US 3199300 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 10, 1965 v. J. FIORE FILE CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed May 22. 1961 FIG.4
Vincent J. Fiore ATTORNEY Aug. 10, 1965 v. .1. FIORE 3,199,300
PILE CONSTRUCTION Filed May 22, 1981 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 3
ATTORNEY United States Patent [real 3,89,31ld lllZE tltlNd-fll'UC'llflN Vincent J. Flore, New Yoda, N.Y., assignor to Foundation Specialties, inc, New York, N.Y. Filed May 22, 1951, der. No. 111,596 10 Claims. (iii. 61-53) This invention relates in general to an improved pile construction, and more specifically to a precast or cast in place piling comprising a plurality of separate and distinct pile sections which are adapted to be readily stacked end to end, one on the other, to form a continuous pile of a given predetermined length. This invention is further related to the subject matter of my co-pending application Ser. No. 34,057, filed January 23, 1961.
An object of this invention is to provide an improved precast or cast in place pile construction which permits the driving of relatively very long lengths of such piles with the use of conventional pile driving hammering means employing relatively short and practical driving leads.
Another object is to provide an improved precast or cast in place pile construction that is formed of relatively short similarly constructed pile sections that are adapted to be stacked end to end, one on the other, to permit the sinking of relative long piles by successively driving only relatively short sections of piles by conventional pile driving means utilizing relatively very short driving leads.
Another object is to provide an improved pile precast or cast in place of a suitable compressible material that can readily be driven into the ground to relatively very long lengths without encountering the hazards of cracking or breaking the same.
Still another object is to provide a pile construction formed of relative short sections having cooperating end connections arranged to form a coupled slip joint between adjacent sections for permitting the optional stacking of relative short sections end to end that are either all uniform in cross section or that are progressively increasing in cross-section.
Still another object is to provide a precast pile or shell encased pile construction with means which permits inspection of the driven pile for plumbness or deflection and which also enhances the loading capacity of the pile.
A feature of the pile construction disclosed in accordance with this invention is that it is easily constructed, economical to use, positive in operation, and which can be readily driven into the ground to any desired length with conventional pile driving eouipinent.
Other features and advantages will become readily apparent when considered in view of the drawings and description thereof in which:
FIG. 1 illustrates a precast pile constructed in accord ance with this invention with parts thereof broken away and shown in section.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary view of a slightly modified form of the pile shown in FIG. l.
FIG. 3 is still another modified form of a precast pile construction having portions thereof shown in section.
P16. 4 illustrates an elevation view of a cast in place pile shell casing constructed in accordance with this invention.
FIG. 5 illustrates, schematically, the driving means by which the pile construction embodying the instant invention is driven into the ground.
FIG. 6 illustrates the use of a waste portion of a pile section constructed in accordance with this invention and adapted for use as a lead section.
FIG. 7 illustrates the use of a waste pile portion adapted for use as a follower section.
Referring to the drawings, and to FIG. 1 in particular,
there is illustrated a precast pile ill which in accordance with this invention, comprises a plurality of relative short sections ll, 12 and i3, stacked end to end, one on the other so as to form a long continuous pile 1d of a given predetermined length. While FIG. 1 illustrates the use of only three such sections 11, 12 and 13, it will be understood that any number of sections can be stacked as may be required to attain a given desired length of pile. Such lengths may frequently attain 50, 75, or more feet.
The precast pile of FIG. 1 includes a lead section 11 and follower sections 12 and 13. Each of the sections it, 12 and 13 are substantially similar in construction, as will be hereinafter described, with the exception that the lead section 11 has connected to its lower end a ferrule type drive shoe M, which is welded, fused or otherwise secured thereto.
Essentially the lead section 11 and each of the follower sections 12, 13 comprises a tubular shell or casing 11A, 12A, 13A, respectively. Each shell or casing 11A, 12A, 13A consists of standard, manufactured thin or heavy wall pipe, gauge shells, or ofsuitable construction cornpressible materials. With the drive shoe 14 secured to the lower end of the lead section it. to close the bottom thereof, the shell or casing 11A is filled with a suitable compressible material, such as concrete 15 or other loa bearing compressible material to form the precast pile section. After the shell 11A has been filled with concrete, it is closed at its upper end by an end cap 16.
