US 3201954 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
AugA 24, 1965 J. GREczlN 3,201,954
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REINFORCINGv FLEXIBLE HOSE FIGB.
JoHN l R: BY www ATTYS.
Aug. 24, 1965 J. GREczlN 3,201,954
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REINFORCING FLEXIBLE HOSE Filed Feb. 19, 1962 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIGS.
Aug. 24, 1965 J. GRECZIN 3,201,954
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REINFORCING FLEXIBLE HOSE Filed Feb. 19, 1962 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 l `.qlffnlumnuuml /26 INVENTOR: J OHN GR ECZ IN By www ATTYS.
`METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REINFORCING FLEXIBLE HOSE ,n John Greczin, Philadelphia,` Pa., assigner, by mesneasisignrnents, to TheSinger Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of- New Jersey Filed Feb. 19, 1962, Ser. No. I174,208 3 Claims. (Cl. 66-9) The application is a continuation-in-part of my vcopending application Serial Number 19,403,1iled April 1, 1960, now rPatent No. 3,049,901.
The present invention relates to flexible hose of the type which is reinforced by tubular knitted fabrics, Yand is directed particularly to a method and apparatus for making a tubularknit reinforcing having one or more additional reinforcing elementsrineorporated into the knitted Y' fabric.
' 4The present invention provides a method and apparatus i for producing a fabric having the improved burst strength vwithout a ysubstantial increase lin' production cost, and
which preventstheV hoseY from swelling.
The present invention also provides a method and apy paratus which affords a wide variation in the character of the additional reinforcing element in the reinforcing fabric. e
\ Morespecifically, the present invention produces a tubular knitted fabric composed vof individual vmutually-'over- 'lying knitted webs having incorporated therein a reinforcing strandV interlaced with the webs to provide va smooth front and back face in the reinforcing fabric.
yA primary object of the present inventionis to provide a ymethod and apparatus for knitting reinforcing over flexible hose, Ausing a ysingle cylinder Vmachine which positions *the reinforcing strands inl front'ofthewale loops ofthe f knitted web and behind the connecting runs intermediate the Walel loops.
' f More specifically, another objectrof the present inven- -tion is to provide a knittingmachiner of highly simplified construction which is fullyreffe'ctive to'produce the fabric bythe methodfofthe presentinvention.
FIG. 2V is an enlargedv view in elevation more clearly :illustratingfthe construction of rthe lreinforcing .fabric in fthe hose; l v
t y FIG. 3` is a sectional. view takenon the line3-3 of B1G/2; -FIG.4 is a developed view of the fabric separated from thehose 'and split longitudinally to lie flat;
` i FIGpS 4isa .vertical sectional,view through, a knitting ,machine made in accordance with the present invention withrportions broken,A away Vto more clearly illustrate its construction; f
t IG. 6` isfatransversensectional view taken on the line ,6446 of FIG. v45; i "FIG. 7 is adiagrammatic representation,illustrating the United' States Patent the wales 20 is formed of two yarns 21- and 22 which are formed into wale loops 23 and 24'respectively. The connconnecting runs, of the -other web diagonal to the courset wise direction ,of -the respective .webs
All* of the; objectsL of the invention are lmore fully set 'forthLhereinafter with 4refer/ence to the accompanying drawings wherein:v Y
` FIG. 1 is a View Ashowing asection of transparent plastic those. containing a tubulanknitted, fabricmade according ,to the present invention;
Afabric betweeny `lthe f front and Vback facesI thereof.
, FIG. 8 is a view similarto FIG. 4of a modified fabric l made 0n apparatus embodying 'the presentinvention.
