 can only mesh at one angular position of the sleeve 49 on the shaft 10. When the sleeve 49 is in the lower position along the drive shaft it), and with the actuating arms 21, 22 retracted, the clutch teeth are engaged so that the sleeves 23, 49 and arms 21, 22 cannot move circumferential relative to the drive shaft. However, when the actuating sleeve 59 moves upwardly on the drive shaft 10, it carries the lower sleeve 49 upwardly with it to disengager the teeth 75 of the driven clutch member 72 from the companion teeth 76 of the driving clutch member 77 iixed to the drive shaft 19; whereupon the drive shaft can rotate without rotating the sleeve member 49, as well as without rotating the actuating arm 22 pivotally connected thereto. The upper sleeve 28, to which the other actuating arm 21 is pivotally connected, is never coupled for rotation directly to the drive shaft i9. It will, however, rotate with the drive shaft i@ whenever the driving and driven clutch members 77, 72 are engaged, since it is connected to the lower sleeve 49 through the links or arms 2l, 22.

The actuating sleeve 59 is shifted upwardly along the drive shaft it) as a result of pressure developed Within the latter. Thus, the lower portion of the actuating sleeve 59 constitutes an annular hydraulic cylinder Sti, the upper head 81 of which is slidable along the periphery of the drive shaft lll, there being a suitable side seal ring 82 on the drive shaft engaging the inner surface of the cylinder head. The cylinder also includes a skirt portion S3 depending from the head Si and slidable along an annular piston 84 disposed below a plurality of side ports S5 extending through the tubular drive shaft l0 from its central passage 18 to the cylinder space 86 between the piston and the cylinder head. The piston 84 is prevented from moving downardly along the drive shaft by resting upon a split lock ring 87 disposed in a peripheral groove 88 in the drive shaft 10. Leakage of uid between the drive shaft i@ and piston 84 is prevented by an inner seal ring 89 in the piston engaging the periphery of the-drive shaft, whereas leakage of fluid between the piston and the cylinder skirt 83 is prevented by aV piston ring 99 mounted in the piston and slidably sealing against the inner wall 91 of the cylinder skirt.

The cylinder 30 and actuating sleeve 59 are urged in a downward direction by a helical compression return spring 92 disposed in the annular space between the drive shaft 19 and the cylinder skirt 33. The upper end of the spring engages an upper spring seat 93 bearing against the piston retaining ring 87, the lower end of the spring bearing against a lower spring seat 94 resting upon a split snap or lock ring 95 disposed in a groove 96 in the lower end of the cylinder skirt S3.

When liuid under pressure is allowed to enter the cylinder space 86 through the ports 85, it will urge the cylinder S0 and actuating sleeve 59 upwardly against the force of the helical spring 92 to disconnect the clutch 72-77 and shift the lower hinge pin 44 toward the upper hinge pin 23, thereby causing the arms 21, 22 to move outwardly against the wall of the well bore. When the fluid pres-k sure is relieved, the spring 92 will reexpand and shift the actuating sleeve 59 and the lower sleeve 49 in a downward `direction to reengage the clutch and retract the actuating arms 21, 22.

