US 3200619 A
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TRIPLE-STITCH JOINT FOR KNITTED Filed July 5. 1963 /z Mm@ ATTORNEYS United States Patent Office Patented ug. 17, 1965 3,260,619 TRlPLE-STHCH .l'lN'll EUR KNETTED MESH Hagin Franklin Frith, ir., Wiliow Grove, Pa., assigner to Hagin Frith Sons, Willow Grove, Pa., a partnership Filed July 5, 1963, Ser. No. 293,086 itl lairns. (Cl. 66-195) This invention relates to knitted mesh used in the construction of nets of all kinds, but particularly useful in nets for deep-sea fishing. It has to do especially with the relationship between yarns in the locus of the knot or joint, namely at and near the areas where the warp chains are joined to form corners of the mesh. At such points, the disposition of the yarns in the mesh of this invention is so contrived as to impart a tensile strength which closely approximates the maximum theoretical strength of the yarn itself, while at the same time providing a high degree of flexibility. The invention also involves a relationshipbetween the construction of the joint and the number of stitches in runs of yarn between joints.
It is highly desirable, in the manufacture of nets for deep-sea shing, to provide a construction in which the mesh of the net will open freely when the net is submerged. This has been accomplished in the knitted mesh shown in my prior Patent 2,992,550, dated July 18, 1961, by providing a structure which, in its preferred form, is suspended vertically in the sea, that is with the warp chains extending up and down. However, where purse seines of considerable length are wanted, it is necessary to cut the mesh of the prior patent into a plurality of panels, cach of which is equal in its maximum dimension to the intended depth of the net in use, and then to lace the panels together along their selvage edges. It is an important objective of the present invention to provide a construction in which the mesh joints are so iexible that the mesh will open freely, even when the net is suspended from -a selvage edge, that is with the warp chains running generally horizontally instead of vertically. Another objective of the invention is to produce a mesh having less weight per unit of area than heretofore, without incurring a proportionate reduction in tensile strength.v
Stiil another objective of the present invention is to provide such a disposition of the yarns in the area of the joint as to ensure that even under severe stress, breakage of any individual strand or group of strands in the legs of the mesh (that is between the joints) will not cause raveling beyond the next adjacent mesh joint. This nonraveling feature is also characteristic of the preferred embodiment of the invention shown in my prior patent, but in that embodiment four courses were required for the production of each knot. In the present invention, an equivalent resistance to raveling is attained, but with the use of only three courses.
Still another objective is to provide a mesh joint in which the yarns are so disposed that any yarn which extends to and fro between adjacent warp chains at a junction point will lie in the same warp chain on either side of that junction. This likewise is characteristic of the mesh shown in my prior patent, but represents an objective which cannot be attained with the disposition of yarns shown in that patent if the joint between adjacent warp chains consists of only three courses.
How these and other objectives of the invention which will occur to those skilled in the art may be attained will become apparent from the following description of a preferred embodiment, taken together with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate the same, and in which:
FIG. l illustrates the mesh of this invention in greatly enlarged form in the knot area, as the mesh comes from the knitting machine, with the warp chains parallel, but with the component yarns spread out t-o facilitate an understanding of their relative disposition.
FlG. 2 shows one mesh in full, extended as in actual use, plus portions of adjoining meshes, with their associated knots.
It will be understood, of course, that in actual practice every joint will be drawn tight, as in FIG. 2, so that each of the warp chains illustrated in FIG. l will appear as a single strand, and the yarns entering into the formation of the joint will be closely bound therein, instead of being separated as shown in FIG. l.
Considering these drawings in detail:
The joint, knot or intersection is indicated as a whole in FG. l by the reference numeral lili. This joint unites the warp chain il to the warp chain i2. As is well understood in this art, and as is indicated in FIG. 2, at the adjacent joints ma and liib, to the left of the joint itl, the warp chain lll will be united to runs lila, lila of an adjacent warp chain which lies to the left of chain 1i. Similarly, the adjacent joints 10c and itlfd, to the right of the joint lil, unite warp chain 12 to runs lla, 12a
or an adjacent warp chain to the right of chain 12.
Above the joints 16a and lilo, and below the joints Il Qb and ltid the warp chains 1l. and l2. will again unite at intersection points (not shown) which will lie, respectively, directly above and below the joint it).
