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Publication numberUS3199680 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 10, 1965
Filing dateJan 17, 1961
Priority dateJan 17, 1961
Publication numberUS 3199680 A, US 3199680A, US-A-3199680, US3199680 A, US3199680A
InventorsRaymond M Schiff
Original AssigneeRaymond M Schiff
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Dialyzing apparatus
US 3199680 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 10, 1965 R. M. sci-UFF 3,199,680

DIALYZ ING APPARATUS Filed Jan. 17. 1961 IN VEN TOR. RAYA/0WD M .5CH/FF United States Patent O 3,1%?,689 DIALYZING APPARATUS Raymond M. Schi, 9 Henry Ave., Park Ridge, NJ. Filed `lan. 17, 1961, Ser. No. 83,264 l Claims. (Qi. 21d-321) This invention relates to biological laboratory equipment and, more particularly, to apparatus for the dialysis of liquids and carrying out a dialysis process.

As the terms used in connection with the dialysis process have not as yet become clearly defined, it is intended to set forth certain denitions which will be used throughout the specification and claims. At the outset of the dialysis process two fluid quantities are started with, one is to be designated -as the buffer or dialyzing medium and the other is to be designated as the solution to be separated or mixture to be dialyzed. At the outset of the dialysis process, the mixture to be dialyzed is brought into Contact with the buffer. Generally, a first container is provided to hold the buffer, and a second container is provided to hold the mixture to be dialyzed. After the process has commenced and at the termination of the process, the iuid which diffuses from the second container into the first container and rema-ins in the first container is designated as the difiusate, and the iuid whichleav'es the first container and passes into the second container together with the fluid in the .second container which does not diffuse into the rst container is designated as the dialysate. The second container is usually formed of a cellophane or viscose bag or other suitable semi-permeable membrane; the second container in some instances is also designated as a Visking sac.

In dialyzers known to the prior art, a sac or the second container containing the mixture to be dialyzed is placed in a vertical position into the first container containing the buffer which is the liquid intended to pass into the sac formed of the semi-permeable membrane. Usually a single sac is used, but where more than one sac is used, these sacs are placed into the first container substantially perpendicular to the base about a center rod.

In the prior art dialyzers, the movement of the sac or membrane does not enable liquids or uids which will form at least two different phases (immiscible liquids or fluids) within the sac to have their relative positions altered with respect to the ends of the sac. Also, with the prior art dialyzers any agitation which is imparted to the sacs containing the mixture to be dialyzed even if such mixture were composed of miscible liquids or iiuids was not effective in any manner to alter the rate of dialysis. With the prior art dialyzers, movement of the sacs did not in any way alter the rate of dialysis.

One of the difficulties of the dialyzers known to the prior art is that the capacity is usually quite small thereby requiring either an unduly long waiting period tocomplete the dialysis process or a large number of expensive laboratory equipment.

The present invention proposes to overcome the foregoing diiiiculties by providing a lirst container to hold a buffer, such as water, and suitably coupling to the first container a pair of spaced discs having swivels for coupling thereto sacs to form the second container for ,containing the iiuid or liquid material or mixture to be dialyzed. By coupling the sacs at their ends to the pair of spaced discs, the quantity of sacs used is materially increased. The sacs may be tied at their ends with string or other suitable material and connected to the swivels to permit freedom of movement to the sacs while maintaining them connected to the discs for rotation therewith within the buffer in the container. With the present invention, the sacs while placed into the same buffer in the rst container are kept and maintained apart and separated 3,199,680 Patented Aug. 10, 1965 ICC from each other such that no rubbing or contact takes place between any two sacs. The sacs are also maintained in position such that no bending or sagging takes place whereby the sacs do not bend over on each other.

