US 3201579 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' Aug. 17, 1965 R. J. HARPER 3,201,579
ILLUMINATED BUILDING AND SIGN Filed July 11, 196:5 4 sheets-sheet 1 R Ni INVENTOR, 055?? J HARPE@ ATTORNEY 5 Aug. 17, 196s R. J. HARPER ILLUMINATED BUILDING AND SIGN Filed July 11, A1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR,
BYZ/Q/w, df/W ATTORNEYS Aug- 17, 1965 R. J. HARPER ILLUMINATED BUILDNG AND SIGN 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed July ll, 1965 e M m M ,m M w ,/f J W w f M 5 pm n /w nd.. M 1% m )0, w @Q :om )H0 ww ATTORNEYS Aug. 17, 1965 R. J. HARPER ILLUMINATED BUILDING AND SIGN Filed July 11, i963 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR, /offed H4505@ w QQ BY M6, @fwn may@ ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,2%,579 ILLUMINATED BUELEING AND SlGN Robert 3i. Harper, Scarsdale, NX., assigner to Northwestern Refining ilo., St. Paul, Minn., a corporation of Minnesota Filed lilly 1l, i963, Ser. No. 294,325 i@ tlllairns. (El. 246-2) This invention relates to improvements in an illu-minated building.
In accordance with an important feature of `the invention the roof structure of the building cooperates with one or more banks of lights so arranged that, the roof and the light banlts cooperate with each other and with the main frame of the structure to impart structural strength to the roof.
A furthe-r feature consists in so associating the roof structure with a light source or series of light sources that the lower surfaces of the roof sections function as an important part of the means for illuminating both the interior and exterior of the structure.
Thus in accordance with the invention the undersides or surfaces of the roof panels function as reilectors for reilecting light both downwardly into the building structure and laterally outwardly of the structure, as well as onto the ground surface adjacent and exteriorly or the building.
In accordance with a further important feature of the invention the undersurface of the roof is adapted to constitute an illuminated sign receiving direct illumination from the light source or sources within the structure and readily visible and legible from the exterior of the structure from quite substantial distances, as well as from locations quite close to the building.
A further feature of the invention is `the adaptability thereof for erection in rapid and easy manner from readily available components including certain units which may be preassernbled prior to transportation to the job site.
The foregoing as well as other features and advantages are all inherent in the preferred embodiment of the invention shown by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE l is a perspective View showing the front and one end of a building structure and sign made in accordance with the invention in a form adapted for use as a Store and/ or service station.
FIGURE 2 is an end elevation of 'the structure illustrated in FIGURE l as seen from the left-hand end thereof, and indicating in broken lines the visibility of the lower sign bearing surface of the roof on the interior of the building as seen from the eye level of an observer eX- teriorly of the structure.
FIGURE 3 is a front elevation of theV structure shown in FIGURE l.
FIGURE 4 is a rear perspective view thereof.
FIGURE 5 is an enlargedvertical section on the line 5-5 of FIGURE 3, with a portion thereof broken away; and showing in broken-line arrows the manner in which a single light source furnishes direct lighting for the store interior there beneath and for the undersu'rface of the roof structure there above, as well as the manner in which the light is reflected from the roof structure to the exterior of the building.
FIGURE 6 is a plan view on the line 6 5 of FIG- URE 5 showing a portion of one of the banks of lights as employed in the invention FIG RE 7 illustrates a typical door plan such as may be advantageously employed in a structure in accordance with the invention, this being but one of many possible such plans and illustrating the liexibility of arrangement 3,2%,5 79 Patented Aug., l?, 'i965 that is available due to the lack of need for any supporting columns or partitions within the building interior.
AFIGURE 8 is a vertical section on the line 8 3 of FIGURE 7.
Referring now in detail to the accompanying drawings, the roof structure, designated in its entirety by the reference character R, .and in which the inventive concept primarily resides, is supported by a series of upright columns lil, 12 Iand 14, above a suitable floor surface 16 which, in the present instance, comprises a monolithic concrete slab functioning also .in lieu of a usual foundation for the building structure. If desired, the slab may be formed with one or more raised platforms or the like 18, as shown for instance in FIGURES 5, 7 and 8, to function as a raised displayed area.
It will be seen that the columns it), 12 and 14 are arranged to form a rectangle in plan, coincident with and comprising part of the wall structure which encloses the building. To this end the columns tti and I2 respectively are arranged in parallel rectilinear rows extending longitudinally along the front and rear respectively of the structure, while the ends of the structure are defined by the end columns 10 and l2 respectively between which is medially interposed the 4upright column ld which functions is the manner of a king post for the Iresulting building structure. Preferably the columns 10, l2 and 14 are connected at their lower ends to plates or sills 2d, as exempliled in FIGURES 5 and S, such sills being spaced from the raised stand or platform 18 preferably by a space-r or fillet 22 as in FIGURE 5.