The portion of the warp chain which lies between any two intersection points is sometimes termed a leg of the mesh.
Although the mesh of the present invention is a iinished product, as illustrated in FIG. l, it may be easier to understand its construction if the product is described in the order of its creation, rather than in terms of its result. When so considered, the stitches rst formed in time are those numbered 24 :and 34, of the mesh legs l1 and 12 respectively.
Each leg consists of three component yarns, those in the leg ll being numbered T13, ltand 1S; those in the leg .l2 being numbered 43, 44 and 45.
The Warp yarns 13 and 43 are shown in outline. They are chain-knit, from vstitch to stitch, throughout the entire length of the mesh, and never leave their respective chains. Considering the adjacent pair of chains, l1 and l2, the warp yarns knit from the outside (i.e. the remote sides of the chains) toward the inside (i.e. the adjacent sides of the chains) in forming the stitches 24 and 34; they then reverse their knitting direction, and form the stitches 2.3 and 33 by knitting from the inside towards the outside; form the stitches 22 and 32 by knitting from the outside toward the inside, and form the stitches 21 and 31 entering the knot area, by knitting from the inside towards the outside. The small arrows `at the loop end of each stitch show the direction in which the warp yarn moved in knitting the stitch.
ln the three following courses, 2h, Si); i9, 29 and i8, Z8, which constitute the knit or joint lil?, strictly speaking, the warp yarns 13, 43, knit in each course from the inside out. Obviously, the `stitches in any pair of warp chains, such as the pair 11, 12, are mirror images of each other at any given course.
Leaving the area of the joint it), the knitting direction resumes its alternation, the warp yarns i3, 43 knitting from the outside in, in stitches l?, 2.7, and from the inside out in stitches i6, 26, and so on.
A second component yarn of each chain may be termed, for convenience, the cross-over yarn. This is cross-lined on the drawing. in chain il it is the yarn i4, and in chain l2, it is 4d. These yarns are laid in through the loops 24, 34, and are knitted, together with the Warp yarns 13, 43, respectively, in the stitches 23, 33, moving, of course, from the inside out, as the warp yarn does in those stitches. They are laid in through the stitches 22., 52, and again knitted with the warp yarns from the while cross-over yarn 44 isknitted together with the Warp yarn 13 in stitch 2d. From stitch Ztlthe cross-over yarn 44 proceeds through loop 19 as a lay-in yarn and is tra- Yversed from stitch 19 of chain 11 to stitch 29 of chain 12,
which is the chain in which the lay-in yarn 44 originated.
In precisely the same manner the yarn 14, which is now in chain 12 is laid in from stitch 3d to Vstitch 29 and traversed back to chain 11, where it is caught by stitch 19 of that chain. 1n stitches 18 and 28, respectively, the cross-over yarns 14 and 44 knit from the inside out with the respective warp yarns 13 and 43. But on'the leaving side of the knot these yarns reverse their direction of knitting, being knitted from the outside in, in stitches 17 and 27. They are laid in from the stitches last named through. stitches 16 and 26, and once again knit from the outside in, in forming the succeeding stitch (not shown).
T he third component yarns 15, 45 of the chains 11 and 12, respectively, may be termed for convenience the layin yarns. They are stippled on the drawing. They are knitted from the koutside in, in stitches 24 and 34, are laid in through loops 23 an-d 33, and are knitted from the outside in, in stitches 22 and 32, together with the warp yarns 13 and 43.
From the stitches 21, 31 the lay-in yarns are carried beyond the loops to the next succeeding course 2li, 30 and through those stitches these yarns are traversed in opposite directions, the lay-in yarn 45 being caught in loop of chain 11 and the lay-in yarn 15 being caught in stitch 30 of chain 12. In the following course, the lay-in yarn 45 is knitted together with the warp yarn 13 in forming stitch 19, and the lay-in yarn 15 is knitted together with the warp yarn 43 of chain 12, in forming the stitch 29.
