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Publication numberUS3203388 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 31, 1965
Filing dateJun 14, 1963
Priority dateJun 14, 1963
Also published asDE1485452A1
Publication numberUS 3203388 A, US 3203388A, US-A-3203388, US3203388 A, US3203388A
InventorsGallagher Harry G, Parlin David B
Original AssigneeBigelow Sanford Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tufted fabric and method of making the same
US 3203388 A
Images(7)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 31, 1965 D. B. PARLIN ETAL 3,203,338

TUFTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed June 14, 1965 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 1965 D. B. PARLIN ETAL 3,203,388

TUFTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed June 14, 1963 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 fl 1965 D. B. PARLIN ETAL 3,203,388

TUFTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed June 14, 1963 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 1, 1965 D. B. PARLIN ETAL 3,203,388

TUFTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed June 14, 1965 Y 'r Sheets-Sheet 4 Aug. 31, 1965 D. B. PARLIN ETAL TUFTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed June 14, 1963 D. B. PARLIN ETAL.

TUFTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed June 14, 1965 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 Aug. 31, 1965 D. B. PARLIN ETAL TUFTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed June 14, 1963 United States Patent M 3,203,388 TUFTED FABRIC AND METHOD 0F MAKENG THE SAME David B. Parlin, Thompsonville, and Harry G. Gallagher,

Sufiield, Conn, assignors to Bigelow-Sanford, Inc,

Tholnpsonviile, Conn., a corporation of Delaware Filed June '14, I963, Ser. No. 288,039 30 Claims. (Cl. 112-410) The present invention relates to tufted pile fabric floor covering and more particularly to methods for the manufacture of such floor covering and the resulting products.

Pile fabrics which are manufactured by -a sewing operation as distinguished from a weaving operation, commonly and herein called tu-fted pile fabrics, are increasingly coming into use as floor coverings. Such fabrics may be made with pile faces of many different pleasing styles and appearances but, due to limitation in the meth- 0d of manufacture, there have been serious limitations as to the kinds of pile face which can be produced. One type of pile face which is highly desirable in a pile fabric floor covering is a pile face having a tweedy or broken up texture or color suitable for use where an informal atmosphere is desired. Such a pile face must be substantially free from any pronounced straight lines of similar appearing pile elements. Yet it is desirable that the pile face contain pile elements of more than one character, for example of different color, twist, material, size, texture or other difference apparent to the eye. In tufted fabrics, all of the pile elements are formed by stitching yarns into a backing sheet, in contrast to weaving operations, and a given pile yarn cannot readily be omitted from the pile face at desired positions, as it can be in, say, an Axminster fabric, or in a Wilton fabric wherein certain yarns may be buried in the backing and other pile yarns brought up to the pile face at any desired tuft location. As the pile elements of tufted fabrics are formed in a continuous yarn, it has heretofore been thought necessary that the pile elements in a yarn of a given character lie along a line. The art has known how to disposed such lines of pile elements formed from the same yarn along other than straight lines, for example, along regularly curved lines, but this has necessarily required that all of the loops in other yarns lie along lines of similarly curved shape, giving a regular or wavy lined appearance to the pile face.

An object of the invention is to provide a tufted pile fabric floor covering wherein the pile elements in the face do not appear to lie along straight lines, but appear to be disposed at random.

Another object of the invention is to provide a tufted pile fabric floor covering wherein the pile elements in the face differ in appearance among themselves in a wholly random fashion.

Another object of the invention is to provide a tufted pile fabric floor covering containing pile elements of different colors with such pile elements distributed in the pile face so that the colors appear to be located at random, to give a desirable tweedy appearance to the pile face.

Another object of the invention is to provide a tufted pile fabric floor covering wherein the pile elements in the face differ in lay, or in the direction or disposition of their axis in a wholly random manner.

Another object of the invention is to provide a tufted pile fabric floor covering containing pile elements formed from yarns of different character wherein the pile face is free from any pronounced straight lines of pile elements of the same such character.