The mechanical dialysis process which can be carried out employing the apparatus of this invention shortens removal time from days to hours such that results Vare obtainable after a much shorter period than with dialyzers known heretofore. Furthermore, a large quantity of mixtures to be dialyzed can be processed simultaneously there- -by obviating the necessity of having a large number ol" d-ialyzers available to take care of the same number of mixtures.

in accordance with a feature of the present invention, a small air bubble becomes entrapped within the sac or membrane before it is closed and tied; the air bubble provides an air space in the -sac which is always present after the sac has been filled. Each of the discs is positioned with its plane face substantially perpendicular to the base of the container, and the membranes or sacs are coupled p to the discs so that during-rotation of the discs first one end of the sac is higher than the other end and then the other end is higher than the one end thereby transferring the `air bubble from one end of the sac to the other; The sacs are coupled between the discs in such a manner that only twice during each cycle of rotation for each sac is it parallel to the base of the first container with the air bubble at a position intermediate between the ends of the sac; the air bubble is in the intermediate position a-t the time the sac is passing through its lowest and vhighest points during rotation of the discs. air bubble is effective to mix the fluid or liquid contents of the sac and the constant agitation of the uid or liquid within the sac as a result of the transfer of the air bubble from one end of the sac to the other .speeds the separation.

The discs, are carried .on a center rod which is positioned within the container so as to be fixed with respect thereto against transverse movement relative to the container while being rotatable with respect thereto. 'I'he permeable membranes or sacs are connected to the discs by means of swivels such that they would all lie in a cylindrical surface and form a line thereon which is not the locus of the generatrix but a diagonal on the surface of the cylinder formed by the connected sacs. The swivels are placed near the peripheral edge of each of the discs facing each other with the same spacing therebetween. The swivels may be suitably formed as ball and socket joints. If the discs are adapted to carry twenty swivels for example, then the disc angle spacing for each would be 18 from each other. The discs may be adapted to carry, for example, thirty swivels such that the disc angle spacing would be 12. Depending upon the num- 'ber of swivels carried by the discs, the sac is coupled to the swivels such that the disc angle in a preferred embodiment will vary between l5 to 45 such that the ends of the sac will be raised and lowered with respect to each other as the discs rotate thereby providing for transfer of the bubble in the sac. The disc angle is limited by the requirement that the sac be prevented from coming into contact with the center rod and with other sacs carried by the discs so as to prevent bursting of the sacs as a result of rubbing.

A temperature control for the container can be provided by any suitable means external thereto, such as by means of a water circulating pump and mechanical refrigeration. A

An object of the invention is to provide a dialyzer having a large capacity and in which the time of separation or dialysis is reduced so that the dialysis process The transfer of theV to change the position of the liquid therein for subjection thereof to constant agitation.

A further object of the invention is to provide a dialyzer in which a plurality of sacs each containing a different yor the same material to be dialyzed can be subjected to the dialysis process using the same buffer without interference among the plurality of sacs or between any two sacs.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide swivels to connect the sacs to the discs to prevent excess pressure from being applied t the sacs as a result of a half twist which may cause bursting or rupturing of the sacs.

Yet a further object of the invention is to assist an equilibrium dialyzer to accomplish its intended purpose of causing the liquid to pass out of the membrane or sac to be equal to the liquid which .is to pass into the sac thereby increasing the rate of dialysis, Y

Yet another yobject of the present invention is the provision of an improved dialyzer of the above character which is of simple design and construction, economical to manufacture and highly eicient in the accomplishment of its intended purpose.

According to the invention, there is provided a container adapted to carry a buffer and having means to support a pair of spaced discs provided with swivels to interconnect therebetween a plurality of sacs which are continuously moved through and within the buier. The discs are coupled together by means of a center rod and rotated together by suitable motive means so that rst one end of thc sac is higher than the other end and then the other end is higher than the one end.

The objects, advantages and nature of the invention will be more fully understood from the following description of the preferred embodiments of the invention, shown, by way of example, in the accompanying drawing, in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective View of a dialyzer according to the invention illustrating one modification thereof.

FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional View of a dialyzer according to the invention illustrating another modification thereof, and

FG. 3 is a partial vertical sectional view of a pair of discs forming part lof the dialyzer according to FIG. l or FIG. 2 with a single membrane or sac having the ends thereof coupled to the pair of discs.

In order to simplify the drawing, portions 0f the apparatus not essential to an understanding of the invention have been omitted, it being understood that the invention is applicable to all dialysis processes requiring special temperature, pressure or liquid controls. For example, the present invention can be used to perform an equilibrium dialysis process. In an equilibrium dialysis process, a sample is usual-ly dialyzed against a particular medium; the sample is then placed into the sac with the sac into another container which holds the buffer. At the end of the dialysis process, the buffer as well as the sample are analyzed; this is to be contrasted with the more general form of dialysis process in which only the dialysate is of importance. When the apparatus of the present invention is used to perform an equilibrium dialysis process, a major feature of the apparatus is the control of the ambient temperature. Furthermore, large samples as in the other dialysis process can be accommodated.