It will be observed that the lay-in yarns 45 and 15 are shifted outwardly of the pair of chains at stitches 19, 29, the lay-in yarn 15 extending from the outer side of the chain 12 through stitch 28 and being traversed to stitch 18 of chaink11, Where it passes through that stitch as a lay-in yarn and is laid in ,again through stitch 17, leaving the knot. Similarly, the lay-in yarn 45 passes outwardly to the left of the chain 11 from stitch 19 and is traversed from outside the chain through the stitches 18 and 28 back to the chain 12, where it is laid in through `stitch 27, leaving the knot. In stitch 16, lay-in yarn 15 is knitted from the inside out, together with the warp yarn 13 in chain 11, while the lay-in yarn 45 is knitted with the warp yarn 43 from the inside out in forming stitch 26. The yarns 15 and 45 will then be laid in through the stitches of the succeeding course (not shown) and knitted with the warp yarns of the following stitches, and so on until the next intersection point is reached.
It will be appreciated that, in the legs of the meshes, the cross-over yarn 14 is alternately knitted with the Warp yarn 13 in one course and laid in'through-the adjacent course. Since the direction of knitting reverses at each course throughout the leg, it results that, at any stitch wherethe cross-over yarn is knitted with the warp yarn, it will always be knitted in the same direction, throughout the length of that leg. But since the joint requires three courses, the knitting direction of the yarn will be opposite on opposite sides of the knot. Ipso facto, the lay-in yarn, which is inter-knitted with each stitch of the warp chain in which the cross-over yarn is disposed as a lay-in yarn, always is knitted in the opposite direction, throughout the length of any mesh leg, to the knitting direction of the cross-over yarn.
It will also be observed that the cross-over yarns 14 4 and 44 interconnect stitchesY 2d and 30 through the adjacent sides of those stitches, and interconnect the stitches 19 and 29, likewise through the adjacent sides of those stitches. The lay-in yarns 15, 45, on the other hand, extend beyond the outer sides of the stitches 21, 31, are caught in the inner sides yof loops 30, 21B, and interconneet loops 18 and 28 from the outer sides of those loops.
I conceive that the unique disposition of the yarns within the knot itself, as above described in the preceding paragraphs is a prime factor in reducing to a minimum the internal stress imposed upon the yarns which constitute the joint.
ln order to accomplish this disposition of the yarns, it is important that there be an odd number of stitches between any joint, and the next succeeding joint. That is, the legs of the mesh must each comprise an odd number of courses. Purely for illustrative purposes, I have shown seven stitches in FIG. 2, inthe legs 11 and 12. As a matter of actual practice, of course, the number of stitches could be greater or less than seven, depending on the denierV of the yarns and the mesh size desired.
Considering the stitch pattern as a completely formed product, it may be said that the direction of knitting can be easily identified by determining theV position of the bights of each loop as compared to the location of the standing part. For convenience, the bight of 'sev'J eral loops Vhas been indicated on the drawing by refer ence number 47, the standing part being the opposite side of the loop, is designated by reference number 45.
The yarn which is knitted together with the warp yarn on entering the knot area should be the same yarn which is knitted together with the warp yarn on leaving the knot area. Thus, the cross-over yarn 14 is knitted at 21 with the warp yarn 13 to bind the stitch 20 into the knot and is knitted with the warp yarn 13 to bind the stitch 18`into the knot. Unless the stitch orientation follows this general pattern it may be difficult to ensure that the entering and leaving stitches in the knot area will not be either too tight or too loose. This criterion also determines the need for providing an odd numberof stitches in each leg of the mesh, so that each intersection will have the same stitch pattern as all others.
The mesh of this .invention'is produced on a convenA tional Raschel knitting machine.V Since this type of machine is well known in the art, and since any experienced operator of Raschel machines can exactly duplicate the structure of this invention from the present description and drawing, little need be said about the operation of forming the mesh. I prefer to use six guide bars to form the mesh, as such, and a seventh bar to form the selvages. The lpattern chains should be so set up as to ensure that on entering the knot the stitches will knit from the adjacent sides of the pair of chains involved in forming the' knot towards the outside of the pair and that, when leaving the knot, the stitches will be knitted from the outside toward the adjacent sides. 1f this shift in the knot pattern is faithfully followed and the mesh legs always have an odd number of stitches, the knot structure formed at any intersection point, such as 141, will be the same as the structure resulting at adjacent intersection points, as at 10a and 10b, where the warp chain 11 is united to an adjacent Warp chain 11a, or at 10c and 10d, where the warp chain 12 is united to an adjacent warp chain 12a.
