US 3197922 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
3, 1965 E. E. SMITH 3,197,922
APPARATUS FOR AGITATING AND POLISHING MATERIALS Filed April 22 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTn 37 Ec/u/ard Ear/ 5111i:
H15 flrroxus g- 3, 1965 E. E. SMITH 3,197,922
APPARATUS FOR AGITATING AND POLISHING MATERIALS Filed April 22, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 A rro RNE Y United States Patent 0 3,197,922 APPARATUS FDR AGITATIN G AND POLIdl-IING MATERIALS Edward Earl Smith, 411 W. Main St, New London, Iowa Filed Apr. 22, 1963, Set. N0. 274,474
3 Claims. (til. 51-163) My invention relates to a machine or apparatus for the finishing and polishing of minerals and gem stones, and more particularly to a device producing orbital vibration and tumbling action for the accompilshment of the aforesaid purpose.
In the past, a number of devices or machines have been constructed for rotating or tumbling stones, minerals and other rough irregular objects in the presence of an abrasive compound and substance, which action, when continued over extended periods of time, completely removes all irregularities and imparts a high finish to the material being processed. One of the disadvantages in previous devices has been the length of time required in order to finish and polish a load since it is obvious that hard materials such as gem stones and minerals require long periods of tumbling action in the presence of abrasives to accomplish the desired results. Furthermore, many of the previous devices have not operated to thoroughly mix and agitate the load with the result that certain parts of the load are polished at the end of a treatment period, whereas other parts which have not received thefull agitating or vibrating effect are not in satisfactory condition and polishing treatment must. be continued.
In the preferred form of my invention I provide a container, being substantially a horizontal cylinder, open along the upper surface, which is mounted on an oscillating or vibrating platform, the platform being oscillated rapidly by means of a drive motor and an eccentrically weighted shaft secured to the platform. The platform is spring suspended and the oscillating eccentric weights and shaft are positioned oifcenter of the center line of the. spring support, which is extremely important as it has been found that this imparts a rotary or orbital motion to the horizontal cylinder containing the material to be polished. Means are also provided for adjusting the amount of eccentric Weighting of the drive shaft so that the amplitude of the vibration may be increased or decreased at the will of the operator, the container itself is lined with plastic material which is substantially unaffected by the abrasive action of the stones and polishing or grinding compound inserted along with the load.
it has been found that the polishingand finishing time, when using the device according to my invention, is reduced markedly from a period of weeks of continuous polishing required in previous devices down to. a matter of hours or a few days in the case of my construction.
Accordingly, it is an object of my invention to provide an improved device with a vibrating and oscillating container for the finishing and polishing of minerals, gem stones and other irregular and rough objects.
It is another object of my invention to provide a compact, lightweight vibrating type polisher and tumbler which is trouble'free in operation, and simple and economical to manufacture and operate.
It is a further object of my invention to provide an improved polishing and tumbling machine which imparts an orbital and rotary motion to the load carried therein insuring thorough mixing and polishing of all elements of the load and which in operation reduces the polishing and finishing time to a minimum.
It is still another object of my invention to provide a machine for the polishing and finishing of minerals and stones incorporating a spring supported floating platform which is vibrated or oscillated at high frequency and in which the frequency and amplitude of the vibration may be easily adjusted to accelerate or retard the polishing action of the load.
A still further object of my invention is to provide a machine for polishing and tumbling minerals and stones and like objects which operates quietly and free from vibration, and which includes a substantially cylindrical horizontal container being lined with abrasive resistant material, which container is easily removable for unloading and cleaning.
My invention and the advantages and benefits to be derived therefrom will be better understood from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, and its scope will be pointed out in the appended claims.
In the drawings, FIGURE 1 shows an elevation view of the assembled apparatus or device forming the subject of my invention and having a single cylindrical polishing container mounted on the upper surface thereof.
FIGURE 2 is a perspective view showing the top or open end of the cylindrical container constructed according to my invention.
FIGURE 3 is a top or plan view of the base unit of my device or apparatus showing the drive motor mounted therein and the top supporting springs in place.
FIGURE 4 is a plan view of the underside of the floating and vibrating platform showing the rotating shaft pro-. vided with eccentrically positionable weights for varying the amplitude of oscillation.