In accordance with this invention the end cap 16 of lead section 11 is formed with a depending Wall portion 16A forming a socket or Well 17 which extends inwardly and which is snugly fitted into the upper end of the shell 11A. The bottom wall 163 of the socket or well 17 is provided with a small weep hole or vent 18 to insure that the entire volume of the shell 11A between closed ends thereof is filled with concrete 1%. Connected to the upper end of the socket forming wall portion 16A of the cap 16 is an outwardly extending annular flange 16C having integrally formed therewith a depending skirt 16D circumscribing the upper end of the shell 11A and in spaced relationship thereto so as to define an annular groove 19 therebetween. If desired the skirt ND is provided with a beveled edge 1633-. The arrangement is such that when the cap 16 is fitted into the upper end of the shell or casing 11A the upper end of shell 11A is received within the groove li Thus during the driving operation the top of the shell casing which is receiving the hammer blows is prevented from belling 0r mushrooming outward. Also the flange 16C defined by the cap structure described provides an enlarged bearing area against which the impact of the hammering means is applied.
Each of the follower sections 12, 13 are likewise formed of an outer shell casing 12A, 13A and they also are provided with a similarly constructed end cap 16. However, in order to provide means for stacking of the follower sections 12, 13 onto the end of the lead section 11 or onto one another, a ferrule type end plug 20 is connected to the lower end of each follower section 12, 13. As shown the plug 2% consists of an upright ferrule collar 26A for receiving the lower end of the follower shell casing 12 or 13 and which is integrally connected to the outer periphery of an annular or ring shape base or shoulder portion 20B, which in the assembled position is adapted to overlie on the flange 16C of end cap 16 of the next preceding lower stacked section. Connected to the inner periphery of the ring base 263 is a depending tubular member 20C having a reduced cross-sectional area and forms a male projection which is adapted to be received in the socket 37 of the end cap 16 of the next preceding section to form a slip type joint or coupling therebetween. It will be noted that the bottom ZiiD of success the projecting portion 219C of plug 24) is also provided with a Weep opening or aperture 21.
In order to secure a friction-tight fit between the cooperating end cap 16 and end plug 20, which form the coupling between adjacent sections, the socket 17 of each cap 16 is formed with a downwardly and inwardly tapering wall portion 17A to allow a wedge-tight fit for the plug 20 of the next or following section. Accordingly the plug 2t) has a slightly larger diameter than that of the socket to further insure a tight fit therebetween.
In the construction of the follower sections 12, 13 it will be understood that the end plug 20 is first secured to its respective shell casing 11, 12 prior to pouring the concrete thereinto.
In the assembled position of the sections 11, 12 and 13 it is important to note that the bottom of the plug of any given section is spaced from the bottom wall 163 of the cooperating end cap 16 of the next preceding lower section. positioning between adjacent sections a thin layer or bed of mortar 22. This mastic is to provide a cushion between any pair of adjacent sections so as to prevent the possibility of fracturing the concrete 15 of the preceding driven section during the driving operation thereof.
The pile illustrated in FIG. 1 is formed of sections having the same or substantially equal diameters or crosssectional areas. For such piles each of upper end caps 16 and lower end plugs 20 are similar for each of the pile sections. Thus the various pile sections are rendered readily interchangeable.
In instances where it is desirable to have each succeeding pile section formed with progressively increasing diameters, as shown in FIG. 2, it will be necessary to increase the size of the ferrule collar portion of the plug 31 to accommodate the increased diameter of the next succeeding section 32. In such instances the ring base 33 portion is also enlarged, and thereby enables the depending male projection 34 to remain in size to fit the socket 35 of the next preceding section 36. Thus, as the succeeding sections increase in size so will the cooperating sockets and plug of the adjacent pile section.