v therein. The fabric r1,2 is composite of two tubular Webs l`knitted from separate yarns ,and4 on separate sets of needles. kvIn the cylinder, the needles are arranged so that those of one, set alternate with those of the other set. l0-
Consequently,,thefwalesl of one web alternate with the wales 30 of the other Webabout the circumference of the composite. fabric. v
In the presentinstance, each web `of the composite fabric is formed von two feeds so that in each wale, there are wale` loops .formed ofalternate yarns. ,The web having necting runs.25 and,26 respectively between rthewale loopsin vthe web engage in the wales 30 of the other web In the present instance,the webs-are` knit with the Wale loops disposed on the rear face of the fabric and thecon- Vnesting runs onthe front face ofthe fabric. As shown in the drawings, the connecting' runs of each adjoining pair of wales of each web inl any-one course, follow apath passing in front` of the-Wale loop of the intervening Wale of the other web and are knit in a manner to intersect the In accordance ,with `thefinvention, additional reinforcto provide'additional'burst strength .to .the fabric without forcing ,strands v.41 "and 42are` laid .l intof the composite The strands 41l and42f pass 1in frontrofy eacliwale yloop it traverses, `and v.behind theV connecting yarn runs. The strand cidentwith the paths of vtheconnecting runs-,35m said lcourse .so that it passes in front of .thewale loops23of theother web tand behind the diagonalconnectingfruns 25 ofthe other` web lthroughout the fabric. The reinforc- `ingstrand42 passesjin front of the `Wale loops .34 in one course ofthe web-`having.wales.30 and follows thevpaths lof the connecting yarn runsv36 of said course togthereby pass in ,front .of the, Wale loops=24k of, the otherwvveband behind the diagonal connecting runs26-.of the other/web.
.When .the construction ofi FIGS.,1 to-4ernbodies an ,openrknit asshowrnthe reinforcinggstrands 41 and 42 mayY follow a straight. helical path` :throughout the-hose. Since .the path of .the reinforcing strands 41 kandftz are devoid of kinks, loops, and thek like, thisconstruction enables thev uselof vn ietallic reinforcingnstrands s uch asv wire Ior otherI strandswhich may be strong in tension but weak inshear. lThe use'of such strands mayralso-be desirable for- .other purposes than increasing the burst; ,strength of the hose. -`For` fexample,metallichstrands may be desired tobeincorporatedfin the hose fon shielding eifects, and the ,present invention ,therefore enables theV shieldingwire to be incorporated in the reinfc'proing fabric concurrently vwith the knitting thereof Vto eliminate theonecessity for anadditional operation of applyingA the shielding material tothe hose.Y
Referringto the, apparatus-shownin FIGS. 5 and 6, the knitting machine comprisesa stationary needle cyline Y 357 der 151 havg 'a reduce@ errer Section largedl lowersection 103. The needlesare-mountedin interiorly grooved vertical needle Abars 115 which -are retained in the lower 'section 103, by a .clampf117g' Simif` lar needle groovesare 'p'rviddn ,fthef exterior of the upper section 102 in accordanceffwith the conventional practica,needles 120 andfl130-,inl the present Vinstance three of. each,V being retained inthe needle' grooves by suitable retaining means Y104. 'The' needles '120'and 130 are conventional!in"forminelu'drigfthe:usual hook 140 and latch 150.V The needles v1270 'andv 130 are mounted for vertical reciprocation in 'theneedle grooves and to Ythis end, are'p'rovided with' inwardlyproje'cting butts 105 and 106' respectively j which engage i'n cam tracks '107 and"108 formed 'in a rotary barrel `can11049` slidableon the stationary centralpost 110 of theV r'ie'edl'f':cylinder. y Means (notI shown).isfprovidedfto cooperateY with the lower portionl111 'ofjftherjharrrel ain 10/9fto rotate the :sar-nei and effect verticalr'eciproca ojnof'-,the'needley in,