The side ports are closed initially by a sleeve valve member 98 disposed thereacross, there being side seal rings 99 on the member 98 on opposite sides of the ports slidably and sealingly engaging the inner wall of the passage 1S through the tubular drive shaft or mandrel 10. This sleeve 9S is held in an upper position on the drive shaft 10 and across the ports 85, to close the same, by a helical compression spring 180 bearing against a shoulder 101 on the sleeve 98 and also bearing against a lower shoulder or fiange 102 extending outwardly from a pressure controlling choke or orifice member 163 resting upon a stop ring 104, such as a split snap ring, disposed in a groove 105 in the drive shaft member 1li. The pressure controlling choke member =1ll3 extends upwardly from its flange lil?. and within the spring lili), and is adapted to receive a control choke or orifice 1% in its upper portion having a passage area less than the area of the passage 1S through .the tubular drive shaft thereabove. The control choke or orifice member 103 is retained in its lower position against the lower stop ring 104 by the spring 100. When the sleeve valve member 98 is in its upper position, it is spaced from the upper end of the control choke member 103. Disposed within the sleeve valve is a second orifice or choke member 107 having a plurality of circumferentially spaced longitudinal inner ribs 108 therein, the intermediate portion 1119 of these ribs tapering in a downward and inward direction to provide a seat for an activating choke or orifice member 11G adapted to be lowered or dropped down through the drilling string B and to come to rest against the seat 109. This activating choke 110 has an orifice opening 111 of a substantially lesser area than the area through the upper orifice 197 and the lower orifice 106. Actually, the area through the upper orifice 167, when the activating orifice 110 is not seated therewithin, is greater than the area through the lower orifice 163. As a result, the fluid pumped down through the tubular drilling string B and the tubular drive shaft 19, for discharge through the drill bit D, cannot build up a sufiicient pressure differential across the sleeve 93 to overcome the force of the spring 109 and effect a downward shifting of the sleeve valve 98 to a port opening position. The pressure drop through the upper and lower orifices 107, 103 occurs in two stages, there being one pressure drop through the upper orifice, followed by an additional pressure drop through the lower orifice. Although the total pressure drop through both chokes 107, 193 is relatively great, the pressure drop through the upper orifice 107 alone, however, is insufficient to overcome the upward holding force of the spring 100, and the sleeve valve 98 will, therefore, remain in its port closing position. As a result, when the apparatus is not being employed to effect a deviation of the hole (with the arms 21, 22 in their retracted position), a fairly large effective passage area is present through the apparatus to insure an adequate supply of drilling fluid to the drill bit D and the bottom E of the hole C, for the purpose of effectively removing the cuttings and to cool and lubricate the drill bit.

When deflection is desired, the smaller activating orifice or choke 110 is dropped down the drill string B and will come to rest on the seat 109 in the upper orifice member 107 and sleeve valve 9S, restricting the passage through the latter. Accordingly, the pumping of fluid down through the apparatus and through this activating choke 110 of restricted bore will result in a sufhcient pressure differential being developed across the sleeve valve 98 to shift it downwardly against the force of the spring 19t?, and thereby open the ports S5. With the ports open and with a sufficient pressure developed in the passage 1S of the tubular drive shaft 10, fluid under pressure will act in an upward direction on the cylinder head 81 and shift the cylinder Si) and the actuating sleeve 59 upwardly, carrying the lower sleeve 49 upwardly with it in order to shift the lower lever arm 22 upwardly relative to the upper lever arm 21. The elongate slot 43 and pin 41 provide a lost-motion connection between the upper and lower arms 21, 22, such that the sleeves 59, 49 and lower arm 22 move upwardly before the lower arm at the end of its slot engages the pin 41, to insure the disconnection of the clutch 72-77 before the lower arm 22 engages the pin d1, the pin connection then causing the arms 21, 22 to swing laterally outwardly to force the upper end of the lower arm 22 against the wall of the hole C, and therefore shift the tubular drive shaft 10 in a diametrically opposite direction toward the opposite wall of the hole, causing the drill bit D to drill a hole angled in the direction in which the arms 21, 22 have been expanded. To insure that the actuating arms 21, 22 will move outwardly, a cam or protuberance 12d is provided on the drive shaft 10,

' which the upper end of the lower Aarm 22 will engage when the lower arm is moved upwardly by the actuating sleeve 59 and stationary sleeve member 49. The upper end of the lower arm will engage the cam 120, which will then swing both actuating arms 21, 22 laterally outwardly to some extent, there then being an obtuse angle formed between the arms so that upon engagement ofthe arm portion of the lever 22 at the lower end of its slot 43 with the pin 41, lateral outward expansion of both actuating arms 21, 22 and engagement of the teeth 67 on the lower arm with the wall of the hole C are assured.

When the pressure in the tubular drive shaft 10 is relieved, the spring 160 will shift the sleeve valve 98 upwardly to its closed position across the ports 85, and the return spring 92 will shift the actuating sleeve 59 and the stationary sleeve 49 in a downward direction to effect retraction of the actuating arms 21, 22 and reengagement of the driving and driven clutch members 77, 72. To insure return of the actuating sleeve 59, a bleeder choke orifice 122 is secured in the cylinder sleeve 83, establishing communication between the annular cylinder space S6 and the exteriorV of the cylinder, allowing fluid to bleed from the cylinder space 86 upon lowering of the sleeve 59 by the spring 92 from the position shown in FIG. 4a.

to its initial position disclosed in FIG. 2a. Similarly, to prevent drilling fluid and other substances from interfering with movement of the actuating sleeve 59, both upwardly.: and downwardly along the tubular Vdrive shaft 10, a suitparatus A can occur, inasmuch as its arms 21, 22 are in. their retracted position and are disposed within the confines of the upper and lower sleeves 28, 49. In fact, the entire directional drilling apparatus A rotates as a unit with the remainder of the drilling string B and the drill bit D. The area through the upper and lower orifices 107, 103 is sufficient to insure the supply of adequate drilling fluid to the drill bit D and the bottom E of the hole.