FIG. 3 illustrates a modified form of a precast pile formed in accordance with this invention with means to provide for inspection of the pile after it has been driven into the ground. This form of the invention includes a pile 40 which is formed of a lead section 41 and several follower sections 42, 43 that are substantially similar in construction as sections of pile 1%) described with reference to FIG. 1, the major exception being that each section is provided with a pipe length or hollow core 44 to permit inspection of the driven pile section. Accordingly the core 44 of each section is disposed so that they fall in axial alignment in the assembled position of the respective sections 41, 42 and 43 to form a continuous inspection core extending the length of the assembled pile 40.
To facilitate alignment of the core or pipe length 44 7 within the lead section 41, the driving shoe 45 connected thereto is formed with a projecting boss 46 on which the lower end of the core or pipe 44 is centered. The upper end of the pipe 44 in each section, respectively, has connected thereto by suitable means, e.g., threads, weld, friction fit, etc., a sleeve coupling 47 which may be centered in a'hole 48 formed in the bottom wall 49 of the socket 50 defined in the upper end cap 51 closing the top of the sections.
As shown in FIG. 3, the inspection core 44 of each follower section 42, 43 projects through an opening in end plug 53 and slightly beyond the lower end 52 thereof. Thus in the assembling or stacking of the sections 41, 42, 43 in end to end relationship, the projecting end portion of core 44 in each of the follower sections is fitted .into the upper end of sleeve coupling 47 connected to the upper end of the core or pipe 44 of the next preceding The purpose of this space is to allow for the' 4 7 lower section. While FIG. 3 illustrates a core coupling between adjacent follower sections only, it will be understood that a similar coupling is provided between any pair of adjacent stacked sections 41, 42 and 43.
In this form of the invention the inspection pipe or core 44 is positioned within the shell of each section, between the closed ends thereof, prior to pouring the concrete 54 into the shell sections. Thus it will be apparent that the core 44 of each section not only provides access for inspecting the driven pile fo plumbness or deflection, but also enhances its load bearing capacity by increasing the section modulus of each section.
FIG. 4 illustrates a cast in place pile of constructed in accordance with this invention. In this form of the invention each section 61 and 62 comprises a shell casing 61A and 62A respectively, as hereinbefore described. While not shown, it will be understood that a lead section is provided and that it has its lower end closed by a ferrule type drive shoe as described with reference to FIG. 1. The upper end of each shell 61A, 62A is closed by a cap construction $3 similar to cap :16 of FIG. 1, with the exception that the bottom of the socket 64 formed therein is not closed by a bottom wall, but rather rendered full open at 65 to communicate with the interior of its respective shell 61A. As shown the end plug 66 of each section and adapted to be received in the socket 64 of the cap 63 of the next lower section is likewise provided with a full open lower end 66A. The cooperating coupling between each pair of adjacent sections of the pile 60 is similarly constructed. Thus it will be readily apparent that with the sections 61, e2 stacked and driven in place into the ground, the concrete may then be poured into the upper end of the uppermost casing 61, and openings 65, 66A of the cooperating end cap 63 and plug 66 between adjacent sections permits the entire length of pile to be filled with concrete, which is then cast in place.
In operation each of the pile sections of the various forms described, are successively driven into the ground by conventional pile driving means, consisting generally of an anvil 7t) fitted to the upper end of a pile section, e.g. a lead section 11, 41, etc, and a hammering ram or hammer 71 actuated by short driving leads (not shown) for exerting the driving force thereon. Thus the impact or force applied by repeated blows of hammer or ram 71 on the anvil drives the section 11 into the ground. After the first or'lea-d section 11 has been driven into the ground, the next follower section 12, 42 is fitted onto the upper end of the driven pile section :11, and the pile driving operation being continued by acting on the follower section simultaneously drives each stacked section deeper into the ground. As hereinbefore described, between adjacent sections of the precast pile of FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, there is disposed a thin layer or bed of mastic 22. Thus as each section is driven into the ground another follower section is stacked on the driven section, and the driving operation repeated until a pile of a given predetermined length is reached. 7
A feature of this invention resides in the provision that when the predetermined length of pile, driven into the ground, has been reached, any portion of the uppermost pile section extending above the cut off point of the pile may be cut off. Thus by adapting an end plug 20, FIG. 7,
or drive shoe 14 or 45, FIG. 6, to this cut off length, it-
may be further used or incorporated as part of another pile. Thus the so-called waste portion 75 of a pile, i.e. the portion of the pile which extends above the cut oif point and which must be cut off, can be reused thereby eliminating what heretofore resulted in waste of these fractional pile lengths.