FIGURE 5 is a cross-section View of the machine or apparatus taken along the lines 5-5 of FIGURE 3 and 5-5 of FIGURE 4 showing the entire apparatus in assembled operative condition.
FIGURE 6 is a detailed and cross-section view of the base end of one of the support springs shown in FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 7 is a cross-section view through 'one'of the eccentric weights for producing vibration of the top platform.
FIGURES 8 and 9 are detailed views showing the arrangements of the eccentric weights provided at each end of the rotating shaft and illustrating the manner in which the amount of shaft unbalance can be pre-set or adjusted to vary vibration amplitude.
Referring now to the drawings, FIGURE 1 shows the base housing ll) which is preferably a light metal casting of the general configuration as shown in outline in FIG- URE 3. Positioned directly above the base and supported thereon by springs, as will be later pointed out, is the vibrating platform 11 with the material or load container 12 bolted thereto by means of bolts 13 and wing nuts 14. The load container 12. is better understood by reference to FIGURE 2 which showsthat the container is substantially cylindrical cross-section in the lower part thereof and provided with a rectangular top opening 15 for insertion and removal of the load. The inner surface of the container 12 is lined with abrasive resistant polyvinyl plastic 16 which is bonded to the metal container 12 and has been found to be very satisfactory, being resistant to abrasion and erosion caused by the action of the load and abrasive material therein, and also easy to clean. A further important advantage is gained by the plastic lining 16, as noise from vibration of the load is greatly reduced to the point where such noise is not objectionable. Provided at each end of the container 12 is a mounting foot 17 having a slot 18 for insertion over the mounting bolts 13, thus being arranged for easy attachment or removal from the platform 11. For a clear view of the shape and interior lining of the container 12, reference can be had to FIGURE 5 which shows a portion of said container in cross-section and illustrates the bonded plastie lining 16 which compiet ly protects the inner surface of the container 12.
The base housing as shown in FIGURE 3 consists of the external wall configuration as shown together with a motor mounting transverse web 20 integrally formed or cast in the housing and which provides a support for the drive motor 21 which is mounted thereon by customary motor mounting base flange 22 and mounting bolts 23. The remainder of the base 10, either side of the web 20, is open for access purposes. The motor 21 is preferably a high-speed A.-C. motor having a normal load speed of 3400-3500 r.p.m. and is equipped with a double end extended shaft 23 having O-shaped grooved drive pulley 24 on one end and an identical pulley 24' on the opposite end. The motor is supplied with power by the power lead 25 and controlled from the on-otf switch 26 mounted in the vertical wall of the housing 10.
Positioned within the housing 10 and spaced in rectangular arrangement are four support springs consisting of a front pair of springs 27 and a rearward pair 27'. However, said springs and their base mounting plates are all identical in construction, and these four springs are utilized to support the floating oscillating platform 11. The front pair of springs 27 are mounted on pedestals 28 (as seen in FIGURE 5) which pedestals are integrally cast into the housing 10 and the base web or flange thereof. The rearward pair of springs 27' are similarly mounted on an internal shelf or abutment 29 which is also integrally cast into the housing 10. Each of the springs 27 and 2'7 is a helical coil spring which is secured in a base cup 30, the cup in turn being bolted to the supporting pedestal or shelf, as the case may be, by means of a bolt 31. Reference should be had to FIGURE 6 which shows in cross-section the base of one of the springs 27 wherein it can be seen that the base of the coil spring rests within the base cup 30 and is provided with a central aperture for fastening down by means of a bolt. It has been found that in the operation of the device much objectionable noise has been substantially eliminated by coating the entire spring and base cup assembly with a polyvinyl plastic coating 32, which coating is bonded to the metal spring and cup and which efifectively secures the base of the spring into the cup 30. This further prevents corrosion or rusting of the springs and provides an insulating and shock resisting cushion for interconnecting the base 10 and oscillating platform 11 of this device and prevents transmission of vibration to the base housing.