When deviation of the hole is desired, the tubular drill string B and the tubular drive shaft 10 are turned so that the actuating arms 21, 22 are properly oriented within the hole C, to insure the deliection of the hole in the proper direction. This can be-determined inasmuch as the clutch teeth 75, 76 engage one another in a particular position. When the clutch is engaged, the sleeves 28, 49 andthe arms 21, 22 will always occupy a fixed circumferential position upon the tubular drive shaft 10. Thel activating choke or orifice can then be dropped in the drill string B and pumped downwardly therethrough into engagement with its companion seat 109 in the upper orifice member 107, all without turning the drill string B` and the tubular shaft 10. The pumping of fluid at the required rate downwardly through the drill string B will then develop sufficient back pressure on the upstream side ofY the activating orilice 110 to overcome the force of the spring 100, the sleeve valve 98 then being shifted Y downwardly into engagement with the lower sleeve 163, in which it is disposed below the ports 85. Fluid under pressure then passes outwardly through the ports into the cylinder space 86, overcoming Vthe force of the return spring 92 and elevating the actuating sleeve 59 and the stationary sleeve 49 along the driveshaft 10, the lower lever arm 22 moving upwardly along the upper lever arm 21 by virtue of thelost-motion pin and slot connection 41, 43. The length of the slot 43 is such as to insure disengagement of the driven clutch teethl 75 from the driving clutch teeth 75 before the lower end of the slot 43 engages the companion pin 41 on the upper arm member 21. Before this occurs, the upper end of the lower arm 22 engages the cam 120, which will angle the arms 21, 22 laterally outwardly to some extent with respect to one another. The outer sleeves 59, 49 move upwardly until the arm 22 is urged against the wall of the well bore C to .deflect the diametrically opposite portion of thesleeves 28, 49 against the wall of the well bore. At this time, the clutch is disengaged and the upper and lower sleeves 28, 49 and arms 21,Y 22 are no longer connectedto vthe tubular drive shaft 10. With uid still being pumped down through the drilling string B, the drive shaft and the drill bit D, and through the orifices 110, 107,106, rotation of the drill string and the drill bit can occur to drill thelhole by imposition of the proper amount of drilling Weight on the bit D. Suliicient drilling iiuid passes through the orifices 110, 1&5 for discharge through the drillbit to remove the cuttings from the bottom of the hole. As drilling proceeds, the teeth 67 of the arm 22 will slide along the wall of the hole C, to maintain the diametrically opposite portion of the sleeves 28, 49 against the wall of the hole, in order to insure they drilling of additional hole at an angle to the preexisting hole.

When the hole has been deviated to the desired angular extent, theractivating orifice or choke 110 can be removed, as by lowering a suitable spear or overshot (not shown) on a wire line, which will grasp the tubularV neck l10n of the orifice andV allow the latter to be pulled through the pipe B and from the hole. If desired, the oriice 110 may be removedby pumping fluid downwardly around the exterior of the drill string B, which will pass up through the bit D, carrying the orifice 110 through the tubular drive shaft 10 and through the drill string B to the top of the hole. As a result of discontinuing the pumping of Vfluid down through the drill string, the return spring 92will shift the actuating sleeve 59 and lower sleeve 49 downwardly along the drive shaft 10Y to retract the actuating arms 21, 22 from the well bore C back to their initial'position disclosed in FIGS. 2 and 8, and 'to reengage `the clutch 72-77'. If desired, drilling can proceed by rotating the apparatus once again and pumping drilling iiuid downwardly through it, the

Y entire apparatus A rotating as a unit because 4of the endrill bitV D can continue to drill the hole until it is` worn away, after which the entire apparatus can be withdrawn from the hole, and, ifk desired, the directional drilling apparatus removedfrom vthe drill string.