From the foregoing description it will be readily apparent that the pile sections as described can be readily fabricated either at their place of manufacture, or they may be formed directly in the field of the building site. Thus depending on freight costs the shell casings of the respective pile sections can be shipped either in their empty state or filled with precasted concrete, or the like. Also because the pile can be formed in sections in accordance with this invention, each section can then be formed of a length to facilitate the most economical handling costs. Thus in addition to facilitating ease of driving precast or cast in place piles of the invention herein described further facilitates the handlin and transportation of the same, while at the same time rendering the use of such piles more economical.
While the instant invention has been disclosed with reference to a particular embodiment thereof, it is to be appreciated that the invention is not to be taken as limited to all of the details thereof as modifications and variations thereof may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A hammer driven, compression type pile adapted to carry a load comprising a plurality of separate and distinct sections stacked end to end one on the other to form a continuous pile of any given extended length, each of said sections including a tubular shell, an end cap closing the upper end of each of said shells, and an end plug closing the bottom end of each of said shells, said cap defining a socket having a bottom extending inwardly of its respective shell and having at its upper end an integrally connected laterally extending flange formed with a groove into which the upper end of its respective shell is fitted whereby said cap reinforces the upper end of said shell, and said end plug defining a male projection snugly received in the socket formed by the end cap of the next preceding pile section, said male projection having a bottom and said plug of one section and end cap of the next preceding section being connected so that the bottom of said male projection is spaced slightly above the bottom of the socket of the end cap of said next preceding section, an aperture formed in the bottom walls of the cooperating end plug and end cap, and a compressible material filling the volume of said shell between the end plug and end cap of each section.
2. A precast pile adapted to be driven into the ground by pile driving hammer, said pile comprising a plurality of separate and distinct sections including a lead section and a plurality of follower sections, said sections being stacked end to end one on the other to form a continuous precast pile of a given predetermined length, each of said sections including a tubular shell casing, a driving shoe connected to the bottom end of the shell casing forming said lead section, a bottom closure defining a male projection connected to the lower ends of each follower section, a cap closing the upper ends of said lead section and each of said succeeding follower sections, each of said caps including a depending wall portion defining a socket extending inwardly into the upper end portions of its respective sections, a laterally extending flange connected to the upper end of the socket forming wall portion, and a depending skirt connected to said flange in spaced relationship to the wall of said socket to define therebetween a groove receiving the upper end of its respective shell casing to reinforce the same against the driving blows of a driving hammer, and said end cap and bottom closure of adjacent stacked sections cooperating and forming therebetween a friction tight slip joint whereby the bottom closure male projection of one section is snugly fitted into the socket forming cap of the next lower preceding section; and a compressible material occupying substantially the entire volume of each of said shell casings.
3. The invention as defined in claim 2 wherein each succeeding follower section has a progressively increasing cross-sectional area.
4. The invention as defined in claim 3 wherein each of said sections is provided with a substantially uniform cross-sectional area.