Referring now to the drawing which illustrates the best modes now contemplated by me for carrying out my invention and in which similar characters of reference indicate corresponding parts in all of the figures, a dialyzer is shown in FIG. l which includes a container or chamber 19 and a pair of spaced discs or sac carrying means 12 and 14.

Container is shown as formed of a metal frame provided with a base and sides of translucent material and is adapted to hold the liquid buffer. Discs 12 and 14 are each provided with a plurality of swivels 16, spaced from each other and slightly inwardly of the circumferential edge of the discs, adapted to carry a membrane or sac S with one end of the sac or membrane being coupled to a swivel on disc 12 and the other end of the sac or membrane being coupled to a swivel on discs 14. U-shaped clamping members 18 are provided to support a shaft or center rod 2) for rotation in the container 1@ by means of any suitable bearings such as bearings 22. Discs 12 and 14 are ixedly coupled to the center rod and spaced from each other in accordance with the length of the elongated closed container or sac S and the angle the sac S makes with a horizontal plane through the center rod 2t) when one of the swivels 16 connnecting one of the ends of the sac lies in the horizontal plane.

Motive means to rotate the discs is provided and includes a motor 24, e.g. a Bodine motor, fixed to a top edge of the container adjacent to one of the discs. In the embodiment shown, motor 24 is coupled through the intermediation of suitable gearing to a Carborundum wheel 26 which is desireably maintained above the level of the buffer or liquid in container Iii; the outer peripheral edge of disc 14 is in face to face engagement with the Carborundum wheel 26 and is rotated thereby when motor 24 is energized. in lieu of Carborundum wheel 26 any other suitable gearing may be used to impart rotary movement to disc 14 and thereby to the spool arrangement composed of center rod 2) and discs 12 and 14.

In order to maintain wheel 25 out of direct Contact with the buffer, an overiiow may be provided coupled to an opening in one of the sides of the container 10 provided at a level below wheel 25.

Referring now more particularly to FIG. 2, container or chamber 1d is here formed entirely of metal and constructed somewhat larger than the container of FIG. 1 to accommodate a greater quantity of membranes or sacs S. Rod 29 in addition to having discs 12 and 14 coupled near the ends thereof has xed thereto at an intermediate position a center disc 30 provided with swivels 16 on both faces. The swivels on one face of disc Sti cooperate with the swivels on disc 12, and the swivels on the other face of disc 36 cooperate with the swivels on disc 14.

In the embodiment of FIG. 2, the bearings 22 are xed to rod 2t! and removable therewith when rod 20 together with discs 12, 14 and 30 are removed from container 10 and insertable into the container for engagement therewith. At the side of the container which carries motor 24 and wheel 26, a bearing opening 32 is provided to receive one of the bearings 22 Which is suitably provided as a thrust bearing to permit the rod 20 and ball bearing to enter at any angle. At the opposite side of the container, the other bearing 22 is supported on the base of a keyway 34 to enable the other bearing 22 to be placed into the container together with the rod 20. To retain the last-mentioned bearing 22 within the keyway 34, a keyway slide 35 is provided.

Referring now more particularly to FIG. 3 of the drawing, a single membrane or sac S is shown coupled at the ends thereof by means of twine or string 46 to the swivels 1d. The swivels 16 may suitably include an eye ring 4Z extending from a ball and socket joint 44. The ball and socket joint is provided with a coupling means such as a screw portion 45 to couple the ball and socket joint 44 fixedly to the discs 12 and 14. In this manner, the membrane or sac S is maintained between the discs while the sac is free to rotate about its longitudinal axis. When disc 30 is placed between discs 12 and 14, it will be obvious that the swivels 16 connected on both sides of disc 30 also comprise the eye ring 42, the ball and socket joint 44 and the coupling means 46. A ball and socket joint 44 of the snap-in type may also be used so that the eye ring 42 may be decoupled from the coupling means 46 whereby to facilitate the removal of an individual sac with the twine and eye ring while permitting the other sacs to remain coupled to the discs. The air bubble in the sac shown in FIG. 3 is designated 48.