While disposed in the well bore, if it is desired at anytime .to deflect the axis -of the hole to a further extent, it is only necessary to reinsert the activating .oriiice 110 in the upper choke member 167 to restrict the passage through the latter. The arms 21, 22 are properly oriented from the top of the hole by turning the drill string B, the clutch '72-77 causing the arms 21, 22 to turn with the drill string. Thereafter, iiuid is pumped down through the drill string B, without turning the latter, to build up a suliicient back pressure or pressure differential on the sleeve valve 98 to shift the latter downwardly to a port opening condition, The fluid under pressure will .then pass through the ports into the cylinder Si) and again elevate the cylinder and the actuating sleeve 59 of which it forms a part, as well as the lower sleeve 49 upwardly along the drive shaft 10, the clutch 72-77 disengaging and the portion of the lower arm 22 at the end of its slot 43 again engaging the pin 41 to cause both arms 21, 22 to shift outwardly, with the upper end 67 of the lower arm engaging the wall of the hole C, to force the diametrically opposite portion of the apparatus against the wall of the hole or from a position of coaxiality with the hole. Rotation of the tubular drill string B and drive shaft 10 and drill bit D can thenV proceed without rotating the sleeves 2S, 49 and the lever arms 21, 22 interconnecting the sleeves, to again effect a deviation of the hole to the desired extent. When the hole C has been inclined sufficiently, the activating choke or oritice 11) is again removed to secure retraction of the sleeves 49, 59 along the drive shaft 10 and of the arms 21, 22 from the wall ofthe hole and reengagement of the clutch 'i2-77; whereupon the entire apparatus A can be rotated to elect the drilling of the well bore with an adequate supply of drilling fluid pumped down through the drill string B, the directional drilling apparatus A and the drill bit D.

l claim:

l. in directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; a bore hole wall engaging member; means mounting said wall engaging member on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole yto incline the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole and to permit rotation of said Vtubular member relative to said wall engaging member; means through which said tubular member extends and in which said tubular member is rotatable shiftable upwardly on said tubular member and connected to said wall engaging member to shift said wall engaging member outwardly; means for shifting said shiftable means upwardly on said tubular member; and clutch means coupling said shiftable means to said tubular member, said clutch means being unclut-ched upon upward movement of said shiftable means on said tubular member to shift said wall engaging member.

2. ln directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; a bore hole wall engaging :meniber; means mounting said wall engaging member on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to incline the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative to said wall engaging member; hydraulically operable means to shift said wall engaging member outwardly, said hydraulically operable means including means externally of said tubular member and responsive to the pressure of fluid in said tubular member and shiftable longitudinally along the exterior of said tubular member, said hydraulically operable means including means for actuating said wall engaging'member; and clutch means coupling said hydraulically operable means to said tubular member, said clutch means being unclutched upon movement of :said hydraulically operable means on said tubular member to shift said wall engaging member.

3. ln directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a tubular string to be disposed in a bore hole; a sleeve rotatable on said member and through which said tubular member extends; coengageable clutch means on said member and sleeve to prevent rotation of Isaid member relative to said sleeve; bore hole wall engaging means externally or and rotatable on said tubular member and connected to said sleeve and shiftable outwardly against the wall of the bore hole; means mounting said wall engaging means on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to odset the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative to said wall `engaging means; and means for shifting said sleeve upwardly on said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said wall engaging means against t-he wall of the bore hole.

4. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; a sleeve rotatable on said member and through which said tubular member extends; coengageable clutch means on said member and sleeve to prevent rotation of said member relative to said sleeve; link means externally of and rotatable on said tubular member and shiftable outwardly against the wall of the bore hole; means mounting said link means on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to incline the tubular member relative to the bore hole axis and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative to said link means; means connecting said link means to said sleeve; and means for shifting lsaid Isleeve upwardly on said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said link means against the wall of the bore hole.

5. ln directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; a sleeve rotatable on said member; coengageable clutch means on said member and sleeve to prevent rotation of said member relative to said sleeve; link means externally of and rotatable on said tubular member and shiftable outwardly -against the Wall of the bore hole; means mounting said link means on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to incline the tubular ymember relative to the bore hole axis and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative to said link means; means connecting said -sleeve to said link means and comprising a lost-motion connection; and means for shifting said sleeve longitudinally of said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said link means against the wall of the bore hole; said lost-motion connection insuring disengagement of said clutch means before shifting of said link means against the Wall of the bore hole.

6. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a tubular string to be disposed in a bore hole; a sleeve rotatable on said member; coengageable clutch means on said member and sleeve to prevent rotation of said member relative to said sleeve; laterally movable means externally of and rotatable on said tubular member connected to said sleeve and shiftable outwardly against the wall of the bore hole; means mounting said laterally movable means on said tubular member for lateral movement against the wall of the bore hole to offset the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative to said laterally movable means; and hydraulically operable means including means externally of said tubular member and responsive to the pressure of fluid in the tubular member for shifting said sleeve longitudinally of said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said laterally movable means against the wall of the bore hole.

7. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; a sleeve rotatable on said member; coengageable clutch means on said member and sleeve to prevent rotation of said member relative to said sleeve; link means externally of and rotatable on said tubular member and shiftable outwardly against the wall of the bore hole; means mounting said link means on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to incline the tubular member relative to the bore hole axis and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative to said link means; means connecting said link means to said sleeve; and hydraulically operable means including means externally of said tubular member and responsive to the pressure of lluid in the tubular member for shifting said sleeve longitudinally of said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said link means against the wall of the bore hole.

3. In ldirectional ldrilling apparatus. a tubular member adapted to be incorporated 4in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; .a sleeve rotatable on said member; coengageable clutch means on said member and sleeve to prevent rotation of said member relative to said sleeve; link means externally of and rotatable on said tubular member and shifted outwardly against the wall of the bore hole; means mounting said link means on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to incline the tubular member relative to the bore hole axis and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative to said link means; means connecting said sleeve to said link means and comprising a lost-motion connection; and hydraulically operable means responsive -to the pressure of fluid in the tubular member for shifting said sleeve longitudinally of -said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said link means against the wall of the bore hole; said lost-motion connection insuring disengagement of said clutch means before shifting of said link means against the wall of the bore hole.

9. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bor-e hole; an upper sleeve lrotatableon said member; a lower sleeve rotatable -on said member and movable axially relative to said upper sleeve; laterally movable means between and connected to said sleeves and shiftable laterally outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to offset the tubular member relative tothe axis of the bore hole upon movement of said lower sleeve toward said upper sleeve; clutch means connecting said lower sleeve to said tubular member when said laterally movable means are disengaged from the wall of the bore hole; means movable along the exterior of said tubular member for shifting said lower sleeve upwardly toward said upper sleeve and along said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said laterally movable means against the wa-ll of the bore hole; and means for moving said movable means along the exterior of said tubular member.

10. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; an upper sleeve rotatable on said member; a lower sleeve rotatable on said member and movable axially relative toV said upper sleeve; links pinconnected to each other and to said sleeves and shiftable laterally outwardly to bear one of said links against the wall of the bore hole to yoffset the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole upon movement of said lower sleeve toward said upper sleeve; clutch means connecting said lower sleeve to said tubular member when said links are removed from the wall of the bore hole; means movable along the exterior of said tubular member for shifting said lower sleeve upwardly toward said upper sleeve and along said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said links outwardly toward the wall of the bore hole; and means for moving said movable means along the exterior of said tubular member.

11. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; an upper sleeve rotatable on said member; a lower sleeve rotatable on said member; saidV sleeves being movable axially relative to each other; a

link connected to said lower sleeve; a link connected to said upper sleeve; a lost-motion connection connecting Ysaid links to each other; clutch means connecting one of shift said .links toward the wall of the bore hole to engage` at least one of said links with the bore hole and oiset the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole.

12. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; an upper sleeve rotatable on said member; a lower sleeve rotatable on said member and movable axially relative to said upper sleeve; laterally movable means between and connected to said sleeves and shiftable laterally outwardly against the wall ofthe bore hole to offset the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole upon movement of said lower sleeve toward said upper sleeve; clutch means connecting said lower sleeve to said tubular member when said laterally movable means is disengaged from the wall of the bore hole; and means for shifting said lower sleeve toward said upper sleeve and along said tubular member to disengage said clutch means andv shift said laterally movable means against the wall of the bore hole.

13. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; an upper sleeve rotatable on said member; a lower sleeve rotatable on said member and movable axially relative to said upper sleeve; a link connected to said lower sleeve; a link .connected tosaidupper sleeve; a lost-motion connection connecting said links to each other; clutch means connecting said lower sleeve to saidV tubular member when said links are in retracted position; and means for shifting said lower sleeve toward said upper sleeve and along said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said links toward the wall of the bore hole and engage at least'one of said links therewith.