5. A precast pile comprising a plurality of separate and distinct sections adapted to be driven into the ground by stacking one of said sections onto the end of a preceding driven section and simultaneously driving each of said sections further into the ground by repeated blows of a pile driving hammer, each of said sections including a tubular shell casing, an end cap fitted to the upper end of each of said casings, said cap defining a depending open end socket extending into the upper end of its respective section, and an end plug connected to the lower end of each of said shell casings, said end plug including a depending reduced tubular member snugly received in said socket defined by the cap fitted to the upper end of the next lower preceding shell casing whereby said end plug and the adjacent cap of the next preceding shell casing cooperate to form a slip joint for interconnecting adjacent shell sections with one another, an inspection pipe disposed in each of said sections, and means for coupling the inspection pipe of each section in axial alignment in the stacked position of said sections, and a compressible filler occupying the space between the pipe and shell casing of each section.
6. A cast in place pile comprising a plurality of separate and distinct sections which are hammer driven into the ground as hollow sections by stacking one of said sections onto the end of a preceding driven section and simultaneously driving each of said sections further into the ground, each of said sections including a tubular shell casing having an upper end, an end cap fitted to the upper end of each of said casings, said cap defining a depending socket extending into the upper end of its respective section and open at its bottom so as to be in open communication with the interior of its respective shell casing, and an end plug connected to the lower end of each of said shell casings, said end plug including a ferrule collar for receiving the lower end of its respective shell casing, a depending reduced tubular member connected to said ferrule collar to form a male open end projection open at its lower end, said open end projection being snugly received in the socket defined by the cap fitted to the upper end of the next lower preceding shell casing whereby the open end projection and the adjacent open end cap socket of the next lower preceding shell casing cooperate to form a slip joint interconnecting the interior of adjacent shell section in open communication with one another so that a concrete compressible material can be readily poured into each of said driven sections in the assembled position thereof.
'7. A cast in place pile casing driven into the ground by a pile driving hammer means comprising a plurality of separate and distinct sections including a lead section and a plurality of follower sections, each of said sections being stacked end to end one on the other in the assembled position thereof to form a continuous pile casing of a predetermined length, each of said sections including an opened end tubular shell casing having an upper end, a flanged end cap fitted to the upper end of its respective section, each of said caps defining a socket extending into the upper end of its respective section, said socket being open at its inner end and in open communication with the interior of said shell casing, and an end plug connected to the lower end of each of said follower casings, said plug including a ferrule collar to receive the lower end of its respective follower shell casing, and a reduced tubular member depending therefrom to form a hollow open bottom projection adapted to extend into the socket formed in the end cap of the next lower section in the stacked position thereof, said reduced tubular member and cooperating cap of each of the next preceding section connecting adjacent sections of said pile in open communication with one another so that in the stack position of said shell casings a suitable compressible material may be readily poured into the driven in place and stacked shell sections.
8. A hammer driven compression pile adapted to carry a load comprising a plurality of relatively shortsection stacked end to end on one another to form a continuous pile of any given pre-determined length, and which sections can be readily separated one from the other, each of said sections comprising a tubular shell, a detachable end cap closing the upper end of said shell and reinforcing the upper end of said shell, said cap being formed with a depending wall portion to define a socket extending inwardly into the upper portion of said shell and a connected circumscribing skirt spaced from said depending wall whereby the upper end of the shell is received between said socket and said skirt, and an end plug closing the bottom end of said shell, said plug having a depending wall portion defining a male projection snugly received in the socket defined'by the end cap of the next preceding stacked section. V
9. The invention as defined in claim 8 and including a solid compressible material occupying the volume of said shell between said plug and said cap.
10. The invention as defined in claim 8, wherein said end cap defining said socket has a bottom wall provided with a weep hole to insure complete occupation of the volume defined by said shell between said end cap and end plug with said compressible material. 7
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 122,656 1/72 Rogers 189-26 262,569 8/82 Case 6l53 762,496 6/04 Smith 61-53 1,869,990 8/32 Watt 6153.7 2,539,456 1/51 Meier.
3,030,544 4/62 Zamboldi et al 287126 FOREIGN PATENTS 200,945 2/ 5 6 Australia.
181,826 4/55 Austria.
423,171 1/35' Great Britain,
431,069 7/35 Great Britain.
CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner.
WILLIAM I. MUSHAKE, EARL J. WITMER, JACOB L. NACKENOFF, Examiners;