It is believed important that the warp yarn in any given chain should be continuous throughout the length of the chain, and should not at any time be traversed to any adjacent chain. It is also important that the crossover yarn and the lay-in yarn of any given chain should continue throughout the length of the same chain, except at the intersection points, where they are traversed, rst over and then back, to their respective chains. Then, at the next intersection point, they are traversed to an adjacent chain on the other side, and so on.
It has been found that the stitch pattern characteristic of the present invention possesses several rather surprising advantages. The joint, knot, or intersection is smaller and lighter than that produced in accordance with the preferred embodiment of my first mentioned patent. Nevertheless, the pattern in which the yarns are laid out is one which minimizes the stress points, so that the finished mesh is actually stronger than that of the preferred embodiment of said patent. The mesh knitted from No. 147 standard yarns and embodying the fourstitch knot of the patent will manifest a tensile strength of about 44 pounds. The mesh of the present invention, knitted with the same yarns, but with a three-stitch knot, will have a tensile strength of 48 pounds. This represents an increase of 1/11, or slightly better than 9%. At the same time, the amount of yarn required to produce the three-stitch knot of the present invention, is 5% less than that required to produce the four-stitch knot of the patent above referred to, so that the present invention represents a 9% gain in tensile strength, together with a 5% reduction in the amount of yarn.
In my co-pending application, Serial 184,445, led April 2, 1962, now Patent No. 3,171,272, I have described a special construction for a two-stitch knot. This is an extremely effective and economical form of mesh, where high tensile strength is not required. But the two-stitch knot of that application has a breaking strength of only 36 pounds, Whereas the three-stitch knot of the present application manifests a breaking strength of 48 pounds, assuming that No. 147 standard yarn is used in both products. And the amount of yarn used in the mesh of the present invention is only 5% greater than that used in the two-stitch knot. In other words, there has been a gain of S31/3% in tensile strength, with an increase of only 5% in the amount of yarn employed.
In the knot of the present invention, as in prior structures above referred to, a high resistance to raveling has een secured. This is due to the fact that the yarns employed in forming the knot are used in different ratios. Consequently, if one of the mesh legs breaks the yarns will not ravel at the same rate. Each will ravel at a different rate, and it is believed that this explains the fact that when there is a break in a mesh leg, the three component yarns invariably snarl when they reach the knot area instead of raveling through the knot.
In this case, as in my co-pending application, Serial 184,445, any two adjacent warp chains are mirror images of each other. I believe that this is one of the reasons why the net of the present invention will open freely, when suspended from a selvage edge, that is with the warp chains extending generally horizontally.
Since it is possible to obtain the free-opening characteristic when the net is hung from the selvage edge, it is possible, in this case, as in my co-pending application 184,445, to vary the weight of the yarns used in producing the chains, so that the upper and lower courses of v the net may be made substantially heavier than the intermediate courses. This is a substantial advantage, since it permits the inclusion of border strips in the net as it is being knitted, whereas in the prior constructions, it has been quite common to knit the border strips separately and lash them to the other sections of the net.
For convenience of illustration I have shown the components of each chain as single yarns. In actual practice, the warp yarn is customarily a single end, the other two yarn components preferably consisting of three ends, handled as one. It may well be found convenient to use plied yarns, and possibly to use two plied yarns in doubled relationship, as, for instance, in producing the extremely strong and heavy net used for tuna iishing. The use of such expansions as yarn components or elements is intended to comprehend variations of this type. The total denier of the components in any given yarn can, in other words, be supplied by using a highdenier single end, two or more ends of lesser denier, or by using one or more plied yarns.
1. A knitted mesh comprised of a plurality of warp chains extending in the same direction, each chain being interknitted at spaced points along its length to an adjacent chain on one side and at points intermediate the points iirst named being interknitted to an adjacent chain on its other side, each chain of said mesh comprising at least three component yarn elements, each of which lies in the same chain throughout the length of the mesh save only at the points of interknitting, at which points two component yarn elements of a iirst chain extend to and are interknitted with a third component yarn element of an adjacent second chain, extending thence back to the iirst chain, while two component yarn elements of the second chain extend to the first chain, being interknitted with a third component yarn element of said first chain, and extending thence back to the second chain, the runs of a given yarn element interconnecting said chains lying in courses separated from each other by at least one course. y
2. The mesh deiined in claim 1 in which the loops of any pair of adjacent chains are mirror images of each other.
3. The mesh dened in claim 2 in which the loops of any pair of adjacent chains are oriented from inside to outside of said pair at one end of the joint and from outside to inside at the other end thereof.