Reference should now be had to FIGURE 4 which shows the underside of the floating spring-supported platform 11, saidplatform being substantially flat with a rounded over-hanging edge portion and of the same outline configuration as the base housing 10. The platform 11 is provided with four identical circular bosses 33, which are rec'tangularly spaced on the platform 11, their arrangement coinciding with the spacing of the four supporting springs 27 and 27 in the base housing 10, said bosses having enough height to engage within the upper open end of the springs 27 and 27' so that when the machine is assembled, the platform 11 is supported at four points by the springs 27 and 27' which encircle and engage the bosses 33 and resiliently support the platform in a horizontal position parallel to the base housing 10. Secured to the underside of the housing 11 is a pair of identical bearings 34 which are mounted on square bosses 35 integrally cast into the underside of the base 11. The bearings are mounted thereon by means of bolts 36 and carried by said bearings is a rotating shaft 37. It should be noted that the center line of the shaft 37 is not equidistantly' spaced between the forward pair and rearward'pair of bosses 33, and from FIGURE 5 it will be noted that the shaft 37 is positioned closer to the supporting springs 27' than it is the pair of supporting springs 27. This off-center location of the shaft relative to the supporting points is important as it creates or causes a rotary or orbital motion to be imparted to the platform 11 when the shaft 37 is rotated at high speed with the eccentric weights adjusted in unbalance as will be described further on.
The shaft 37 is provided with a pair of O-grooved pulleys 38 and 38' secured at each outer end of the shaft 3'7 as shown in FIGURE 4 and power is applied to the shaft by means of a pair of elastic belts 39 (one of which is shown) which interconnect the driving pulleys 24 and 24' and the pulleys 38 and 38' as shown in FIGURE 5. There is a slight reduction in rotary speed of the shaft 37 compared to that of the motor drive shaft 23 as the motor pulleys 24 and 24' are slightly smaller in diameter than the driven pulleys 38 and 38' so that the platform shaft 37 rotates at approximately 2700-6000 rpm. The belts 39 are of neoprene or other elastic material thus stretching as required in the vibration of the platform 11 relative to the base it), and the elasticity also permits easly disassembly by allowing the belts to be stretched in removing them from the motor pulleys 24 and 24'. The use of an elastic belt further serves to prevent transmission of vibration to the base 10.
In order to provide the desired amount of unbalance on the rotating shaft 37 and to impart the vibrating or orbital motion of the platform 11, a pair of positionable weights are provided at each outboard end of the shaft 37. The outermost weight 40, as seen in FIG- URES 4 and 5, is a circular disc having the shaft hole 37' substantially off-set from the center and is arranged to be secured to the shaft 37 by means of a set screw 42 as seen in cross-section in FIGURE 7. The set screw 42 is preferably of the type adapted for driving by means of a Phillips or Allen wrench or screwdriver, thereby leaving the set screw 42 recessed below the peripheral surface of the weight 40.
The set screw arrangement permits loosening of the weight 40 and rotating it to any desired position on the shaft 37. The inner weight 41 is substantially the same circular disc design and also provided with an ofi-center shaft hole and set screw in the same manner as the weight 40. The outer weight 40 is calibrated with markings 0 to 5 over 180 degrees of its periphery, and the inner weight 41 has a zero or reference line marked thereon coinciding with its diameter through the shaft hole 37'.
Referring now to FIGURES 8 and 9 which show the pair of eccentric weights 40 and 41 in two possible positions, it can be seen that if the weight 40 and the weight 41 are arranged exactly opposite, there will be no unbalance of the shaft and the Zero line marking on the weight 41 will be in direct alignment with the zero marking on the weight 40. FIGURE 8 shows a positioning of the weights wherein a small amount of unbalance is created as the weight 40 is positioned at number 1 on its calibrated scale in alignment with the zero setting line of weight 41. FIGURE 9 shows a position in which the amount of unbalance is much greater as the calibrated number 3 of the weight 40 is positioned in line with the zero setting line of weight 41. It will thus be apparent that if the weights are positioned so that the calibrated marking number 5 on weight 40 is in alignment with the zero setting on weight 41, both weights will be directly aligned and in their maximum position for creating unbalance of the rotating shaft assembly 37. This arrangement of unbalanced weights is simple and provides an easy method of setting the weights to create the desired amount of unbalance and eccentricity in the shaft 37. It should be pointed out that a similar construction obtains on the opposite end of the shaft 37 wherein the weights 40' and 41 are identically arranged, the outermost weight 40' being provided with a calibrated scale from 0 to 5 the same as weight 40 and the inner weight 41' having the zero line setting the same as the inner weight 41.