Horizontal stringers or lintels 24 and 26 respectively extend along and interconnect the upper ends of the columns tu and 12 of each said row. The construction of each said lintel may be similar to that exemplified for the lintel 24 in FIGURE 5 in which it will be seen that the said lintel is of composite construction including the interconnected angle iron members 28 and 30, these being secured together by bolts sucn as 3-2. In accordance with usual practice the two rows of columns 1G and 12 are interconnected at their respective ends by the tie beams 34 and 36 and also at the same height,namely the door head height of the front and rear walls, there are provided the rigid horizontal structural members 3S and Il@ respectively interconnecting and supported by the columns lill and l2 of each row, these being in the same horizontal plane as the tie beams 34 and $6-,
The rectangular spaces, as defined by each adjoining pair of uprights 1tl-lltl and 12-12 above the plane of horizontal members 34, 36, 3S and 4t), are arranged to transmit light therethrough, being preferably occupied by transparent windows or sashes d2., each preferably including a conventional metal frame 44 such as is illustrated in FIGURE 5. At the ends of the building the spaces between the tie beams 34 and 35 and the roof, similarly are occupied by transparent panels or windows 46. To assist in supporting the frames for these panels d6 there may be provided diagonal lintels such as 48 (FIGURE 5) interconnecting the upper end of each king post 14 to the upper ends of the columns lil and 12 respectively on either Side thereof.
The roof structure R of the invention includes a pair of relatively angularly disposed plane roof sections 5tl`-5 which intersect along a horizontal line in the vertical;
S--fitl completely watertight in the drainage valley 52` it is desirable that said valley be detined by a spanning or gutter forming member 53 extending across the said line of intersection and riveted or otherwise connected as at 54 (see FIGURE 5) to the roof sections on either side thereof.
Each roof section 50 is preferably comprised of a series of thin rectangular structural panels of uniform size adaptedto serve lsimultaneously as roof, ceiling and sign surface, thesekpanels being intertted and connected in watertight manner to deline each of the roof sections 50. It is contemplated for instance that theV panels might each comprise a pair of Vrelatively spaced and interconnected upper and lower sheets of aluminum or other metal 56 and 58 respectively, as shown in FIGURE 5, having a space 60 therebetween which is adapted for the reception of a sheet of insulating material or the like, not shown.
Adjacent their outwardly directed end edges, the roof panels respectively rest upon and extend across the respective stringers or lintels 24,26 and are secured thereto, as for instance by the bolts or rivets such as indicated at 62 in FIGURE 5.. At their relatively adjoining inner ends kor end edges, the sections 50 ofthe roof are respectively connected to each other through their common bridging and gutter forming Valley member 53, and in addition are preferably connected to the frame members v63 at the inner edges of the respective frames of Vligh banks 64, as hereinafter more'fully described. Each such bank of lights comprises a rigid and open rectangular frame generally designated 64 which is disposed beneath one of the roof sections 50 in the same plane as the other said roof sections to constitute a visual extension of the other such roof section across the imaginary line of intersection of the two roof sections 50.
Each said frame consists primarily of the relatively spaced parallel pair of transversely extending rigid struts 66 in the form of channel irons having their lateral flanges directed toward each other, with their inner ends connected by the longitudinal members such as 6?4 above mentioned, and their relatively remote outer ends interconnectedby the angle members such as 64 in FIGURE 5.
In the roof` structure these frames 64 are disposed alternately, first beneath one section 50 of the'roof then beneath the other section thereof, so as to lie alternately on opposite sides of the roof valley. The arrangement is such that the inner ends of the relatively adjoining frames on opposite sides of the roof overlap each other with the smooth or flat sides of their channel members angle for supporting thereof sections and the roof in its entirety along the line Vor valley of intersection of such roof sections, the struts 66 of the frames being so arranged to provide the necessary compressive strength while the roof sections 50 are arranged in this construction so that they need withstand only the tensile forces imposed thereon. Thus the roof sections 50 are utilized not only in the usual manner but as an integral part of the load bearing structureV and in a most ecient manner to contribute to the strength thereof. It is thus possible to provide a relatively large clear span without need for intervening supporting columns within the Vbuilding enclosure.
dows 42 between the relatively diverging roof sections '50 and light? frames 64, these signs will be readily visible from the exterior of the building through the transparent Y panels 42, all as is indicated in FIGURE 2 of the drawings 66 in abutting relation, and these `are rigidly secured/ to- Y gether as by the bolts 68 in FIGURE 5. The relatively outermost ends of the frames 64 extend into the coves of .thelongitudinalsstringers or structural members 36V and 38 respectively of the building frame and are secured therein by the angle brackets such as 70 having bolts4 72 or equivalent fastening means securing them to the membersV 36 and 38.