Another object of the invention is to provide a tufted pile fabric floor covering having a pile face which is patterned in the sense that it contains pile elements differing among themselves in height in accordance with a pat- 3,263,388 Patented Aug. 31, 1965 tern, and which pile face also contains more than a single character of pile element, the pile elements of a given character appearing to be disposed in clusters or groups in accordance with said pattern.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method of manufacturing tufted pile fabric floor coverings having a desirable tweedy texture due to random distribution over the pile face of pile elements of different character and height.

Other objects, features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of preferred embodiments thereof, wherein reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which- FIG. 1 is a rear elevation of apparatus suitable for practicing the method of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a view in vertical section taken along the line 22 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a horizontal view in section taken along the line 33 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of the appearance of the back of a tufted pile fabric floor covering of the invention;

FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating the path of successive needle penetrations into the backing sheet in making the fabric of FIG. 4;

FIG. -6 is a diagrammatic illustration of the appearance of the back of another tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with the invention;

FIG. 7 is a diagram showing the path of successive needle penetrations into the backing sheet in making the fabric of FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a photograph of the pile face of a tufted pile fabric in accordance with FIGS. 4 and 5;

FIG. 9 is a photograph of the pile face of another tufted pile fabric in accordance with FIGS. 4 and 5;

FIG. 10 is a photograph of the pile face of a tufted pile fabric in accordance with FIGS. 6 and 7;

FIG. 11 is a photograph of another pile fabric in accordance with FIGS. 4 and 5 and FIG. 12 is a photograph of another pile fabric in accordance with FIGS. 6 and 7.

In accordance with the invention we have found that tufted pile fabric floor coverings having a highly desirable tweedy pile face free from pronounced lines of similar appearing pile elements can be obtained by repeatedly stitching a linear series of parallel pile yarns into a backing sheet while advancing the sheet in the direction of its length past the needles and appropriately feeding yarns to the needles, if the backing fabric is suitably shifted widthwise, that is transversely of the general direction of extent of the yarns, and transversely of the backing sheet, between successive stitches for a distance which is more than about one-half the gauge, that is the spacing between needles (and between adjacent yarns). Such shifting movements of the backing are accurately timed with the reciprocations, or yarn inserting strokes, of the needles, the yarn feed and the advance of the backing, and the extreme widthwise shifted positions of the backing sheet are timed to occur substantially as a needle penetrates the fabric. Preferably there is only a single pile element in each yarn at each extreme lateral position of the yarn. It has been known to shift the backing sheet in a tufting operation, but heretofore this has been done for other purposes, for example for the purpose of producing wavy or zigzag lines of pile in the pile face. The procedure and product of the present invention are radically different from such prior products and procedures in that the zigzag shifting motion of the backing fabric is not reproduced in the pile face, which, surprisingly, in contrast, is free from zigzag or other lines of pile elements formed from the same yarn. Indeed, the pile face is characterized, as contrasted with prior tufted products, by a distinct absence of lines of similar appearing pile elements in the direction of extent of the yarns, the pile elements instead being disposed at random in the pile face. Thus a much sought for type of pile face is attained by the invention. The procedure of the invention is marked by a rapid shifting movement of the backing sheet transversely of the lines of stitching, i.e., expressed in a different manner, is characterized by shifting movement of the backing sheet of high amplitude, of the order of a shift of more than about one-half gauge (or one yarn spacing) for a line of stitching. Further in accordance with the invention the pile elements of the fabric may differ in height, further enhanc ing the appearance of the pile face.

Referring to the drawings the illustrative apparatus suitable for the practice of the method of the invention comprises a frame 2 in which a suitably driven main shaft 4 is mounted for rotation. Disposed transversely of the frame are a series of vertically movable rods 6 supporting a needle bar 8. The needle bar 8 extends transversely of the machine and carries a single row or bank of needles 10. Yarns drawn from a suitable supply are fed by means well known in the art to the needles, one yarn per needle. The yarn supply, as is conventional, is driven from the main shaft 4 and therefore in timed relationship with the movements of the needles. The rods 6 are vertically reciprocated by a suitable drive means driven by the main shaft 4 to reciprocate the needles vertically into and out of a backing sheet 12. The backing sheet 12 is provided from a supply roll 14 at the rear of the apparatus and is drawn forwardly through the apparatus by a take up roll 16 driven from the main shaft 4 by means Well knownin the art. Adjacent the needles, on the approach side, the backing sheet 12 passes above and is adapted to be supported by a plate 18 having spaced fingers 20 extending from its forward edge between which the needles pass. In the present apparatus desirably the fingers 20 do not extend much if any forwardly of the needles. Conventional loopers 22 disposed beneath the fingers 20 engage the yarns carried by the needles when the needles are in their lower position, to form pile loops upstanding from the lower face of the backing sheet 12, as is conventional.

