|Publication number||US3197784 A|
|Publication date||Aug 3, 1965|
|Filing date||Sep 4, 1962|
|Priority date||Sep 4, 1962|
|Publication number||US 3197784 A, US 3197784A, US-A-3197784, US3197784 A, US3197784A|
|Inventors||Sheldon Carlisle Richard|
|Original Assignee||Carlisle Res And Dev Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (34), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aug. 3, 1965 R. s. CARLISLE SEGMENTED HELMET 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 4, 1962 Aug. 3, 1965 R. s. CARLISLE SEGMENTED HELMET 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 4, 1962 Q IIIII II |l l \ll II Z 9 FIG. 2
United States Patent 3,197,784 SEGMENTED IELMET Richard Sheldon Carlisle, Thornwood, N.Y., assignor to Carlisle Research and Development Corporation, Elmsford, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Sept. 4, 1962, Ser. No. 221,201 3 Claims. (Cl. 2-3) This invention pertains to protective headgear, and more particularly to a helmet the periphery of which is divided into a plurality of segments for adjusting to a head of any desired size and shape.
There is a problem to protect the heads of persons who have sustained head injury or cranial operations.
There is a problem in protecting a delicate cranium, viz. the surface exposed to the cranium must be very soft and compliant, whereas to provide reasonable protection against external forces there must be considerable rigidity on the outside surface. The heads of different individuals vary greatly in size and shape, and unless a head covering is not only protective but adjustable, it is very difficult to achieve a fit without exerting undue pres-sure on medically delicate portions.
It is desirable to :protect the heads of infants, regardless of their medical condition, especially when traveling. The current movement toward supplying seat belts for automobiles as in airplanes illustrates recognition of the danger of head injury. Infants grow rapidly, and a helmet fitted at a certain age becomes unwear-able within only a few weeks unless continuously adjustable in size and shape.
It is also desirable to provide such a protective headgear with ventilation.
It is accordingly the principal object of this invention to provide a protective article of headgear which will be I continuously adjustable to a head and ventilated.
It is another object to provide a protective helmet for use after a cranial operation.
It is another object to provide a continuously adjustable protective helmet for wear by infants, young athletes, especially football players, and adults such as construction workers.
It is another object to provide adjustability in size by dividing the periphery of a helmet into .a large number of segments and providing means for drawing the segments together to fit a desired size head.
It is another object to construct a protective headgear having only one integral two-layer body of material, which is relatively firm and strong on the outside and extremely compliant ion the inside. 1
For the purposes of this invention, a two-layer body of material is fabricated, comprised of a relatively stiff but thin sheet of plastic cemented or otherwise joined to a relatively soft, compliantand thick sheet of plastic or the like; this compound-layer sheet is cut into a series of segments having a confluence at a central apex, and a strap or cord is threaded thru the various segments for drawing the segments around .a head.
The manner in which this invention is constructed will be described with reference to the drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a helmet con structed according to the principles of this invention, shown worn by a girl infant, and having round ends on the segments;
FIGURE 2 is a plan view of the helmet of FIGURE 1,
' shown before fitting to the infant;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged perspective view of some segments at one side of the helmet of FIGURE 1, showing a strap, cord or lace joining the various segments in position and a clip for retaining the ends of the strap; and
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged perspective view of the clip of FIGURE 4 and portions of straps being retained therein.
Referring to FIGURE 1, there is shown a helmet 14 on the head of an infant 10. The segments 2434 of the helmet 14 are shown diverging from an apex portion 15 at the top. The strap 42 is affixed to the helmet in the region of segments 25 and 26 and passes under the chin 11 of the infant 10, for retaining the helmet in position on the infant head. It may be seen that in this particular embodiment of the invention, the infants car 12 is left uncovered for the purpose of ensuring comfort, and to simplify the problem of fitting the helmet to the head of the infant. Alternatively, the segments 24 and 26 may be extended sufficiently to cover the ear 12. This is particularly applicable to instances wherein it is desired to protect the ears in addition to the cranium of a wearer, as in the case of use by football players, other athletes, construction workers or the like.
It may be noted that the end of each segment such as 28 is rounded at the tip. This has no relationship to the protective function of the helmet, and is done solely for the purpose of making the article acceptable from the viewpoint of appearance. Obviously, if either a prospective wearer or her parent had any objections to the appearance of a piece of headgear, the use of which was necessary to the infants safety, the value of the device might be completely voided.
It may be noted that the appearance of the helmet fabricated according to the plan view of FIGURE 2 and worn on an infant as indicated in FIGURE 1 result in a flower-like arrangement, with petals draped around the face. This is suitable for a girl, but quite unsuitable for a boy. For the latter, it is more appropriate to cut the segments straight across at the ends rather than round, as indicated in the partial view of FIGURE 4, in which segments .5154 may be used in place of segments 31-34 of FIGURE 2. This is the preferred embodiment of this invention as related to use by male athletes and construction workers.
It may be seen by reference to the segments at the sides of the head, such as 24-26 and 32-34, that the segments are fabricated in two layers, which for the illustrative segment 24 consists of an outer stiff resilient portion 24a and an inner compliant or cushioned portion 24b. The preferred materials for these layers will be considered in detail hereinafter.
