US 3197641 A
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J. P. LARKIN v July 27, 1965 PROTECTIVE WINDOWS OR SKYLIGHTS FOR FALLOU'I SHELTERS Filed Feb. 12, 1962 INVENTOR Joseph P. Larkin ATTORNEY ltd States Patent F 3,197,641 PROTECTIVE WENDOWS GR SKYLIGHTS FOR FALLQUT SHELTER?) ioseph it. Lat-kin, 1230 South Dixie Highway,
Lake Vlorth, Fla. Filed Feb. 12, 1962, Ser. No. 172,510 1 Claim. (Cl. ZSii-lllil) This invention pertains to skylights and window for shielding against atomic radiation in fallout shelters, and more particularly to tank type transparent windows filled with a dense fluid, such as water.
When an atomic bomb bursts it throws out intense heat with alpha, beta and gamma rays associated with contaminated dirt and dust particles forced up in an atomic cloud and subsequently descending to earth as fallout. The worst and most (llfiililtlll'. of these rays to protect against are the gamma rays carried by the fallout particles which are highly penetrating and can cause serious damage to living tissues of the cell structures of humans and animals and result in severe illnesses with possible fatal consequences. Adequate shielding is the only eliective means of pr venting radiation casualties. Ade- .quate shielding must be provided on all sides and on top of the shelter to effectively stop the destructive rays. Shielding can only be effected through mass or density of 'rnaterial. Ordinary window glass has negligible weight and because of insufiicient density it readily passes gamma radiation. There are available plenty of adequate shielding shelters without windows but the emotional and psychological factors in being forced to stay in a windowless small room are highly detrimental and people 7 who survive a stay in such a windowless cramped enclosure are likely to suffer permanent emotional disturbances such as claustrophobia or worse upsets.
An object of the present invention is to provide more livable fallout shelters with windows having adequate protection against radiation while providing light with good transparency to the occupants so that they can see what is occurring on the outside.
Another object is to provide a tank type window or skylight fille with a transparent fluid of adequate density to shield against all types of radiation.
Another object is to provide tank type windows or skylights filled with a liquid and sealed at both ends with a transparent material.
Still another object is the provision of economical windows and skylights for fallout shelters having various types of transparent dense liquids sealed therein that can be used as stora e for drinking and/or food purposes as well as providing adequate shielding against all detrimental radiations.
A complete understanding of the invention may be had from the following detailed description when considered in conjunction with the appended drawing in which like reference numerals designate the same elements throughout:
FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view showing a tank type radiation protective window of this invention installed as a skylight in the ceiling or top of a fallout shelter;
FIG. 2 is a cross sectional view of a portion of a side Wall of a fallout shelter showing a horizontal window of the tank type embodying the features of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary cross sectional view of one embodiment of the tank type Window or skylight showing how the transparent sealing ends of glass or plastic are secured to a modified commercial oil drum to hold liquid therein;
FIG. 4 discloses another embodiment of the invention showing a modified commercial oil drum and a novel method of sealing the transparent ends thereto to form a liquid filled window, and
FIG, 5 is a fragmentary view of means for sealing the transparent glass or plastic ends to a tank to provide a liquid filled window.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the description to follow.
By way of example and not'of limitation, a suitable fluid filled window or skylight giving out-side visibility for 'ialiout shelters to thus provide shielding protection against radioactivity while providing light inside the shelter, may comprise a steel drum ltl, such as a modified commercial oil drum, having transparent sealed ends 11-12, such as special glass, plastics, laminations or any transparent material having sufi'lcient strength and density.
The transparent end seals 11-12 (FIGS. 1 and 2) of any suitable material, such as glass or plastic, may be secured to the ends of the steel drum ll] by placing them on fiat rims or flange surfaces 13 on the ends of the drum and then swaging over the metal portions 14. Before the swaging operation occurs, an epoxy resin glue or any liquid proof cement is spread over and around the peripheral edges of the transparent end materials 11 and 12 to provide water tight seals at joints 15.
Different embodiments of the invention are disclosed in FIGS. 3-5 for securing the transparent glass or plastic materials 11-12 to the ends of the tanks or drums 19 to provide water tight seals.