In the present apparatus means is provided for-rapidly shifting the backing sheet 12 widthwise, that istransversely of the yarns, including a pin roll 24 disposed transversely of the machine frame in position to engage the upper surface of the backing sheet 12 at a point closely adjacent the bank of needles 10. The pin roll 24 comprises a shaft 26 carrying on its surface a plurality of sharp pointed pins 28 which are adapted to engage with the backing sheet 12 and move it Widthwise when the pin roll 24 is moved axially. The pin roll is supported on the machine frame by means of suitable bearings 30 permitting axial and rotational movement of the pin roll.

Means for moving the pin roll 24 axially is provided comprising a reduction gear 32 having its input shaft 34 driven from the main shaft 4 by .a drive sprocket 36, a driven sprocket 38 and a chain 40 cooperating therewith and passing over an idler roll 42 which may be adjustable to appropriately tension the chain 40. On the output shaft 44 of the speed reducer 32 is mounted a face cam 46 having a generally heart shaped cam groove 48. Running in the groove 48 is a cam follower roll 50 mounted at the upper end of an arm 52 fixed on a rock shaft 54 to which also is fixed an arm 56 to the upper end of which is pivotally connected a connecting rod 58. The other end of the connecting rod 58 engages a bolt '60 which is adjustable in a slot 62 in the upper end of crank arm 64 fixed to a rock shaft 66. The bolt 60 is adjustable in the slot 62 to vary the effective length of the crank arm 64. The shaft 66 is supported on the frame 2 for rotation in bearings 68, 70 so that it extends above the pin roll 24. Beneath the shaft 66 the pin roll 24 is provided with a pair of collars 72, 74 fixed on the pin roll.

pin roll. A depending arm 76 fixed on shaft 66 carries at its lower end a rotatable roller 78 disposed between the collars 72 and 74. Accordingly, oscillation of shaft 54 by the arm 52 through movement of the cam follower 50 toward and from the axis of shaft 4 by the cam 46 causes the arm 56 through the connecting rod 58 to rock the arm 64 and with it the shaft 66 and thus to oscillate the pin roll 24 axially by engagement of the roller 78 with the collar 72, 74. The oscillation of the pin roll 24 is of an amplitude predetermined by the cam 46, for a given setting of pin 60 in slot 62.

To further control the backing sheet in its widthwise movements, as it passes beneath the needle bar 8, a smooth roll, in addition to, or as a substitute for, the conventional presser foot, may be provided in position to engage the backing sheet close to the needles on the opposite side of the needle bar from the pin roll 24, this smooth roll being oscillated axially along with the Referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, a smooth roll 112 is carried in bearings 114 for endwise and rotational movement. Collars 116, 118 fixed on roll 112 engage between them a free roller 120 carried on the lower end of an arm 122 fixed on shaft 66. Thus as the shaft 66 is rocked to oscillate the pin roll 24 axially, it similarly oscillates the smooth roll 112.

The design of the cam 46 and the ratio of the speed reducer and the sprockets 36, 38 is such that the shifting movement imparted to the backing fabric 12 by movement of the pin roll 24 amounts to more than about one-half the gauge, i.e., the spacing between adjacent needles 10, for each stitch, that is, for each descent of the needle bar 8 to cause the needles 10 to penetrate the backing sheet. The shifting movement may amount to about one gauge per stitch, more or less and we have found that movements from about one-half gauge to about one and one-half gauge give good results. In most cases, the best results are obtained with movements of about A to 1% gauge, i.e., movements of about A to l%. times the spacing between adjacent pile yarns.