The swivels 16 are spaced circularly on one face of the discs 12 and 14 and both faces of disc 30 about a circle concentric with the perimeter circle of the discs but spaced inwardly thereof by an amount sufcient to prevent the sacs S from touching the inside of the container and from touching the center rod 20. It is important that the sacs S contact solely the buffer which is placed into the container.

As a result of the combination of the rotatable discs 12, 14 and/ or 3d and the swivels 16, the rate of dialysis is greatly increased and accelerated. It will be evident that the membranes or sacs S need not contain the same materials and no interference takes place between and among the various sacs; the dialysis process may be stopped for an individual sac which can be removed with ease as mentioned heretofore. It is also possible to remove the discs and all of the sacs coupled thereto as a unit merely by removing the U-shaped frames 18 of the FIG. l embodiment or the keyway slide 36 of the FIG. 2 embodiment to remove the center rod 20 with the bearings and three discs.

Container 10 as shown in FG. 1 is comprised of heat resisting glass or a transparent plastic material to facilitate its use in a laboratory. For industrial uses, container 10 may be suitably fabricated of stainless steel or any suitable metal as mentioned heretofore or any equivalent opaque substance. Where it is desired to use a closed chamber instead of an open container 1%, a cover may be suitably provided with the drive for discs being coupled through a Wall of the container by means of a suitable hermetic and fluid-tight seal.

It will be evident that the sacs can be constantly and continously rotated during the dialysis process While the ends of the sacs are alternately raised and lowered so that the same end is not always the lowest or the highest end. The sacs are placed about the center rod 20 so as to form a complete circle or cylinder of the same about the center rod. The sacs are connected to the spaced discs in such a manner that the plane through the center rod and the swivel connected to one end of the sac is inclined with respect to a second plane through the center rod and the swivel connected to the other end of the sac. t is important that the sacs be coupled between the discs so that they are not parallel to the center rod in order to insure the constantagitation of the liquid in the sac S as a result of the transfer of the bubble from one end of the sac to the other as the sac is rotated by the discs. It is also possible to couple two or more sacs to the same pair of swivels so long as the sacs do not come into contact with the center rod 2d and the inside portion of the container.

With the dialyzer of the present invention it is possible to add fluids to or remove them from the membrane 0r sac. It is also possible to perform a washing process Within the sac as well as a dialyzing process.

If Water soluble and alcohol soluble components are placed into the sac, the dialysis process removes the water soluble components andvleaves the alcohol soluble components in the sac as the alcohol soluble components do not pass through the sac. dialyzing process, a separating process can also be performed. The water soluble components which are re` moved from the sac are replaced by the water from the buffer, and the water which enters the sac is designated 50, FIG. 3. The alcohol soluble substances 52 rise and remain above the water 59. Accordingly, a double process is performed, the separation process and the dialysis process.

It is obvious that a great many minor variations in the details of the invention may be made without departing from the basic principles of the invention.

While there has been shown what is at present considered to be a preferred embodiment of the invention,

Accordingly, in addition to a it is apparent that many changes and modilications may be made therein without departing from the invention, and it is, therefore, intended in the accompanying claims to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

What l claim is:

1. Apparatus for the dialysis or separation of liquid solutions in an elongated closed membrane comprising, in combination, a chamber adapted to contain a liquid butter, a pai-r of spaced rotatable discs disposed in said chamber, means adapted to couple the ends of said elongated closed membrane between said spaced discs, said coupling means including a pair of swivels, one of said swivels being coupled to one of said rotatable discs for coupling thereto one end of the membrane and the other of said swivels being coupled to the other of said rotatable discs for coupling thereto the other end of said membrane, said swivels being circumferentially spaced on said discs inwardly from the outer periphery thereof, at least one membrane being adapted to be connected between each of said one of said swivels and said other of said swivels, said other swivel being displaced from said one swivel by a disc angle of at least 12.