4. A knitted mesh of the type in which a plurality of yarn chains are interknitted at spaced points to form mesh joints, each chain being interknitted alternately with one of its two adjacentchains, and each chain consisting of three components, the irst being a warp yarn which is chain-knitted throughout the length of the chain always in the same chain, the second of which is lmitted together with the warp yarn in certain stitches and is laidin through other stitches, and the third of which is knitted together with the warp yarn in stitches through which the second is laid-in, and is laid-in through stitches in which the second is knitted, the structure being characterized in that at each mesh joint two only of the component yarns of each chain extend to and are interknitted with stitches of an adjacent chain and extend thence to their chain of origin, the mesh being further characterized in that the bight of successive stitches in the chains of the mesh lies alternately to the right and to the left on one side of the joint, is disposed to the side nearest the adjacent chain in successive stitches forming the joint, and lies alternately to the lett and to the right in stitches on the other side ofthe joint.
5. The mesh of claim 4 in which the stitches of any adjacent pair of chains are disposed as mirror images of each other.
6. The mesh of claim 4 in which the number of stitches between mesh joints is an odd number.
7. A knitted mesh of the type in which a plurality of yarn chains are interknitted at spaced points to form mesh joints, each chain being interknitted alternately with one of its two adjacent chains, and each chain consisting of three components, the rst being a warp yarn which is chain-knitted throughout the length of the chain always in the same chain, the second of which is knitted together with the warp yarn iri certain stitches and is laid-in through other stitches, and the third of which is knitted together with the warp yarn in stitches through which the second is laid-in, and is laid-in through stitches in which the second is knitted, the structure being characterized in that at each mesh joint the second yarn components of each chain are disposed as laid-iu interconnections in the same course between the pair of chains, are interknitted with the warp yarn component of the adjacent chain in a stitch adjacent the stitch in which they were disposed as laid-in yarns, and in another non-adjacent course spaced from that rst mentioned, are likewise disposed as laid-in interconnections, said structure being further characterized in that the third yarn components of each chain are disposed as interconnections between the pair of chains, lying in spaced courses.
8. A knitted mesh according to claim 7, wherein the third yarn component of each chain is knitted together with a Warp yarn of its chain in a stitch in the same course as that wherein it is disposed as a connection with the adjacentk chain and is also interknitted with a warp yarn of its chain in a Astitch of the same course as that in which the second component yarn of each chain is disposed as a laidin interconnection.
9. A knittedmesh of the type in which a plurality of yarn chains are interknitted at spaced points to form mesh joints, each chain being interknitted alternately with one of its two adjacent chains, and each chain consisting of three components, the first being a warp yarn which is chain-knitted throughout the length of the chain always in the same chain, the second of which is knittedtogether with the warp yarn in certain stitches and is laid-in through other stitches, and the third of which is knittedtogether with the Warp yarn in stitches through which the second is laid-in, and is laid-in through stitches in which the second is knitted, the structure being characterized in that at each mesh joint the second component yarn of each of the pair of chains is disposedas a connecting link, eX- tending to and fro between the chains in two spaced courses and being further characterized in that at each mesh joint the third component yarn of each of the pair' of chains is disposed as a connecting link extending to and fro betweenl the chains in two spaced courses, said. mesh being further characterized in that, at 'each inter section one component yarn of each pair of adjacent chains is traversedy to an adjacent, chain in one course, being interkni'tted With the warp yarn of that vaetjacent chain and re-traverse to its original chain, and another component yarn of each pair of adjacent chains is traversed to an adjacent chain in a courseV other than that iirst named, is interknittedwith the warp yarn of that adjacent chain, and is retraversed to its original chain.
10. The knitted mesh of claim 9, in which each of the yarn components which is interknitted with'th'e warp yarn of an adjacent chainis also disposed'as a lay-'in yarn in another loop of such adjacent chain.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 7/61 Frith 66-195 s/61 scheibe 6.6192