The shifting movement of the backing sheet may consist of one or more steps in the same direction, each step occurring between successive stitches, followed by an equal number of successive steps in the opposite direction, each step occurring between successive stitches, with the total amount of movement in one direction being equal to the total amount of movement in the opposite direction, so that a zigzag movement is imparted to the backing fabric 12. In a preferred modification, the shifting movement consists of a single step in one direction between successive stitches followed by a single step in the opposite direction and of equal amount before the next following stitch, so that the backing fabric moves back and forth, one step in one direction followed by an equal step in the opposite direction. Thus, in FIG. 5 the descent of the needle at the point 80 is followed by a shift of the backing sheet 12 approximately one gauge to the left as seen in FIG. 5, whereupon the needle again descends at the point 82. Following the yarn insertion at 82 the backing fabric 12 is shifted in the opposite direction an equal amount and the needle is again inserted at 84 so that the needle enters the fabric in line with the insertion at 80. Thereupon the fabric is again shifted in the direction it was shifted between insertions 80 and 82 and the needle is again inserted at 86, the amount or distance of all shifts being equal. The result of this preferred, 2-stitch cycle, procedure is to produce on the back of the fabric a zigzag pattern as illustrated in FIG. 4, the yarn 88 extending alternatively to the left and right from the points 80, 82, 84 and 86. There is only a single pile element in each yarn at each extreme lateral position of the yarn. The zigzags are substantially uniform and regular throughout the fabric. All of the other yarns, such as the yarns 90 and 92 are similarly inserted and their zigzags lie parallel to the corresponding portions of yarn 88. In the procedure of FIGS. 4 and 5 just described the speed reducer 32 may be a to 1 reducer, the sprocket 36 on the main shaft a 60 tooth sprocket and the sprocket 38 a 12 tooth sprocket. In this instance the main shaft makes two revolutions per cycle, the reducer input shaft 34 makes 10 revolutions per cycle, and cam 46 one revolution per cycle, the cycle consisting of two successive descents of the needles 10 and two successive shifts of the backing sheet 12.

In practising the procedure of FIGS. 4 and 5 we may employ pile yarns which are all of the same character, or yarns of not more than two different characters. Good results are obtained with alternate yarns the same in character but differing from the intermediate yarns, which are all the same in character.

FIGS. 6 and 7 illustrate a less preferable modification wherein the backing sheet 12 is shifted in the same direction between successive descents of the needles 10. Referring to FIGS. 6 and 7, at the first descent of the needles the needle enters the backing fabric at the point 94 whereupon the backing fabric is shifted to the left, FIG. 7, somewhat more than /2 a gauge, and the needle again inserted at 96, following which the fabric is again shifted to the left and the needle inserted at 98. The insertion at 98 occurs approximately as the backing fabric 12 reaches its extreme movement to the left as seen in FIG. 7. Thereafter the backing fabric is shifted to the right and the needle inserted at 100 followed by another shift to the right and insertion at 102, and another shift to the right and an insertion at 104, the amount of all shifts being about the same. The insertion at 104 is made approximately as the backing sheet 12 reaches its extreme rightward position, as appears in FIG. 7. Following the needle insertion at 104 the backing sheet is shifted to the left, the same amount as before. The cycle is then repeated. The result is to produce a zigzag pattern on the back of the fabric in the pile yarn 1%, as shown in FIG. 6, the other pile yarns lying parallel to yarn 106. There is only a single pile element at each extreme lateral position of the yarn. The zigzags are substantially uniform and regular throughout the fabric. In the procedure of FIGS. 6 and 7 there are six stitches and six shifts of the backing sheet in the cycle. The cam 46 makes one revolution per cycle.

In practising the procedure of FIGS. 6 and 7, the shifting movement of the backing sheet 12 may tend to objectionably disturb the normal feed of the yarns to the needles, due perhaps to the fact that the successive points of insertion of a needle do not lie along a straight line in the bacldng. If any undesired effects are produced by such alteration in the feed of yarn to the needles, such as the production of transverse lines or ridges of slightly higher loops, the feeding motions of yarn to the needles should be altered accordingly to feed yarn to the needles at rates in timed relation with the widthwise movements of the backing sheet so that the loops are all formed to the same height, disregarding any pattern of high and low loops. For example, if the pile yarns are fed by the procedures and apparatus disclosed in the Crawford Patents Nos. 2,853,033 and 2,853,034, suitable adjustment of the pile yarn feed to avoid the formation of transverse ridges may be effected by increasing the effective height of the pattern elements 31 or 43 which are releasing yarn at the point where the transverse ridges tend to be formed, as by placing shims under those pattern elements. If the pile yarns are fed by other means, such as driven rollers, as is known in the art, appropriate adjustment of the speed of the rollers may be made as required.