2. Apparatus for the dialysis or separation of liquid solutions in an elongated closedmembrane comprising, in combination, a chamber adapted to contain a liquid buffer, a pair of spaced rotatable discs disposed in said chamber, means adapted to couple the ends of said elongated closed membrane between said spaced discs, said coupling means including a pair of swivels, one of said swivels being coupled to one of said rotatable discs for coupling thereto one end of the membrane and the other of said swivels being coupled to the other of said rotatable discs for coupling thereto the other end of said membrane, means removably coupling said shaft and said members as a unit to said chamber, said removable coupling means including a pair of U-shaped clamping members supported on an outer edge of the chamber, a bearing ixed to each of said clamping members, said shaft having its ends rotatably coupled to and translatably fixed to said bearings for rotation therein and removal therewith, said chamber being provided on one wall thereof with a bearing opening and a keyway in a wall opposite to said one wall, a thrust bearing coupled to one end of said shaft and receivable in said bearing opening, a fixed bearing coupled to the other end of said shaft and movable in said lieyway to remove said shaft and said members as a unit from said chamber and a keyway slide to lock said fixed bearing in said keyway thereby to lock said unit in said chamber while permitting rotation of'said unit in said bearings, said other swivel and said one swivel being spaced from each other by a disc angle between about 15 and 45.

3. Apparatus for the dialysis or separation of liquid solutions in an elongated closed membrane comprising, in combination, a chamber adapted to contain a liquid buffer, a pair of spaced rotatable members disposed in said chamber, and means coupling the ends of said elongated closed membrane between said spaced members, said coupling means including a pair of swivels, each comprising a ball and socket joint, one of said swivels being coupled to one of said rotatable members for coupling thereto one end of the membrane and the other or" said swivels being coupled to the other of said rotatable members for coupling thereto the other end of said membrane to permit complete freedom of rotary movement by the membrane relative to said rotatable members.

4. In an apparatus for the dialysis or separation of liquid solutions in a plurality of individual elongated sacsY having closed ends, a chamber adapted to oontainl a liquid butler, rotatable means to support said sacs in said chamber within said liquid buffer, means to couple said ends of said sacs to said rotatable means including swivels each, comprising a ball and socket joint, and means to rotate said sacs within said liquid bu'er so enoaesor that for a rst 180 rotation of said rotatable meansA said one end of the sac is higher than said other end :and for the second 180 rotation of said rotatable means, said other end of the sac -is higher than said one end.

5. In an apparatus for the dialysis or separation of liquid solutions in a plurality of individual elongated sacs having closed ends, a chamber con aining a liquid buffer, a pair of spaced rotatable members disposed in said chamber to support said sacs in said chamber within said liquid butler, means including a pair of swivels to couple said ends Iof said sacs to said rotatable means, one of said swivels being coupled to one of said rotatable members for coupling thereto one end of .the elongated sacs and the other of said swivels being coupled to the other of said rotatable members for coupling thereto the other end of the elongated sacs, and means to rotate said sacs within said liquid butter so that for a tlrst 180 rotation of said rotatable means said one end of the sac .is higher than said other end and for the second 180 rotation of said rotatable means, said other end of the sac is higher than said one end.

6. In .the apparatus as claimed in claim 5, additionally including a rotary shaft rotatably coupled to said cham- !ber, said rotatable members being fixed to said Vshaft for rotation therewith, said elongated sacs being coupled along a line passing through said rotatable members and skew to said shaft, and motive means coupled to one'of said rotatable members for rotating said shaft and said `rotatable members and means removably coupling said shaft and said members as a unit to said chamber.

7. In an apparatus for the dialysis or separation of liquid sol-ution in a plurality of individual elongated semi-permeable membrane sacs having closed ends, a chamber containing a liquid butler, rotatable means including two spaced discs to support said sacs in said chamber within said liquid buffer, means to couple one of said ends of each said sacs to one of said discs and to couple the other of said ends of each of said sacs to the other of said discs, said coupling means being adapted for permitting complete rotary movement of the sacs relative to said discs, and means to rotate sai-d sacs within said liquid buffer with said discs as a unit so that for a tirst 180 rotation of said rotatable means said one end of the sac is higher than said other end and for the secon-d 180 rotation of said rotatable means, said other end of the sac is higher than said one end, without interfering with the movement of the sacs relative to said discs.