PEG. 3 shows a drum or tank 10 having the central part of its cover cut away along line 322 to leave a peripheral flange 33 for supporting a transparent glass or plastic material 11. The top of the transparent material 11 is secured to the urderside of the flange 33 by epoxy resin glue 34 or any liquid proof cement placed on the periphery of the transparent material 11-12. This placement may be reversed by positioning the transparent material 11 on top of the flange 33.
The flange 33 has integral therewith a curved portion 35. Underneath this curved portion is a resilient continuous gasket 36 which is supported on the rounded end 37 of drum 19. Sectional clamping rings 39 are forced over the top of the curved portion 35 and the bottom of the rounded end 37 to squeeze the continuous gasket 3% to provide a liquid tight seal.
The bottom transparent glass or plastic shielding material 12 (FIG. 3) is secured to the lower end of the tank or drum 10 in a liquid or air tight seal by use of a clamp 4%. A metal ring 42 is soldered or brazed at 43 to the lower outside end of the drum or tank 10.
Positioned above the ring ills a right angled member 43a welded at 44 to the outside of the drum lll. Spaced holes 45 are provided in the horizontal part of the member @3511 around the drum 14 In assembly, a continuous resilient gasket 4'7 is placed against the ring 42 whereupon the transparent end seal material 12 is positioned against the bottom side of the gasket 47 and another continuous resilient gasket 48 is placed in alignment Patented July 27, 1965.
arenas-1 a with gasket 47. The gasket 4% is supported by the continuous fiat clamp which has spaced perforations 59 coinciding and in alignment with the spaced holes in the right angle member Passing through these holes El) and 45 are a series of bolts 51 having slotted heads 52; and threaded ends 53 on which are screwed nuts 55. These nuts are tightened to squeeze and compress the gaskets 47-48 to provide a water tight seal between the tank or drum It) and the transparent shielding matcrial 12 to thus retain water 36 or any desired solution inside the drum it to provide a tank window as another embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 4 shows a modification of a commercial oil drum used in making a tank type transparent window. Here, the oil drum 10 has the top cover removed and most of the bottom is removed by cutting along a predetermined line to leave a continuous flange 58 integral with a projecting crimped over bottom portion 59. A continuous resilient gasket 60 is interposed between the underside of flange 58 and the top of transparent end 12. Another continuous resilient gasket 61 is positioned on the underside of the transparent material 12 and C-shaped spring clamps 62 are forced over the top of the crimped bottom portion 59 of the drum 10 and the underside of the gasket 61 to thereby compress gaskets 60-61 to provide a leakproof tight seal between the drum and the transparent end material 12.
A rounded top portion 65 of the drum 10 in FIG. 4 has a continuous resilient gasket 66 thereon which supports the transparent end window material 11. C-shaped spring clamps 67 are forced over the top of material 11 and the underside of the rounded top portion 65 to compress the gasket 66 to obtain a leak proof seal to hold liquid inside the drum 10.
Another embodiment for sealing the transparent end windows to the drum 10 is shown in FIG. 5 where an angular stud 70 is brazed or welded to the outside of the drum near each end thereof and the continuous horizontal part of the stud 70 is provided with a continuous series of spaced threaded perforations 71. Heavy transparent glass or plastic end windows 11 have spaced counter sunk holes 72 in alignment with the perforations 71. A correspondingly perforated continuous gasket 73 is placed between the stud 70 and the transparent window ends 11. Threaded machine screws 75 are then passed through the holes in the window end 77, the gasket '73 and then threaded into the stud 70 to compress the gasket to provide a leakproof seal between the drum end and the transparent end window 11. The same structure is used to seal the other end window 12.
The drums or tanks 10 made of any suitable material may be provided with integral projections or corrugations 18 to strengthen and more firmly secure the tank or drum in the shelter wall or roof.
These tank windows can be sealed in a horizontal position (FIG. 2) in a shelter wall 22 such as concrete with a portion of the window projecting inside the shelter and another portion 24 projecting outside the fallout shelter. Additional concrete or dirt 25 may be placed around the outside projecting portion 24 of the window and the outside of wall 22 of the shelter to provide additional protection. The lowermost part of the portion of the drum 10 projecting into the inside of the fallout shelter has connected thereto a filter 26 and a faucet 27 for drawing off any desired liquid 30 from the inside of the tank window. The part of the tank 10 projecting outside the fallout shelter is provided with a valve connection 28 for filling the tank with water or any desired solution.