In practising the procedure of FIGS. 6 and 7 We may employ pile yarns which are all of the same character, or yarns of two or more different characters.

It will be understood that a cycle in accordance with FIGS. 6 and 7 may include larger or smaller numbers of stitches than six.

We prefer the 2-stitch process of FIGS. 4 and 5 over the multi-stitch process of FIGS. 6 and 7 because the motion is simpler to perform, it is easier to design patterns, mending of the product is easier and there is less wastage of fabric.

The procedures of FIGS. 4 and 6 may be combined, if desired, in manufacturing a single fabric.

In the procedure of either FIG. 4 or FIG. 6 the shifting movement may be omitted for 2 or 3 successive stitches if desired. Also, in either procedure the amounts of different shifts may be unequal.

The pile elements of the fabric may, if desired, be made of different heights to provide a pile face of high and low loops, as is well understood in the art, for example, by varying the amounts of yarn fed to different needles in different yarn insertions. The highs and lows may be distributed at random over the fabric and/or among the yarns, further breaking up any tendency for the pile face to show lines or rowiness. The highs and lows can, if desired, 'be arranged according to a pattern. For example, the pile elements of one color or character of yarn may be high in areas where the pile elements of another color or character of yarn are low, thus providing in the pile face areas or figures of one color or character interspersed with areas or a ground of a contrasting color or character, and at the same time providing the desired itweedy effect heretofore described.

FIG. 8 shows the face of a fabric, made by the procedure of FIGS. 4 and 5, which is provided with a random pattern of high and low loops and in which alternate yarns differ from the intermediate yarns in color. The pile face includes high and low pile loops distributed at random over the face and among the two kinds of yarns.

FIG. 9 shows the pile face of another fabric made in accordance with FIGS. 4 and 5, the fabric being provided with a pattern of high and low loops. The alternate pile yarns are of one color and the intermediate pile yarns each include fibers or filaments of two different colors, each different from the alternate yarns. The loop-s of the alternate yarns are low in areas where the loops of the intermediate yarns are high, and vice-versa. The effect of the high and low pattern is to cause the pile loops formed in the alternate yarns to be obscured where they are low and adjoining loops of the intermediate yarns are high, and vi-ceversa. Thus in the fabric of FIG. 9, areas or clusters 108 of darker pile loops, formed from yarns of a darker color, are distributed over the face of the fabric and intermingled with other areas or clusters tilt) of pile loops formed predominantly from the other pile yarn, of a lighter color.

FIG. 10 shows the face of a loop pile fabric made in accordance with FIGS. 6 and 7 and employing three different kinds of pile yarns, differing from each other in color and arranged in succession. In three successive equal shifts of the backing fabric in the same direction the fabric is shifted approximately 2 /2 gauges. The'pile face is provided with a pattern of high and low loops, with areas or clusters of high loops and areas or clusters of low loops. All three of the yarns are distributed over each such area, so that the areas do not differ in color as the areas of the fabric of FIG. 9 do.

FIG. 11 shows the face of a loop pile fabric made in accordance with FIGS. 4 and 5 in which all of the pile loops are of the same height. Alternate yarns differ in color from the intermediate yarns.

FIG. 12 shows the face of a loop pile fabric made in accordance with FIGS. 6 and 7 in which all of the pile loops are of the same height. The yarns are of three different kinds, differing from each other in color and arranged in succession. In three successive equal shifts of the backing fabric in the same direction the fabric is shifted approximately 2 /2 gauges. When we say the pile loops are of the same height, we mean that no difference in height is intentionally introduced; of course, some loops nevertheless may fortuitously differ from the standard height, as is known in the art. Similarly, where we refer herein to pile elements of different heights, We

mean of readily apparent different heights, intentionally produced.

All of the yarns of the fabrics of FIGS. 8, 9, and 10 are nylon yarns. The yarns of the fabrics of FIGS. 11 and 12 are wool yarns.