A rotary.' knitting ,headg113uis`i provid-ed to cooperate lwiththe vertically reciprocating "need1es`1120'and 130"`to form-'fthe knitted*v Web j 'Ifhe' head, 1'13Qi's` 'rotated ,in syn# .t l, chrdnisrnl with .th'e -barr mechanism l(notfshovvnfand includes' a tubular member 114 embracing thene'edles v120"a`1"i'd130` .whenfin'their upper portion of their;reciprocatoryfmovernent. vBod'y .Y t Y 41g 1,08jare`xinl general registry with the yarnfeeds 121 and t 122.-V VIn'this manner, theneedle ,associated with a particular cam, is displacedr downwardly totdraw a stitch concurrentlyvwith ,the passagefofrthe yarn feed associated with that'needle. It should "be, particularly noted that the cam ktrack-107Y for the needles 120k is offset fromthe cam track V108v for the needles' 13 0 by lessiA than 90 degrees in order to insure proper cooperationofthevneedles with the yarn `feeds-to :producethe desired. composite fabric with the reinforcing strands positioned in. frontv of' each f wale loop; `The terminal partof the stitch ydraw portion of each cam which returns the needles to the upper position, is shaved, as indicated at 126 to insure proper opera- `tion ofv theneedles. n
:with reference to *Fr'Gjmhe needieg `1,20 arejdesig- Vnatedl 120-1,` 120-2, and 120-3 for the purpose of identirication, eacliV ofv the needles acting similarly as it is i traversed' bythe rotaryknitting head.` The-needles 130 ,'arefsiniilarly designated 130A, 130-72, land-1303. `With ,reference tithe needlef1p20-1,;it is in'rthe positionjto "be loweredv by thecar track`f107ifas the feedv 122Hpasses ,toward the left.. The yarn22frornthe yfeed 1,22Vis engaged `in thehookf thev needle 1,- 20-1 and'theneedledraws theyarn 2A2`to forni awal loop. .As the loopis drawn,
Q" the shankof the needle, and the yarn32 is cast off '.with r:the previously-formed loopzknit K on; the needle 120-1 "with the yam 21. 1 In this way, theyarn 32 Yand the reinyarn feed apertures"12 1j,11,22, 131' andY 132 'are provided inthe tubular'portionj `114 `tofeed the body yarns'fZl,V l 22, 31 'and 32 respectively/fasy shown in -FIG. 6.Y The, tubular` portion 114`te'rrni`nates' jinspaced relation to the upper edge lof theA ,cylinder 101 Vto provide an annular irslot 1167through'whichthe knitted'we'brnay be drawn. In registry withjthe `slot 116,reinforcing yarnv fecdsf141 e and 1472are provided forsimultaneousgotationwithj the knitting head 113:v .should be noted that rthereinforc-` K ing strand feedsV 142 are posritionedin registry with the work slot 116' defined betweenithe tubulanporti'ojllAgv;
ofkinks or turns, as best shown inFIGS2`and -4.
reciprocationv ofv theneedles 120 `and 130, :produces .a
cylindrical cornposite'web Whichis'fornied about a hose core 118 which `is advancedv upwardlythrough abore t Rotation of thei'kruftting .head 113 and 'reinforcing yarn feeds 141 and 142,1 in cooperation with'the vertical i 119 vinthe cylinder 101 Ysofthat the Y upward Vwithdrawal `l 7 of the core 118.v draws the'knittedwebupwardly Within the bore of the tubular Vportion *1140il the knitting head'.
The reinforcing fabric 12 is composite of the two'tubular zweb's havingY wales `20 and the needles r120 andA 130 respectively.
Y 0 respectively formed on "With rreference/to IFIG.- 7, t'hediagrarrimatic showing therein clearlyr illustrates thepppe'ration of,A themachine otov produce the fabric 12'. KVt'fshottl'd be noted, that-the 'cani tracks showndiagrammatically at 107. and' 10,8'V in r barrelcarii, but are a reduced.:scale relativel tothe j-needle's-byreason oftheA enlarged circumference, ofthe canziwith respect-t' Vthef'redll'ced,` circumference of the lneedle circle? in Vthe.lupper;"section 10.2of/ the cylinder.
Each of the canrftrack's 107fa'nd-.1018,comprises a` rela# tively straight, vportion over thernajor ,part'fofthe' cir'- cumference thereof `whichretairnsjthejneedlesfin their i upper position within the tubular` portion 114'. `At points p 's'p'acedl by 180vdeg1feesyithe V canitracks/.dip ,downwardly `asA indicated'at 124 and "125 to displacethe needles downr lwardlynto draw the Wale loops. The dips 12,4.in`the cam track 107 are in general, registry ,"with, the yarn feeds 131 andl 132 whereas the dips V'125 in the'cam trackrv the adjacentfbody yar-n 32 tpasses between thelatch and "forcing kstrand 42 pass in front of thevwale loop Ias seen i in FIG.