Supported in and transversely spanning the open spaceV The battery of light tubes 74 in each frame is a preferred exempliic'ation lof a light source carried by suchY frame.
With the foregoing structure, it will be readily apparent that the *several light Vframes 64 are interconnected with their respective superposed roof sectionsV and that,k 70
both are connected to the columns 10 or 12 to therewith define rigidrtriangles Vas seen in vertical cross section. yIn other words, the arrangement is such `that the light frames 64 cooperate with the roof sections and the supporting columns in delining a rigid structural tri-V wherein thereis indicated in broken lines 84 the span of vision from the eye level 86 of a viewer of the sign from a point outside of the building. Because ofthe angular relationshp between the viewers line of vision and the undersurface of the roof panel 50, the matter appearingon the lsign will appear somewhat fore-shortened and it will therefore be advisable in most instances to exaggerate the vertical'dimensions of the lettering or other matter depicted on the signs 82 so that it will appear of normal proportions when viewed as indicated in FIG- URE 2. Y
Because of the interrelationship of the light frames 64, lights 74 and the roof sections 50 with their reecting and sign bearing surfaces, it will be readily apparent that the light from the light `sources 74 will be directed downwardly into the interior of the building, as indicated generally by thebrokenline arrows 86, 86A and 86B in FIGURE 5 to illuminate'the building interior. .Inaddition the light from these same sources will impinge against-the retlecting'undersurface of the roof section 50 and such sign or signs as are borne thereon, and then will be reflected laterally outwardly throughlthe transparent panels -or windows 42, all as indicated by Vthe broken-line larrows 88, 88A and 88B in FIGURE 5.
Moreover it will be readilyapparent that after dark, much of the reected light from the undersurfaces of the roof sections V50 willbe directed outwardly and downwardly, thereby illuminating the `area immediately around the building structure toV facilitate the approach and entry of customers. Similarly the light escaping through the transparent panelsY 46 at the ends of the building structure will provide illumination inthe area thereof, all to the endthat adequate illumination may be provided for the entire area surrounding the building structure, While at the same time the signs 82 are illuminated and made visible from outside of the store for great distances.
As will be clear from reference to FIGURES 5 and 8, theV several lbanks of lights 64 beneath each section 50 of Ythe roof Valternate with blank or-unoccupied spaces -of parent panelsr42 withY wallsgor` other structure incapable of transmitting light, the interior of the building may nevertheless be adequately illuminated by, daylight fromV the outside ofthe building and Without use of light sources I74. This is made possible by virtue of the fact that lightentering the building through the transparent panels -such as 42 andV 46' Will'xbe reflected downwardly from the:
undersurfaces of the roof sectionspSD and into the DtCriQr" of the building, both through the open light frames 64 and through the spaces between such frames.
The structure above described is capable of wide adaptability to use in different types and arrangements of buildings. 'For instance, in a preferred arrangement of the walls or wall defining structure lin such a building, the entire front thereof may well have the spaces :between the columns completely occupied by transparent or translucent panels 90 of glass or other suitable material except as lo certain spaces which may be occupied by doors 92, 94 and 96 respectively, all as indicated in FIGURE l. The corresponding spaces between the columns 12 at the rear of the store may be occupied by masonry or concrete Wall panels 9d, while the left-hand end of the building, as seen in FIGURES 1 and 2, may have its wall space occupied by the glass show window 1li@ and the several doors 101, 102 and 163. At its other end there may be provided the further glass show wind-ow 104 which may, if desired, bear the sign 106 `as indicated in FIGURE 4, and also there is provided a `door 108 and a stationary wall section 110.
Similarly the interior of the store is capable of utilization in any of various ways due to the large clear space provided therein by the large span of the roof structure. This permits the use of partitions and the like in any desired manner without need for providing interior support for the roof struct-ure. Thus as indicated in lFIGURES 7 and 8 there may be provided within the building a pair of relatively superposed shelves such as 112 and 114, each preferably being in the form of a usual skate wheel or other type of .conveyor for the reception and movement therealong of materia-ls or goods delivered through the doors 101 and 102. These conveyors extend parallel to a series of shelves 11d accessi-ble from both the front and the rear for the reception and display of goods for sale. These shelves 116 and various other display stands, dispensing machines and the like, all are illustrated in broken lines in FIGURES 7 and 8, simply by way of illustration of one of the numerous interior arrangements available. Similarly in FIGURE 8 there is shown by way of exemplification one type of partitioning of the building interior to divide it into several rooms or compartments, though such arrangement obviously constitutes no part of the instant invention.