It will be noted that in all of the fabrics of FIGS. 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 the Zigzag pattern of the yarns on the back of the fabric (FIGS. 4 and 6) is not reproduced in the pile face. Instead, the pile face has a tweedy appearance free from any pronounced lines of similar appearing pile elements, and the pile elements formed from the same yarn appear to be distributed at random. The lay, or angle of disposition, of the pile loops is in random directions.

The invention is equally applicable to cut or uncut pile elements, that is, to pile loops or to pile tufts.

The backing sheet may be of any suitable material, such as a Woven or non-woven fabric or a sheet of plastic material, or any of the backing materials known in the art.

The procedure of the invention, involving widthwise shifting of the backing sheet 12, has the distinct advantage, in some cases, that the backing sheet may be shifted an amount which is different from the gauge or spacing of the needles, that is, shifted an amount which is not an exact gauge. Shifting of the backing sheet by an amount which is not an exact gauge has the great advan tage, in most cases, with certain twists of the pile yarn, that successive pile elements are not formed in the same lengthwise lines, as they would be if the backing sheet were shifted an exact gauge, with certain yarn twists. Shifting movements which are not an exact gauge thus further tend to break up rowiness and regularity of pile element distribution in the pile face.

The invention has the distinct advantage of providing a tufted pile fabric having a desirable tweedy appearing pile face substantially free from any pronounced lines of pile elements of similar appearance, as is clearly shown in FIGS. 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. This desirable result, surprisingly, is obtained notwithstanding the distinct zigzag pattern of pile yarns which is produced on the back of the fabric, as illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 6. The pile face is free from continuous lengthwise lines of the same color. Also, the direction of lay of the pile loops of the pile face is distinctly different in different loops, even different loops in the same yarn, as is clearly apparent from FIGS. 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Such random disposition of the lay of the pile loops serves further to break up any regularity of the pile face. Even when all of the pile yarns are of the same color and otherwise identical, this random disposition of the loop lay adds an attractive feature to the pile face.

We claim:

1. The method of making a tufted pile fabric floor covering having a pile face of a tweedy appearance free from pronounced lines of similar appearing pile elements which comprises the steps of simultaneously inserting a plurality of equally spaced pile yarns through a backing sheet to form a transverse row of pile loops upstanding from one face of said sheet and equally spaced along a single line extending widthwise of said sheet, feeding an additional length of yarn to each of said pile yarns, advancing said backing sheet in the direction of its length, shifting said backing sheet in the direction of its Width a distance more than about one-half the spacing between adjacent pile yarns, and thereafter again inserting said pile yarns through said sheet to form a transverse row of pile loops upstanding from said one face of the sheet and equally spaced along a single line extending widthwise of said sheet parallel to and spaced from said first-mentioned line, and repeating said inserting, feeding, advancing and shifting movements to form succeeding parallel transverse rows of pile loops, said advancing movements to form succeeding parallel transverse rows being the same in amount, said shifting movements of the backing sheet being the same in amount and occurring in both directions widthwise of the sheet and so that the total amount of shift of the backing sheet in one direction is the same as the total amount of shift in the opposite direction and so that all said shifting movements are more than onehalf the spacing between adjacent pile yarns, the positioning of the sheet in its extreme widthwise positions substantially coinciding with a pile yarn insertion.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the distance of said shifting movements is not exactly equal to the spacing between adjacent pile yarns.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein the distance of said shifting movements is between about to 1% times the spacing between adjacent pile yarns.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said backing sheet is shifted between all immediately successive advancing movements of the backing sheet.

5. The method of making a tufted pile fabric floor covering having a pile face of a tweedy appearance free from pronounced lines of similar appearing pile elements which comprises the steps of simultaneously inserting a plurality of equally spaced pile yarns through a backing sheet to form a transverse row of pile loops upstanding from one face of said sheet and equally spaced along a single line extending widthwise of said sheet, feeding additional lengths of yarn to each of said pile yarns, advancing said backing sheet in the direction of its length, shifting said backing sheet in one direction widthwise of the sheet a distance more than about one-half the spacing between adjacent pile yarns, and thereafter again inserting said pile yarns through said sheet to form a transverse row of pile loops upstanding from said one face of the sheet and equally spaced along a single line extending widthwise of said sheet parallel to and spaced from said first-mentioned line, advancing said backing sheet in the direction of its length, shifting said backing sheet in the other direction widthwise of the sheet a distance substantially equal to the distance of said first-mentioned shift, and repeating said inserting, feeding, advancing and shifting movements to form succeeding parallel transverse rows of pile loops, said advancing movements to form succeeding parallel transverse rows being the same in amount, the positioning of the sheet in its extreme withwise positions substantially coinciding with a pile yarn insertion.