14; ln directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; an upper sleeve rotatable on said member; a lower sleeve rotatable on said member; said sleeves being movable axially relative -to each other; laterally movable means between and connected to said sleeves and shiftable laterally outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to oiset the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole upon movement of one of said sleeves to ward said other sleeve; clutch means connecting said one of said sleeves to said tubular member when said laterally movable means are disengaged from the wall of the bore hole; and hydraulically operable means includingmeans Y movable axially relative to said upper sleeve; a link connected to said lower sleeve; a link connected to said upper sleeve; a lost-motion connection connecting said links to each other; clutch means connecting said lower sleeve to said tubular member when said links are in retracted position; and hydraulically operable means communicable with the interior of said tubular membery and respons-ive to the pressure of `tluid in the tubular member for shifting said lower -sleeve toward said upper sleeve and along said tubular'member to disengage said clutch means and shift said links toward the wall of the bore hole.

16. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular memberadapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in .a bore hole; an upper sleeve rotatable on said member; a lower sleeve rotatable on said member; said sleeves being movable axially relative to each other; a link connected to said lower sleeve; a link connected to said upper sleeve; a lost-motion connection connecting said links to eachother; clutch means connecting one of said sleeves to said tubular member; means for shifting said one sleeve toward said other sleeve and along said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said links toward the wall of the bore hole to offset the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole; and cam means on said tubular member engageable by one of said links to shift said links laterally outwardly upon longitudinal movement of said one link along said tubular member.

17. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; laterally movable means on said tubular member adapted to be shifted outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to incline the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole; hydraulically operable means-on said tubular member shiftable longitudinally on said tubular member and connected to said laterally movable means toshift said laterally movable means outwardly; said tubular member having a port communicating the interior thereof with said hydraulically operable means; a sleeve valve in said tubular member :controlling the flow of iluid under pressure through said -port to said hydraulically operable means; an orifice member on said tubular member below said sleeve valve; means for restricting the ow of tiuid through said sleeve valve to enable back pressure to be developed in said tubular member to shift Said sleeve valve Vto port opening position; and clutch means coupling said hydraulically operable means to said tubular member, said clutch means being unclutched upon movement of said hydraulically operable means on said tubular member to shift said laterally movable means. Y

18. ln directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; an upper sleeve rotatable on said member; a lower sleeve rotatable on said member; said sleeves being movable axially relative to each other;

said one of said sleeves to said tubular member when.

said laterally movable means are disengaged from the wall of the bore hole; hydraulically operable means on said tubular member for shifting said one of said sleeves toward said other sleeve and along said tubular member to disengage said clutch means and shift said laterally movableV means against the wall of the bore hole; said tubular member having a port communicating the interior thereof with said hydraulically operable means; a sleeve valve in said tubular member controlling the tlow of iluid under pressure through said por-t to said hydraulically operable means; an orifice member in -said tubular member below said sleeve valve; and means for restricting the ilow of tluid through said sleeve valve to enable back pressure to be developed in said tubular member to shift said sleeve Vvalve to port opening position, whereby iluid under preseach other; clutch means connecting said lower sleeve to said tubular member when said links are in retracted position; hydraulically `operable means for shifting said lower sleeve along said tubular member toward said upper sleeve to disengage said clutch means and lshift said links toward the wall of the bore hole; said tubular member having a port communicating the interior thereof with said hydraulically operable means; a sleeve valve in said tubular member controlling the flow of fluid under pressure through said port to said hydraulically operable means; an orifice member in said tubular member below said sleeve valve; and means for restricting the flow of uid through -said sleeve valve to enable back pressure to be developed in said ytubular member to shift said sleeve valve to port opening position, whereby fluid under pressure can pass 4to said hydraulically operable means to actuate the same.

2i). -In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; an upper sleeve rotatable on said member; a lower sleeve rotatable on said member and movable axially relative to said upper sleeve; a link connected to said lower sleeve; a link connected lto said upper sleeve; a lost-motion connection connecting said links to each other; said lower sleeve being shiftable along said tubular member toward said upper sleeve to shift said links toward the wall of the bore hole and oset the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole; clutch means connecting said lower sleeve to said tubular member when said links are in retracted position; hydraulically operable means on said tubular member comprising an annular cylinder swivelly connected to said lower sleeve; said tubular member having a port communicating the in-terior thereof with said cylinder; a sleeve valve in said tubular member controlling the ilow of lluid under Ipressure through said port 4to said cylinder; an orifice member in said tubular member below said sleeve valve; and means for restricting the flow of liuid through said sleeve valve to enable back pressure to be developed in said tubular member to shift said sleeve valve to port opening position, whereby fluid under pressure can pass to said cylinder to shift said cylinder and lower sleeve upwardly along said tubular member toward said upper sleeve -to disengage said clutch means and shift said links laterally outwardly.