It will be readily appa-rent that the building structure, in addition to its adaptability as to interior arrangement and lloor plan as above mentioned, also may be readily modified to increase its depth or its length by adding further building units such as the illustrated one e-ither in end to end relation or in side by side relation with the roof sections of the structures interconnected.
From the foregoing therefore it will Ibe noted that I have proposed a particularly advantageous structure in which the building interior may be readily and adequately illuminated by natural daylight when use of its a-rtilicial illuminating means is not desired. In addition, the artillcial illumination means when used is adapted to illuminate a sign and/or reflecting surface delined by :the roof, the sign being rendered visible for great distances from the exterior of the building and the reliecting action serving to illuminate the exterior of the building quite eticiently, While at the same time the interi-or of the building is illuminated both by the dire-ct light from the light source as well as from light reiiected from the roof. At the same time there is the added advantage that the roof panels contribute substantially to the structural strength of the roof structure itself.
In this application I have shown and described only the preferred embodiment of the invention simply by way of illustration of the preferred mode of practicing the invention. However, I recognize .that the invention is capable of other and ditierent embodiments and that its several details may be modified in obvious ways, all Without departing from the invention as defined in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. An illuminated building structure comprising a vertical supporting wall, a plane roof section supported by and sloping downwardly on one side of said Wall, said roof section having a light reflecting undersurface, a battery of relatively parallel spaced lluorescent light tubes disposed beneath said roof section in a plane diagonal to the planes of said lroof section and said wall, each of said planes intersecting the other two planes along horizontal lines, the plane Icontaining said light tubes sloping downwardly from the lower edge portion of said roof section to illuminate the underside of said roof section as well as the interior of the building beneath said light tubes, said Wall including light transm-itting areas 4between its intersections with the planes of said roof section and said light tubes to permit the passage therethrough in one direction of light `originating at said light sources and reflected from the undersurface of said roof section, and also to per-mit the passage therethrough in an opposite direction of daylight to be reflected from the undersurface of said roof .sec-tion downwardly between the relatively spaced light tubes.
Z. An illuminated building structure comprising a vertical supporting wall, a plane roof section supported by and sloping downwardly on one side of said wall, Said roof section having a light rellecting undersurface, an -open rigid light frame disposed beneath said roof section in a plane diagonal to the planes of said roof section and said Wall, each of said planes intersecting the other two planes along horizontal l-ines and said roof section, wall `and light frame defining in vertical cross section a rigid lstructural triangle, a battery of relatively spaced light sources carried within the opening of said frame and in the plane of said frame to illuminate the underside of said roof section and the .area beneath said frame, said light sources being relatively spaced to permit the free passage of light through the frame, said wall including light transmitting areas between the said roof section and said frame to perm-it the passage therethrough in one direction of light originating at said light sources and reflected from the undersurface of said roof section, and also to permit the entry therethrough in an opposite direction of daylight to be reflected from the `undersu'rfate ot said roof sect-ion downwardly through said frame.
3. An illuminated building structure as defined in claim 2, in which the underside ot-said roof section bears a sign for illumination by said light sources, said light transmitting areas being transparent to render the Sign legible therethrough.
d. An illuminated building structure comprising a vertical supporting wall, a plane roof section supported by and sloping downwardly on one side of said wall, said roof section having a light reflecting undersurface an open rigid light frame disposed beneath said roof section in a plane diagonal to the planes of said roof section and said wall, each of said planes intersecting the other two along horizontal lines, and therewith defining in vertical cross section a rigid structural triangle, a light source carried within the opening of said frame to illuminate the underside of said roof section and the area beneath said frame, said wall including light transmitting areas between said roof section and said frame to permit the passage therethrough of light originating at said light sources and reflected from the underside of said roof, and also to permit the passage therethrough of daylight for reliection from the undersurface of said roof downwardly through said frame.