In setting the machine up for operation, the inner weights 41 and 41 should first be set so that they are in exactly thesame relative position on the shaft 37 and the set screws in these weights tightened securely. The outer weights are then rotated to the calibrated position to give the desired amount of unbalance in the assembly and each outer weight 40 and 41 is then set with the same calibration number in alignment with the zero setting and the set screw 42 tightened on each outer weight 40 and 49'. This insures that the unbalance at each end of the shaft is equal and identical and also provides the operator wtih simple and easy means of changing the amount of shaft unbalance to provide for greater or less amplitude of vibration or oscillation of the shaft assembly and platform,
In assembling the apparatus after setting the unbalanced weights, it is only necessary to place the platform 11 in the mate-hing position on top of the base 10 with the four support springs 27 and 27' engaging the bosses 33 in the underside of the platform and then stretching the belts 39 over the pulleys 24 and 24' at each end of the drive motor 21, the belts 39 being placed around the pulleys 38 and 33' before the platform i lowered onto the springs. Since the base of the housing 10 is open for access at each end of the motor from the underside, the placement of the belts over the motor drive pulleys is facilitated. From this it can be seen there is no fixed or rigid interconnection with the platform 11 and the base it the two parts being held together solely by means of the belts 39 and the platform is freely supported on the plastic cushioned springs 27 and 27 The container 12 for the load may be either a single continuous cylindrical container as shown in FIGURE 1 which is then inserted over the studs 13 and bolted down by wing nuts 14 as shown in FIGURE 1, or if desired, two separate containers of smaller size than the one shown can be used and additional studs 44 for bolting (shown in outline) provided at a central location of the platform 11. Thus, it i possible to polish and treat two separate loads of different materials without intermixing, which may be desirable if one load requires less finishing and polishing time than the other. To prevent marring of the surface on which the base 10 rests, slipping or creeping due to operation, and to reduce noise, four rubber feet 43 are rectangularly spaced on the underside of the base 10.
In operation the apparatus is assembled as previously described, the desired amount of unbalance of the shaft 37 being pre-set by means of the indicator dial on the weights 4t and 4t), and the rive belt 39 connected, thus holding the platform in place on the suspension springs 27 and 27. The load, gem stones, minerals or other objects to be polished, is then placed in the container 12 along with the necessary polishing or finishing compound and the machine turned on by means of the switch 26. The motor will quickly come up to normal load speed and as soon as initial belt slippage has been overcome will oscillate or vibrate the platform 11 and its load at a vibrating frequency slightly less than the motor speed as earlier described. Due to the location of the drive shaft 37 being asymmetrical to the supporting springs 27 and 27', anorbital or rotating type of oscillation is imparted to the platform 11 and container 12 which and it, being highly polished and smooth, lends itself to quick and easy cleaning after each load has been completely treated and removed from the container 12. While not shown, it is obvious that a lid or cover may be snapped or clamped over the load opening 15.
An advantage in an open type container 12 as used in this device is the prevention of gas pressure build-up which occurs in the grinding and polishing of some minerals in contact with an abrasive compound. In some cases, such pressure becomes dangerously high and any lid or cover which is used to cover the opening 15 should not fit so tight as to prevent escape of gas generated during operation.
It is apparent that while the amplitude of vibration and oscillation may be changed by increasing the amount of unbalance of the rotating shaft 37, it is also desired to point out that the frequency of vibration may be increased or decreased by selecting the relative sizes of the motor pulleys 24 and 24 and the driven pulleys 38 and 38' so decreased relative to the fixed motor speed.
It is apparent that some of the materials mentioned in this specification may be substituted and other utilized which are just as satisfactory and it is also important to note that the use of a single container 12 is illustrative only and a plurality of similarly shaped cylindrical containers may be placed on top of the platform 11 without changing the spirit of this invention.