The helmet 14 is preferably cut according to the illustrative layout shown in the plan view FIGURE '2. It may be seen that the helmet is cut with a large number of outwardly tapered elongated members, hereinafter termed segments, emanating from a central apical web or region 15. Preferably, twenty-two segments are used, as indicated, and each subtends a substantially equal angle around the apical region. In the illustrative embodiment shown, the segments are cut symetrically with respect to an apical point 0.
The radius r at which the individual segment cuts originate is preferably of the order of inch for an infants helmet. The mean outer radius R of the segments for this case is of the order of 5% inch.
If the inner radius r is reduced approximately inch, the portion of each segment adjacent to the apex region 15 is appreciably weakened due to the necessary constriction in width as the apex is approached. If the radius r is increased a similar order of magnitude, the various segments lose their pliability and fail to fold smoothly around the top of the head. Thus, the preferred proportion of the inner raidus r of the segments to the mean outer radius R of the segments is substantially 14%.
The preferred width at the ends of the segments for infant use is inch; for adult use it is slightly larger.
Each segment such as 20 is shaped with an inward or concave curvature R along the side. This is done for the purpose of ensuring that there will always be a minute crack between adjacent segments, as is required to ensure adequate ventilation and consequent evaporation of perspiration. The preferred concave radius of curvature R of the sides is of the order of six feet.
Altho the segments are shown generally radially disposed, they may h-ave any outwardly-expanding shape so long as they cover the head when folded thereover, except for ventilation areas which are preferably disposed along the edges of the segments.
The embodiment of FIGURES 1 and 2 presumes that only the cranium requires protection, and the ears are deliberately exposed.
In this embodiment, the segments 24-36 and 35-37 are foreshortened to avoid covering the ears or interfering with the concha in any way.
The preferred length of the various segments may be described as follows: the front-ally disposed segments -32 are approximately 5 /2 inches long to the tips, or 94 of the mean segment length; the segments 28 and 34 twice removed from the front segment 31 and which protects the temples 13 are approximately 6% inches, which is 104% of the mean segment length; the-length of the laterally-extending segments 24-26 and 35-38 is ap proximately 5%, slightly'greater than the frontally-extending segments, and 97% of the mean; the segments to the rear of segments 24 and 38 increase in length gradually culminating in the most rearwardly-disposed segment 20, which is approximately 7 inches and 119% of the mean.
This distribution of length is directly instrumental in automatically shaping the helmet to the head; the long rearwardly extending segment 20, for example, pushes gently on the back of the neck and holds the helmet in a proper forward position to protect the forehead and temples.
4 enlarged in FIGURE 5, It is comprised of a member 44 having a slot 45, thru which the cord portions 42 and 43 are passed. Wider cushioned straps, as well known in the art, may alternatively be used.
A helmet has been described which is capable of being adjusted to a given head and withstanding a force of several pounds concentrated at one spot without puncturing the outer layer and with an indentation no greater than 90% of the initial thickness of the inner layer.
1. A helmet comprising a large number of radially extending, outwardly expanding elongated members each having longitudinal sides, outer ends, and inner and outer layers; the inner ends of which are joined integrally by a The preferred material for the outer layer such as illustrated at 24a is polyethylene plastic sheet, approximately ,4 inch thick, which is stiff and resilient. Alternatively, thinner-Walled polyvinyl chloride, or vinylite, or the like may be used. The preferred material for the inner. compliant layer such as illustrated at 24b is polyurethane isocyanate foam, commonly known as urethane foam, approximately inch thick. The preferred adhesive is of a rubbery nature. Preferably, one material is bonded to the other before cutting to the petalled vshape.
means, such as the friction clip 44, which is illustrated web; the longitudinal sides being concave relative to each other; the inner layer being cushioned and the outer layer being resilient; a strap passed laterally through each elongated member and adjustable in length whereby to retain the members in a domed shape of a size adapted to be adjusted to a given head; whereby to constitute an adjustable protective head covering having minute cracks between the elongated members for ventilation.
2. A helmet comprised of a dual-layer body of material, one lay-er being relatively thin and stiff and the other layer comprised of relatively soft foam material, the periphery of said body of material being divided into a large number of segments; the segments adapted to be disposed over the forehead being approximately five inches long from an apical region to the ends; the segments adapted to be disposed over the temples and ears being approximately six inches long; and the segments adapted to be disposed over the back and the head being approximately seven inches long; all of the segments being joined in a confluent region having a mean radius relative to the apical region of approximately 14 percent' of the mean length of all the segments; the 1ongitudinal sides of each segment being concave relative to each other-whereby to provide ventilation cracks between adjacent segments, each of said segments having lateral apertures therein; a strap having portions threaded through said lateral apertures in each segment, passing around the front and rear segments of the helmet and adapted to be passed from laterally disposed segments under the chin of a wearer; whereby fastening the strap under the chin adjusts the segments to the shape of the head.
3. A helmet as described in claim 2, characterized by the number of segments being approximately twentytwo.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,602,727 10/26 Turner 2-3 1,853,114 4/32 Butcher. 1,868,926 7/32 Tatore et a. 23 3,068,487 12/62 Hain 2-498 X 3,087,166 4/63 Howard 23 FOREIGN PATENTS 894,838 1/ 45 France. 350,142 6/31 Great Britain.
JORDAN FRANKLIN, Primary Examiner. DAVID J. WILLIAMOWSKY, Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||2/420, D29/102|