7Wl1en v.the needle is elevated by the cam track V.The needle .130-1 is'fdis'placed downwardly concur- V'r'ently with `t-h'eneedle 120%1," but by reason of the cam track-,108 being olset from the camftrack 107 by less thar1` 9r0 degrees, ythe needle '130-1 is displaced downv wardly slightly in ladvance yof the downward displacement rofl ther needle 12071. This advance j displacement vof the Y needl'e`1-30-1, insuresflthat Ytheyar'n'y 32 engaged in the ihook fthe needle 13'0-Lis displaced downwajrdly'below thelatcli'oftheneedle,12041, 'so th'atitr yisjl'vpositioned f 'intermediate,` tfhevlatch andftheshank whereby the yarn 321s not yplated orinterknit witl'rthe4 yarn22 within the #withg'referen torto. v4, thiojep kformed 'inthe' yan1 2,2y byk the"n'eedle'.120-1,"isthe.loop,24 Theyarn loop f formed by the ,needle 130.-.1`in the yarn 32 is the loopv34. v*The previouslyrformed loop'pon the needle 120-1y is the j, loopf23and it should tbe' notedthat, the connecting run 35 betweenthe'ladjoining ,loops 33`of.the yarn 31 passes infront of the loopV V23,as does; lthe yreinforcingstrand v41. By the same token, the lolop33 previously formed on'` the kneedle 130-1 'isv positioned behindfthe reinforcing strand '41',and; the'connecting/r'un 26 of the loopsV 24 so that thecomposite fabric shown in FIG.' 4*'is formed by needles which are reciprocated: by the .barrel cam` 109. ,"Thus', theetwo webswhich make up thecornposite fabric rare knitted.concurrently on 'twofsets ofy needleszwhich needles are' interdigitated intaltefrnating"relationship. yAd;- jacentv needles'of thetwo sets ar'eidisplaced generally 'concurrently, withithe leading needles'fof the two' being drawn Y pfdown'sligrhtly in advance' of thetrailing needlev lso as'to insuref displacement'ofthe yarn infth'e hook of the rst 1 needleto arlatch-clearing positionfbelowvthe latch; of the adjacent needle'of thebtherset,f`whereby the Vconnecting VVrinrfrornA ,the/loop knittedonltherst needle is cast off i the'second-'needle without being; interknitted with the yarn Ain the hookof thefsecond needle.y
, Whereitjisjdesiredftohaye' a'ymor compact reinforcingy fabric, the'fabri'c'shown VinFIG. `8 may bemade with only -`slight modification fof theapparatus of the present invention. `v`The fabri'c 50 yillustrated therein is similar to fthe fabric'12 ,inrthat it isla composite of'two separate Qwebs" each formedA on two'feeds. yIn thisV fabric, four reinforcing strands are embodied in the fabric. The'wales the advance Aof the rotary knitting head 113 around the 'Y 60 of the first web alternate with the wales 70 of the second web. The yarns 6l and 62 of the first web are formed into Wale loops 63 and 64 and connecting runs 65 and 66 respectively. The yarns 'il and 72 of the second web are formed into wale loops 73 and 74 and connecting runs 75 and 76 respectively. The two Webs are interknit as described above in connection with the fabric 12 so that the connecting runs of the webs intersect each other on lines diagonal to the course-Wide direction thereof.
The fabric 50 embodies reinforcing strands Sl, 32, 91 and 92. The strand 3l passes in front of the Wale loops 63 in one course of the first web and follows the paths of the connecting yarn runs 65 of said course to pass in front of the wale loops 7d of the second web and behind the diagonal connecting runs '76. The reinforcing strand 82 passes in front of the Wale loops 6d of the first web, and follows the paths of the connecting yarn runs 66 to thereby pass in front of the Wale loops 73 of the second web and behind the diagonal connecting runs 75 of said second web. ln a similar manner, the reinforcing strand 9i passes in front of the wale loops 73 in one course of the second web and follows the paths of the connecting yarn runs 75 of said course to thereby pass in front of the Wale loops 63 and behind the diagonal connecting runs 65 of the irst web. The reinforcing strand 92 passes in front of the wale loops 74 in one course of the second web and follows the paths of the connecting yarn runs '76 of said course to pass in front of the wale loops 64 of the first web and behind the diagonal connecting runs 66 of said first web. It is noted that the loops 63, 64, 73 and 74 are drawn to a length which is sufficient to permit the strands d1, 32, 91 and 92 to remain straight and parallel to one another without kinks.