6. The method of claim 5 wherein the distance of said shifting movements is not exactly equal to the spacing between adjacent pile yarns.

7. The method of claim 5 wherein the distance of said shifting movements is between about /4 to 1% times the spacing between adjacent pile yarns.

8. The method of claim 5 wherein said backing sheet is shifted between all immediately successive advancing movements of the backing sheet.

9. The method of claim 5 wherein alternate pile yarns are the same in character and the intermediate pile yarns are the same in character but differ in character from the alternate yarns.

10. The method of making a tufted pile fabric floor covering having a pile face of a tweedy appearance free from pronounced lines of similar appearing pile element which comprises the steps of simultaneously inserting a plurality of equally spaced pile yarns through a backing sheet to form a transverse row of pile loops upstanding from one face of said sheet and equally spaced along a single line extending widthwise of said sheet, feeding an additional length of yarn to each of said pile yarns, advancing said backing sheet in the direction of its length, shifting said backing sheet in the direction of its width 2. distance more than about one-half the spacing between adjacent pile yarns, and thereafter again inserting said pile yarns through said sheet to form a transverse row of pile loops upstanding from said one face of the sheet and equally spaced along a single line extending widthwise of said sheet parallel to and spaced from said firstmentioned line, and repeating said inserting, feeding, advancing and shifting movements to form succeeding parallel transverse rows of pile loops, said advancing movements to form succeeding parallel transverse rows being the same in amount, said shifting movements of the backing sheet being the same in amount and occurring in both directions Widthwise of the sheet and so that the total amount of shift of the backing sheet in one direction is the same as the total amount of shift in the opposite direction and so that all said shifting movements are more than one-half the spacing between adjacent pile yarns, certain successive shifts being in the same direction, the positioning of the sheet in its extreme widthwise positions substantially coinciding with a pile yarn insertion.

11. The method of claim 10 wherein the distance of said shifting movements is not exactly equal to the spacing between adjacent pile yarns.

12. The method of claim 10 wherein the distance of said shifting movements is about to 1% times the spacing between adjacent pile yarns.

13. The method of claim 10 wherein said backing sheet is shifted between all immediately successive advancing movements of the backing sheet.

14. The method of claim 10 wherein said pile yarns are of three different characters.

15. A tufted pile fabric floor covering comprising a backing sheet and a plurality of pile yarns extending generally longitudinally of said sheet and passing through said sheet along parallel lines extending transversely of the backing sheet to form pile elements upstanding from one face of said backing sheet and providing a pile face having a tweedy appearance free from pronounced rows of similar appearing pile elements, said yarns on the opposite face of said sheet lying flat against the sheet in zigzags parallel to each other, which zigzags are substantially uniform and regular throughout the fabric, certain immediately successive passages of each yarn through said sheet being displaced from each other transversely of the backing sheet a distance greater than about onehalf the spacing between adjacent yarns along one of said parallel lines and not exactly equal to said spacing, the lay of the pile elements in the face differing at random among the pile elements, and the pile face being free of the zigzag pattern appearing on the back of the fabric.

16. A tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with claim wherein the pile face includes pile elements of different heights.

17. The pile fabric floor covering of claim 15 wherein all immediately successive passages of each yarn through said backing sheet are displaced from each other transversely of the backing sheet a distance greater than onehalf the spacing between adjacent yarns along one of said parallel lines.

18. A tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with claim 15 wherein said distance is about A to 1% times said spacing between adjacent yarns.