2l. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; a bore hole wall engaging member; means mounting said wall engaging member on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to lincline the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative to said wall engaging member; shiftable means connected to said bore hole wall engaging member and adapted to be shifted longitudinally on said tubular member to shift said wall engaging member laterally outwardly, such shiftable means including cylinder means communicable with the interior of said tubular member .and slidably mounted on the exterior of said tubular member and responsive to the pressure of fluid in said tubular member to be shifted longitudinally on said tubular member; and clutch means coupling said shiftable means to said tubular member, said clutch means being unclutched upon movement of said cylinder means on said tubular member to shift said wall engaging member.

22. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; bore hole wall engaging means relatively movable on said tubular member and shiftable outwardly against the wall of the bore hole; means mounting said wall engaging means on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to incline the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative to said wall engaging means; hydraulically operable means on said tubular member shiftable longitudinally on said tubular member, said hydraulically operable means including means connected to said wall engagin g means to shift said wall engaging means outwardly, said tubular member having a port communicating the interior thereof with said hydraulically operable means; a sleeve valve in said tubular member controlling the flow of iiuid under pressure through said port to said hydraulically operable means; means f-or restricting the flow of fluid through said sleeve valve to enable back pressure to be developed in said tubular member to shift said sleeve valve to port opening position; said lrestricting means having a passage therethrough to permit ow of iluid through said tubular member; and clutch means coupling said hydraulically operable means to said tubular member, said clutch means being unclutched upon movement of said hydraulically operable means on said tubular member to shift said wall engaging means.

23. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular member adapted to 'be incorpo-rated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; bore hole wall engaging means relatively rotatable on said tubular member and shiftable outwardly against the wall of the bore hole; means mounting said wall engaging means on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore hole to incline the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole and to permit Irotation of said tubular member relative to said wall engaging means; hydraulically operable means on said tubular member shiftable longitudinally on said tubular member, said hydrauli-cally operable means including means connected to said wall engaging means to shift said wall engaging means outwardly, said hydraulically operable means being communicable with the interior of said tubular member; means shiftably mounted in said tubular member for restricting iiow of uid through the tubula-r member to enable back pressure to be developed in said tubul-ar member foraction upon said hydraulically operable means to shift the same; clutch means coupling said hydraulically operable means to said tubular member, said clutch means being unclutched upon movement of said hydraulically operable means on -said tubular member to shift said wall engaging means; said restricting means being s-hiftable from iiow restricting relation in said tubular member, whereby adequate back pressure in said tubular member cannot be developed for securing shifting of said wall engaging means.

24. In directional drilling apparatus: a tubular merny ber adapted to be incorporated in a drilling string to be disposed in a bore hole; bore hole wall engaging means relatively rotatable on said tubular member and shiftable outwardly against the wall of the bore hole; means mounting said wall engaging means on said tubular member for lateral movement outwardly against the wall of the bore lhole to incline the tubular member relative to the axis of the bore hole and to permit rotation of said tubular member relative -to said wall engaging means; hydraulically operable means on said tubular member shiftable longitudinally on said tubular member, said hydraulically operable means including means connected to said wall engaging means to shift said wall engaging means outwardly, said hydraulically operable means being communicable with the interior of said tubular member; orifice means adapted lto be lowered through the drilling string into said tubular member for restricting flow of iluid through the tubular member to enable back pressure to be developed in said tubular member for action upon said hydraulically operable means -to shift the same; clutch means coupling said hydraulically operable means to said tubular member, said clutch means being unclutched upon movement of said hydraulically operable means on said tubular member to shift said wall engaging means; said orifice means being removable from said tubular member whereby adequate uid pressure in said vtubular member cannotl be developed for securing shifting of said wall engaging means.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES'V PATENTS Fewel 166-187 Brown 175-73 Mann 175-76 OReillyV 166-224 X Buttolph 175-73 X Wright 175-76 CHARLES'E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner.

BENJAMIN BENDETT, Examiner.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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Classifications
U.S. Classification175/73, 175/325.4
International ClassificationE21B7/06, E21B7/04, E21B7/08
Cooperative ClassificationE21B7/062
European ClassificationE21B7/06C