If the liquid filled tank window is to be used as a skylight, then it is placed in a vertical position to project through the roof 33 of the shelter as shown in FIG. 1. Here again, additional dirt or concrete 25 is placed be tween the external projecting portion of the liquid filled skylight and the roof 33 of the shelter to provide additional protection from gamma rays.
Where privacy is desired, the ends 11 and 12 of the container 19 may be made of translucent material to admit light or the container as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 may be filled with a translucent solution to give privacy and yet permit entrance of light into the shelter.
Any water 30, treated or untreated, suitable for human consumption which is sealed inside the window or skylight (FIGS. 1 and 2) can be used by occupants in the shelter after an atomic explosion since radiation from atomic dust in itself does not affect water. Contamination occurs only when radioactive particles themselves get into the water and this is prevented by the protective transparent shields 11-42. in the event the water might become contaminated, the filter 26 becomes an additional safeguard by filtering out any radioactive particles.
Vitamins and other life sustaining elements can be added to the water just so long as they do not interfere with transparency and desired visibility through the window.
Other solutions, such as saturated calcium, chlorides, syrup, kerosene, sugar water, water with zinc bromide and water with any suitable soluble matter may be used to increase the density, but in any event the solution used must be transparent. Manifestly, as the density of the transparent solution is increased, the depth or thickness of the window can be reduced. In freezing climates, some soluble matter must be placed in the water to prevent freezing.
The transparent seals 11-12 for the ends of the liquid filled windows may be strong glass of the dense leadboro-silicate types, plastics, transparent materials or any combination of these in mixtures or laminates.
The tank 10 in the window is long enough or of sufficient depth to provide the necessary mass of liquid. The Oifice of Civil Defense requires that walls of fallout shelters have a mass thickness of approximately 275 pounds per square foot of wall and roof. Hence, fallout radiation entering through the walls will be reduced by a factor of about 1000 by traveling through. 36 inches of dirt or 24 inches of concrete. For example, if 4 feet of water in depth is used in the window, then this thickness of water will provide the required 275 (approximate) pounds of mass thickness. Denser liquids or solutions of water will permit corresponding thinner tanks to provide the required 275 pounds of weight or, if the thickness remains the same, the protection against radiation will be increased.
By using the windows and/ or skylights of this invention, people who fear confined places will be better able to stay in shelters with windows thereby greatly enhancing the possibility of saving their lives. Moreover, persons may be persuaded more readily to build shelters with windows than without them.
It is to be understood that the above described arrangements are simply illustrative of the application of the principles of this invention. Numerous other arrangements may be readily devised by those skilled in the art which will embody the principles of the invention and fall within the spirit and scope thereof.
What is claimed is:
A window for a fallout shelter comprising an openended commercial oil drum having a peripheral outwardly extending flange at each end, and outer transparent planar sheet covering the outer end of the drum, an inner transparent sheet covering the inner end of the drum, a sealing gasket between each flange and its adjacent sheet, C-shaped resilient clamps having legs positioned respectively over the outside edge of the outer sheet and the inner edge of the adjacent flange, the outer legs being yieldable to internal pressure against said outer sheet to permit removal thereof from the inside of the drum, additional C-shaped clamps positioned over the exposed side 5 6 of the inner transparent sheet and its adjacent flange, said References Cited by the Examiner additional clamps having portions exposed interiorly of UNITED STATES PATENTS the shelter which may be pried loose to permit removal of the inner sheet, and liquid normally filling the drum, gfi 250 108 F rn 250-408 removal of said inner sheet by prying open the interiorly v 3 085 464 4/63 Touvay 250 108 X exposed portions of the additional C-shaped clamps permitting dumping of the liquid whereupon the exertion FOREIGN PATENTS of pressure from the interior of the drum forces the outer 1 070 30 12 59 Garmany,
legs of the first mentioned clamp to yield and further pressure dislodges the outer sheet, the open ended drum thus 10 RALPH NILSON Pr'mary Examiner providing an emergency exit from the shelter. ARCHIE B. BORCHELT, Examiner.