8. Apparatus for the dialysis or separation of liquid solutions in an elongated closed membrane comprising, in combination, a chamber adapte-d to contain a liquid fbulcr, a pair of spaced rotatable members disposed within said chamber, means coupling the opposite ends of said elongated closed membrane between said spaced members to permit freedom of movement of said closed membrane while maintaining it connected to the rotat- Iable members for rotation therewith, and positioning said membrane within said chamber `to maintain said membrane completely submerged within said liquid buffer, said coupling means including a pair of swivels, one of said swivels being coupled to one of said rotatable members for coupling thereto one end or' the membrane and the other of said swivels being coupled to the other Vof said rotatable members for coupling thereto the other end of said membrane.

9. ln a dialyzing apparatus, a chamber adapted kto carry a liquid butter, at least two spaced discs, means to support said discs in spaced relation within said chamber, swivels peripherally spaced on each of said `discs adapted to connect the extremities of at leas-t one'of a plurality of elongated closed containers adapted to contain a mixture to be dialyzed between one swivel on one of said discs to another swivel on the other of said discs, and means to rotate said discs and sai-:1 elongated Cil closed containers Vto move the elongated closed containers continuously .through and within the liquid butler with one end of the container higher than the other end of the container for part `of the cycle through which said discs are rotated and the other end of the container higher than said one end of the container for the remainder of lthe cycle so that there is a constant agitation of the mixture to be dialyzed with the liquid butter thereby causing the liquid buil/er to pass rapidly into said containers to replace the portion of the mixture passing out of said containers into the liquid butler in Said chamber.

lt?. In a dialyzing apparatus, a chamber adapted to carry a liquid buil-er, at least two spaced discs, means to support said discs in spaced relation within said chamber, swivels peripherally spaced on each of said discs adapted to connect lthe extremities of at least one of a plurality of elongated' closed containers adapted to contain a mixture to be dialyzed between one swivel on one of said discs to another swivel on the other of said discs, and means to rotate said discs and said elongated closed containers to move the elongated closed containers continuously through and within the liquid butler with one end of the container higher than the other end of the container for part of the cycle through which said discs are rotated and the other end of the container higher than said one end of the container for the remainder of the cycle so that there is a constant agitation of the mixture to be dialyzed with the liquid buer thereby causing the liquid butter to pass rapidly into said containers to replace the portion of the mixture passing out of said containers into the liquid buffer in said chamber, saidy last-mentioned means including motive means fixed on said container in contact with one o said discs for rotation thereof and said elongated closed containers as a unit through the liquid buffer in said chamber with complete freedom of rotary movement of the containers relative to said discs.

A1l. aln a dialyzing apparatus, a chamber adapted to carry a liquid buffer, at least two spaced discs, means to support said discs in spaced relation within said cham e swivels peripherally spaced on each of said discs adapted to connect the extremities of at least one of a plurality of elongated closed containers adapted to contain a mixture to be dialyzed between one swivel on one of said discs to another swivel on the other of said discs, said swivels being coupled to one side or said discs spaced inwardly from the outer edge thereof, said elongated closed containers being coupled at an acute angle to said discs and adapted to be completely submerged within said liquid buffer as said discs rotate therethrough, and means to rotate said discs and said elongated closed containers to move the elongated closed containers continuously through and within the liquid butler thereby causing the liquid buffer to pass into said containers to replace the portion of the mixture passing out of said containers into the liquid butler in said chamber.

l2. Apparatus for the dialysis of liquid solutions in individual elongated closed semi-permeable membrane containers, comprising, in combination, a chamber adapted to contain a liquid buffer, rotatable means to support said elongated closed containers in said chamber, and flexible means coupling said elongated closed containers to said rotatable means with complete freedom of rotary movement relative thereto while preventing twisting ot the containers and so that one end of each of said elongated closed containers is higher than the other end and the other end of each of said elongated closed containers is higher than the one end once during each complete rotation of said rotatable means as said elongated closed containers move through said liquid buffer.