19. A tufted pile fabric floor covering comprising a backing sheet and a plurality of pile yarns extending generally longitudinally of said sheet and passing through said sheet along parallel lines extending transversely of the backing sheet to form pile elements upstanding from one face of said backing sheet and providing a pile face having a tweedy appearance free from pronounced rows of similar appearing pile elements, said yarns on the opposite face of said sheet lying flat against the sheet in zigzags parallel to each other, which zigzags are substantially uniform and regular throughout the fabric, successive passages of each yarn through said sheet being displaced from each other transversely of the backing sheet a distance greater than about one-half the spacing between adjacent yarns along one of said parallel lines and not exactly equal to said spacing, there being only a single pile element in each yarn at each extreme lateral position of the yarn, the lay of the pile elements in the face dif- 10 fering at random among the pile elements, and the pile face being free of the zigzag pattern appearing on the back of the fabric.

20. The tufted pile fabric of claim 19 wherein the pile face includes pile elements of different heights.

21. A tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with claim 19 wherein said distance is about A to 1% times said spacing between adjacent yarns.

22.. A tufted pile fabric floor covering comprising a backing sheet and a plurality of pile yarns extending generally longitudinally of said sheet and passing through said sheet along parallel lines extending transversely of the backing sheet to form pile elements upstanding from one face of said backing sheet and providing a pile face having a tweedy appearance free from pronounced rows of similar appearing pile elements, said yarns on the opposite face of said sheet lying flat against the sheet in zigzags parallel to each other, which zigzags are substantially uniform and regular throughout the fabric, successive passages of each yarn through said sheet being displaced from each other transversely of the backing sheet a distance greater than about one-half the spacing between adjacent yarns along one of said parallel lines, the yarns at the back of the fabric extending alternately in one direction and the other direction transversely of the backing sheet between successive passages of the yarns through the backing sheet, the lay of the pile elements in the face differing at random among the pile elements, and the pile face being free of the zigzag pattern appearing on the back of the fabric.

23. A tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with claim 22 wherein the pile face includes pile elements of different heights.

24. A tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with claim 22 wherein said distance is about to 1% times the spacing between adjacent pile yarns.

25. A tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with claim 22 wherein adjacent pile yarns differ in character.

26. A tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with claim 22 wherein said distance is not exactly equal to said spacing between adjacent yarns.

27. A tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with claim 25 wherein the pile face includes pile elements of different heights.

28. A tufted pile fabric floor covering comprising a backing sheet and a plurality of pile yarns extending generally longitudinally of said sheet and passing through said sheet along parallel lines extending transversely of the backing sheet to form pile elements of different heights upstanding from one face of said backing sheet and providing a pile face having a tweedy appearance free from pronounced rows of similar appearing pile elements, said yarns on the opposite face of said sheet lying flat against the sheet in zigzags parallel to each other, which zigzags are substantially uniform and regular throughout the fabric, successive passages of each yarn through said sheet being displaced from each other transversely of the backing sheet a distance greater than about one-half the spacing between adjacent yarns along one of said parallel lines and not exactly equal to said spacing, the yarns at the back of the fabric extending in the same direction transversely of the backing sheet between certain successive passages of the yarns through the backing sheet and extending in the other direction transversely of the backing sheet between other successive passages of the yarns through the backing sheet, the lay of the pile elements in the face differing at random among the pile elements, and the pile face being free of the zigzag pattern appearing on the back of the fabric.

29. A tufted pile fabric floor covering in accordance with claim 28 wherein said distance is about A to 1% times the spacing between adjacent pile yarns.

ter.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,513,261 6/50 Behrens 112-796 2,679,218 5/54 Jones 112-49 2,682,841 7/54 McCutchen 112-79 McCutchen 11279.6 Rice.

Manning et al. 11279 Bryant et 2.1. Y 112-79 Broadrick 11279 Ledford et al'. 11279 Batty et all 11279 JORDAN FRANKLIN, Primary Examiner.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3282235 *Dec 24, 1963Nov 1, 1966Crawford Allan HTufting apparatus having fabric shifting means
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Classifications
U.S. Classification112/410, 112/475.23, 112/80.31
International ClassificationD05C15/00, D05C17/02, D05C17/00, D05C15/28
Cooperative ClassificationD05C17/026, D05C15/28
European ClassificationD05C17/02C, D05C15/28
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Nov 27, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: BIGELOW-SANFORD, INC., GREENVILLE, SC., A CORP. O
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:BIGELOW-SANFORD, INC.;REEL/FRAME:003930/0615
Effective date: 19810918