5. An illuminated building structure comprising a horizontal door, a row of rigid vertical columns projecting upwardly from said door, a plane roof section supported by said columns above said door, said roof section having light reflecting characteristics, said roof section sloping downwardly to one side of said row of columns at an acute vertical angle thereto, an open rigid light frame disposed at ceiling height beneath said roof section in a plane diagonal to the planes of said roof section and said illuminate both said floor and said roof section, said Y'light sources being relatively spacedto permit the free passage of light 4from other sources through Vthe frame,
V'light'transmitting means occupying the spaces between relatively adjoiningcolumns to permit the outward transmission ofrlight originating at said sources and reected from the undersurface of said roof, and illumination of the interior of said structure by daylight entering laterally through said light transmitting means and reflected downwardly from the roof section through the openings of said y light frames. Y
6, An 'illuminated building saumure comprising a horizontalfloon' a ro'Wrof rigid vertical columns project:
ing upwardly from said floor, a plane roof section supported Vby said columns above the floor, said'roof section sloping downwardly to one side of said row of columns 'fat anacute vertical angle thereto, an Yopen-rigidlight frame disposedv at ceiling height beneath rsaid roof section in aV plane ,diagonal to the planes of said roof section and f said columns, said planes intersecting eachother along horizontal lines,said frame interconnecting said lroof section and said columns and therewith defining a rigid strucsurface of said roof section, and light transmitting means Y occupying the spaces between relatiyely adjoining columns to permit the transmission of light; both fromY and to the said undersur'face of the roof section. Y
7. An illuminated building structure'comprising a row 'of rigidvertical columns and supporting meansV therefore, a plane roof section supported by said columns and sloping downwardly to one side of said row of columns at an acute vertical Vangle thereto, said roof section Vhaving a light reiecting undersurface, a rigid light frame disposed at ceilingheight `beneath said roof section in a plane diagonal to the planes of said roof section and said columns,
ftural'triangle, a light ,source carried within the opening ,'ofsaid frame to illuminate both saidV floor and the under- Y said planes all intersectingeachother along horizontal t lines, said'frame interconnecting saidroof section and Vsaid columns and therewith defining a rigid structural triangle, a light source carried by said frame, said light re-V ilectingundersurface of the roof section being exposed to light from said light source, and light transmitting rri'eans occupying the spaces between vrelatively adjoining col- 8. An illuminated building structure comprising apair of'relatively Vangularly disposed plane roof sections intersecting each other along a horizontal line to forma roof vhaving a valley along said horizontal line, and diverging Y upwardly symmetrically to the vertical plane of said line, said roof sections having light reilecting lower surfaces, supporting means for said roof'sections comprising a pair of relatively spaced parallel rows oi columns disposed symmetrically'on opposite -sides ofjsaid vertical plane, a
Y Y UNITED STATESVPATENTS 1,764,639 6/30 NathansohnV '7 7 40-130 1,886,654 1l/'32 Dingman Y 20-40;4
1,973,858; Y9/34 Shaw 240V-9 Y Y 1,977,029 10/34, Welch e 1 240-6 2,308,726, Y 1/43 Swansonnet al. 240-6 3,059,102 10/62 horizontal VStringer extending along and interconnecting Y o Y wir, A. i. the upper ends of the columns of each said rowthe Vroof Vsectionsrespectively being supported by and secured to said, stringers, eachY roof section overlying one of saidV stringers, a longitudinal structural memberzsupported by each saidrow ofrcolumns beneathone of said Vstringers 'and its overlying roof section Vand in the plane of the Arelatively remote said roof section, a plurality of banks of lights supported beneath saidroof sections, each said light bank comprising a rigid open rectangular frame disposed beneath one o said roof sections inthe same plane -as and constituting a visual extension of the other said roof section, anda plurality of relatively spaced parallel L fluorescent light tubes in saidframes, eachfsaid frame being secured to the roof substantially along said line of intersectionand secured to one of said 'longitudinal structural memberst'o Vcooperate with oneof said Vroof sections Vand its supporting columns 4in dening a rigid structural triangle, whereby the lights from saidV tubes Y may be reflected laterally outwardly between said columns byV the said'lower surfaces of the roof sections.'
9.1The combination defined in claim 8, wherein each Y' metrically on opposite sides of said vertical plane, an open Y rigid Vlight frame disposed beneath each said roof section in a plane diagonal thereto, the planeof eachrsaid roof section and the'plane of theV light frame'there beneath diverging outwardly inra horizontal direction away from saidhorizontal'line and toward oneof said rows of co1- umns, and a light source supported in the lopening of i each Vsaid, VframeV beneath one of Vsaid'roof sections for reection of its lightfrom onel of said light reflecting surfaces outwardly between s'aid columns. Y
References' Cited by the Examiner s Y FOREIGN PATENTS ,1631798 AY6/s6 Germany..
V171,273` 5/60 Sweden.
Y NORTN ANSI-IRgPrimary Examiner. Y
VSherron f 240--2r