The fabric of FIG. 8 may be formed by simply adding two additional reinforcing yarn feeds in the knitting head at points 90 degrees spaced from the reinforcing feeds 141 and 142. Of course, other modifications are possible within the scope of the invention; for example, it is possible to employ twelve needles rather than six to form a more dense fabric. In such a case, the needles alternate between the needles 120 and 130, but in other respects, the apparatus may be identical.
The use of four reinforcing strands in the reinforcing composite fabric may provide a much denser fabric, and when using relatively thick yarns, can produce the appearance of a braided fabric rather than a knitted fabric. In many cases, it may be desired to dispose the reinforcing fabric of FlG. 8 on the exterior of the hose to serve as a fabric covering for the hose, rather than embedding the fabric within the body portion of the hose as shown in FIGS. 1 and 3.
While the invention has been described in detail With reference to apparatus embodying two reinforcing strands, it is apparent that other embodiments of the invention are possible to satisfy any given requirements. For eX- ample, the main yarn feeds may be increased or decreased, as desired, and the travel of the knitted web Within the cylinder may be either upwardly as shown or downwardly. The core MS may also be omitted if desired. Other changes and modifications may be made in and to the apparatus and method illustrated and described herein without departure from the present invention as delned in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
ll. The method of knitting a composite fabric composed of two superimposed webs comprising the steps of providing two sets of needles arranged in interdigital relationship in a needle circle with the needles of one set alternatof the fabric on one of the sets of needles, feeding yarn to said needles consecutively about the circumference thereof, and drawing-down said needles to form knit loops, one needle of each set being drawn down approximately concurrently with an adjacent needle of the other set, the leading needle with respect to the direction of yarn feed being drawn down slightly in advance of the subsequent needle to thereby position the yarn engaged in the hook of the leading needle below the latch of said subsequent needle so as to be cast off during the formation of a knitted loop by the subsequent needle.
2. Apparatus for reinforcing flexible hose comprising a circular knitting machine having a single hollow cylinder for receiving the hose core, two sets of knitting needles having hooks and latches mounted for longitudinal reciprocation in said cylinder between an extended limit position projecting beyond the end of said cylinder and a retracted limit position within the end of said cylinder, a knitting head mounted for rotation relative to said needles and cylinder including a tubular portion having a bore receiving said hose core and terminating in spaced relation to the end of said cylinder to define a work slot therebetween, yarn feed means in said head for each set of needles to introduce yarns into the hooks of the needles in the set, separate cam means for each set of needles mounted for rotary movement relative to said needles concurrently with said head, and reinforcing strand feed means in registry with said work slot to introduce reinforcing strands into the composite fabric formed by said two sets of needles, said cam means cooperating with said reinforcing strand feed means to position the reinforcing strand below the latches of the needles whereby upon displacement of said needles from their extended position, said reinforcing strand is cast off with the immediately preceding loop on said needles without engaging in the hook thereof and without being interknit with the yarn fed thereto, the reinforcing strand thereby being positioned at the same side of each Wale loop formed by said needles.
3. Apparatus according to claim 2 wherein each of said cams has a stitch-draw portion in substantial registry with one of said yarn feeds for feeding yarn to the hook of the needles associated with said cams, the stitch-draw portions of said cams being positioned to displace a pair of adjoining needles of the two sets from the extended position to the retracted position substantially concurrently, the stitch draw portion of the cam for the leading needle of said pair being advanced to initiate retraction of said leading needle in advance of retraction of said adjoining needle to thereby insure positioning of the yarn in the hook ofthe leading needle and below the latch of the adjoining needle and avoid knitting of said yarn in the hook of the adjoining needle.
Reference-s Cited bythe Examiner UNTED STATES PATENTS 430,300 6/90 Rhoine et al 66-10 1,947,302 2/34 Meiwald 66-9 X 2,006,275 6/ 35 Meiwald 66-169 2,016,870 10/35 Meiwald 66-9 2,032,993 3/36 Larkin 66-9 2,066,408 l/37 Lombardi 66-190 2,201,905 5/40 Larkin 66-9 X 2,264,213 11/41 Larkin 66--190 2,870,619 1/59 Greczin 66-169 FOREIGN PATENTS 619,207 9/ 35 Germany.
DONALD W. PARKER, Primary Examiner. RUSSELL C. MADER, Examiner.