13. Apparatus for the dialysis or separation of liquid solutions in an elongated closed membrane comprising, in combination, a chamber adapted to contain a liquid butler, a pair of spaced rotatable members disposed within said chamber, means coupling the opposite ends of said elongated closed membrane between said spaced members and positioning said membrane within said chamber, said coupling means including twine means and a pair of swivels, said elongated closed membrane having its opposite ends tied by said twine means, one of said swivels being coupled to one of said rotatable members and to said twine means at one end of said membrane for coupling thereto, said one end of the membrane and the other of said swivels being coupled to the other of said rotatable members and to said twine means at the other end of said membrane for coupling there-to said other end of said membrane to permit freedom of movement to said closed membrane while maintaining it connected to the rotatable members for rotation" therewith within the liquid buffer.

14. ln a dialyzing apparatus, a chamber adapted to carry a liquid buer, at least two spaced discs, means to support said discs in spaced relation within said chamber, swivels peripherally spaced on each of said discs adapted to connect the extremities of at least one of a plurality of elongated closed containers adapted to contain a mixture to be dialyzed between one swivel on one of said discs to another swivel on the other of said discs, said swivels being coupled to one side of said discs spaced inwardly from the outer edge thereof, said elongated closed containers being coupled at an acute angle to said discs and adapted to be completely submerged within said liquid buer as said discs rotate therethrough, and means to rotate said discs and said elongated closed containers to move the elongated closed containers continuously through and within the liquid buffer thereby causing the liquid buler to pass into said containers to replace the portion of the mixture passing out of said containers into the liquid buffer in said chamber, said last-mentioned means including motive means xed on said container in contact with one of said discs for rotation thereof and said elongated closed containers as a unit through the liquid buffer in said chamber with complete freedom of rotary movement of the containers relative to said discs.

15. Apparatus for'the dialysis of liquid solutions in individual elongated closed semi-permeable membrane containers, comprising, in combination, a chamber adapted to contain a liquid buffer, a pair of spaced rotatable means to support said elongated closed containers in said chamber, and means coupling said elongated closed containers t0 said rotatable means, said coupling means including swivels coupled to said rotatable means and string tying the ends of said containers and coupling the opposite ends of each said container between said rotatable means for attachment to said swivels with complete freedom of rotary movement relative thereto and so that one end of each of said elongated closed containers is higher than the other end and the other end of each of said elongated closed containers is higher than the one end once during each complete rotation of said rotatable means as said elongated closed containers move through said liquid buffer.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,812,042 6/31 Genter 210-330 2,715,795 l8/55 Pallotta et al. 1210-321 2,734,015 2/56 Wettstein et al. 210-22 X 3,011,645 12/61 Lenzini 210-308 FOREIGN PATENTS 530,952 l2/40 Great Britain.

OTHER REFERENCES Ben-Gershom: Dialysis of Small Specimens in Batches, Nature, St. Martins Press, I-nc., New York, Feb. 16, 1957, vol. 179, page 3719.

Stauifer: Dialysis and Electrodialysis, Technique of Organic Chemistry, Interscience Publishers, nc., New York, 1956, vol. 1H, pp. 65-1l9, page 87 of note.

REUBEN FRIEDMAN, Primary Examiner.

HARRY B. THORNTON, HERBERT L. MARTIN,

Examiners.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3289846 *Feb 24, 1964Dec 6, 1966Bert WarringtonFiltration or dialysis support apparatus
US3503877 *Apr 9, 1965Mar 31, 1970William J BerryDialyzer agitator
US4144165 *Dec 7, 1977Mar 13, 1979Matz Andrew RDialyzer, system and dialysis method
US4517080 *Dec 21, 1981May 14, 1985The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of AgricultureApparatus for encapsulating additives in resealed erythrocytes
EP0704244A2 *Sep 18, 1995Apr 3, 1996Spacelabs Medical, Inc.Method and apparatus for storing and mixing a plurality of fluids and body fluid sampling catridge using same
EP2138223A2 *Jun 25, 2009Dec 30, 2009CS Automazione S.r.l.Storage, mixing, homogenising and dosing group
WO2002045619A2 *Dec 4, 2001Jun 13, 2002Crystal Spring Colony FarmsSemen storage
Classifications
U.S. Classification210/321.68, 210/324, 210/321.87
International ClassificationB01D63/00, B01F9/00
Cooperative ClassificationB01D63/16, B01D61/28, B01D63/068, B01D2315/02, B01F9/002
European ClassificationB01F9/00G2B, B01D63/06J, B01D63/16, B01D61/28