While there have been shown and described particular embodiments of this invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications can be made therein without departing from the invention and, therefore, it is intended in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invent-ion.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is: I
1. A vibratory polishing machine for minerals, gem stones and the like comprising a base housing, a drive motor positioned within said housing, two spaced pairs of sound insulated support springs mounted in rectangular arrangement within said housing, a horizontal platform positioned above said housing and resiliently supported by said springs, a rotatable shaft carried in bearings on the underside of said platform, said shaft being positioned horizontally to one side of the centerline between said two pairs of support springs, a pair of eccentric weights on each end of said shaft, the two weights of eachpair being rotatable with respect to each other for varying the degree of unbalance of said shaft from a position of shaft rotary balance to a position of maximum off-center Weighting and maximum unbalance of said shaft, pair of elastic drive belts interconnecting said drive motor and said shaft for rotating said shaft and exerting downward pressure on said platform for maintaining said platform in position on said support springs, and an open top container of substantially cylindrical cross-section for receiving a load of rough material positioned on the upper surface of said platform, said container having an inner lining of abrasion resistant material integrally bonded thereto.
2. A vibratory polishing machine for minerals, gem stones and the like comprising an integrally formed, unitary, enclosed base housing having a double-end shaft drive motor positioned therein, drive pulleys at each end of said motor shaft, two spaced pairs of sound insulating support springs positioned in rectangular arrangement within said base housing, a platform above said base arranged for resilient support by said springs, a rectangular material container positioned on the upper surface of said platform with the centerline of said container offset to one side of the centerline of the rectangularly spaced support springs, a rotatable shaft mounted in bearings on the undersurface of said platform with the centerline of said shaft being parallel to and directly beneath the centerline of said container and offset with respect to the centerline of said support springs, a pair of adjustable ec centric Weights on each end of said shaft for creating orbital movement of said shaft and said platform and container upon rotation of said shaft, a pair of flexible drive belts interconnecting said shaft and said motor pulleys said belts maintaining said platform in position on said support springs and placing said springs under compression, said platform and said base being held in operating assembly solely by said belts, said material container being provided with a smooth non-metallic abrasion resistant lining for reception of a load of material to be polished along with a polishing compound, and visual indicator means consisting of corresponding calibration marks on each of said eccentric weights for indicating and presetting from zero to maximum the amount of shaft unbalance to be obtained and the amplitude of orbital vibration of the container and load therein to be obtained.
3. A vibratory polishing machine for minerals, gem stones and the like comprising an integrally formed enclosed base housing having a drive motor positioned therein, a pulley at each end of said motor shaft, two spaced pairs of sound absorbing material coated support springs positioned in rectangular arrangement within said base housing, a platform above said arranged for resilient support by said springs, a rectangular material container positioned on the upper surface of said platform with the centerline of said container otfset to one side of the centerline of the rectangularly spaced support springs, a rotatable shaft mounted in bearings on the undersurface of said platform with the centerline of said shaft parallel to and directly beneath the centerline of said container and offset horizontally with respect to the centerline of said support springs, a pair of adjustable disc-shaped eccentric weights on each end of said shaft for imparting eccentricity and orbital movement to said shaft and said platform and containerupon rotation of said shaft, a
pair of flexible drive belts interconnecting said shaft and said motor pulleys, said belt maintaining said platform in position on said support springs and placing said springs under compression, said platform and said base being held in operating assembly solely by said belts and said platform being quickly removable by disengagement of said belts, said material container being provided with a smooth non-metallic abrasion resistant lining for reception of a load of material to be polished along with'a polishing compound, and visual indicator means con sisting of corresponding calibration marks from zero to 180 degrees on one of said eccentric weights and a zero line on the other Weight for indicating and presetting from zero to maximum the amount of shaft unbalance t0 7 be obtained and the amplitude of orbital vibration of the container and load therein to be obtained.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,038,968 4/36 Summers 248-21 2,610,040 9/52 Emmons. 2,973,606 3/61 Brandt 51-163 2,997,813 8/61 Brandt 51163 3,037,327 6/62 Ferrara 51-163 3,093,940 6/63 Balz 5l-163 3,118,253 1/64 Setzler 517 ROBERT C. RIORDON, Primary Examiner.
JOHN C. CHRISTIE, LESTER M. SWINGLE,