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Publication numberUS3203689 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 31, 1965
Filing dateMay 10, 1962
Priority dateMay 15, 1961
Publication numberUS 3203689 A, US 3203689A, US-A-3203689, US3203689 A, US3203689A
InventorsHallowell Jr Howard Thomas
Original AssigneeStandard Pressed Steel Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Refractory-lined tundishes
US 3203689 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1965 H. T. HALLOWELL, JR 3,203,689


ATTORNEYS United States Patent This invention relates to a vessel of the type known as a tundish for containing molten metal, and comprising a metal casing lined with refractory material. A tundish is used in casting operations as an intermediate vessel between a ladle and a mould, to receive a charge of molten metal from the ladle and to pour it at a controlled rate into the mould, as required.

A tundish is usually preheated to a high temperature to reduce the amount of metal solidifying in it, and this and other operating factors result in the refractory lining having to be replaced regularly. For example, the refractory lining of a tundish associated with a continuous casting machine may be satisfactory for only one casting operation, whereas the lining of a ladle may remain satisfactory for fifteen similar operations.

It has previously been known to make a refractory lining for a tundish from refractory bricks, or by ramming sand or other granular refractory material around the inner surface of the metal casing, but these methods are slow and laborious.

According to the present invention a tundish has an inner lining of moulded ceramic material preformed as one or more monolithic shells and fitted inside the outer casing.

Preferably, for small vessels, the ceramic lining is of one-piece shell construction, but if the lining comprises several preformed shells these may be joined together by cement having good refractory properties.

A layer of heat-insulating material may be placed between the outer casing and the ceramic lining.

The tundish may have one or more nozzles for pouring molten metal into moulds. In one arrangement the nozzle or each nozzle extends through registering apertures in the ceramic lining and the outer casing; alternatively the nozzle or nozzles may be moulded integrally with the ceramic lining.

The invention may be carried into practice in various ways but one specific embodiment will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a side elevation of a tundish, in section on the line II of FIGURE 2, and

FIGURE 2 is a crosssection on the line II-11 of FIGURE 1.

In the illustrated embodiment the invention is applied to a tundish 10 of generally rectangular plan having a flat base portion 11 and upwardly extending, nearly vertical side walls 12. The end walls 13 of the tundish are inclined to the vertical at about 30.

The tundish 10, which is of rigid construction, comprises an outer steel casing 14 capable of supporting the weight of the tundish together with a charge of molten metal contained in it. The steel casing 14 is lined with a layer of heat-insulating material 15 in any conventional 3,283,689 Patented Aug. 31, 1965 manner, and the layer 15 is covered by a monolithic ceramic shell 16 comprising the refractory lining of the tundish. If the tundish 16 is of small dimensions, it will be convenient to construct the ceramic lining shell 16 in a single piece, but in the illustrated embodiment, which is a large tundish, the shell 16 is formed in two pieces 16A and 16B constituting identical prefabricated monolithic shells Whose edges 17 are abutted and joined together, either in the tundish or before being placed in it, by a cement having good refractory properties.

The tundish 10 is provided with a pair of nozzles 18 in its base portion 11. The nozzles 18 might be formed integrally with the ceramic shells 16A and 16B, but in this case separate nozzle members are provided which extend into the interior of the tundish through apertures in the shells 16A and 1613, the nozzles passing through the insulating layer 15 and the outer steel casing 14.

The tundish may be used in conjunction with a detachable roof indicated at 19, which covers the open top of the tundish. The roof 19 is provided with a central aperture 24) through which molten metal can be poured from a ladle into the tundish, the metal from the tundish being distributed at a controlled rate through one or each of the pouring nozzles 18 into moulds located beneath the tundish, the moulds for example being incorporated in a continuous casting machine.

The ceramic shells 16A and 1613 which constitute the lining of the tundish 1% can be mass-produced under factory conditions, and because they can be quickly replaced when worn out or damaged they enable the operating costs of casting processes involving the use of the tundish to be reduced, since less time and labour will be required for re-lining the tundish as compared with previously used arrangements.

I claim:

1. A tundish comprising a rigid metallic outer casing having upwardly extending sides and a flat bottom portion, said casing being capable of supporting the weight of the tundish together with a charge of molten metal, a layer of heat insulating material Within said outer casing, an inner monolithic lining for said tundish formed from a high strength refractory material, said lining forming a structurally self-sustaining shell removable as a unit, said inner lining, said heat insulating material and said outer casing each being provided with aligned apertures located in the bottom portion of the tundish, and a nozzle inserted in and projecting through said aligned apertures.

2. A tundish as claimed in claim 1 in which the lining is a ceramic lining of a one piece shell construction.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,43 8,559 3 48 Hubbell 266-43 2,650,255 8/53 Hogel et al 266--38 2,826,793 3/58 Flickinger et al. 2285 2,871,008 1/59 Spire 26639 2,961,722 11/60 Lilljekvist et al. 22-84- 3,028,642 4/62 Stauifer 2285 J. SPENCER OVERHOLSER, Primary Examiner.



Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2438559 *Feb 18, 1942Mar 30, 1948American Crucible CoFurnace lining
US2650255 *Oct 27, 1950Aug 25, 1953Asea AbTilting electrical melting furnace of egg shaped cross section
US2826793 *Jun 21, 1956Mar 18, 1958Flickinger Sr William EWell brick with stopper rod guide
US2871008 *Jan 7, 1955Jan 27, 1959Air LiquideApparatus for gas flushing of molten metal
US2961722 *Oct 29, 1958Nov 29, 1960Skf Svenska Kullagerfab AbCasting molten material in a vacuum
US3028642 *Aug 28, 1958Apr 10, 1962Kaiser Aluminium Chem CorpApparatus for transfer of molten metal
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3329315 *Mar 8, 1965Jul 4, 1967Motor Wheel CorpMultiple casting ladle which insures equal volume pouring
US3333746 *May 19, 1966Aug 1, 1967Harbison Walker RefractoriesTundish ladles
US3863907 *Jun 10, 1974Feb 4, 1975M & T Mfg CoRadiant heating system
US3955721 *Sep 12, 1974May 11, 1976Bate Micheal DonaldExpendable tundish liner
US4012029 *Jul 30, 1974Mar 15, 1977Foseco Trading A.G.Tundishes
US4014531 *Apr 28, 1975Mar 29, 1977Aikoh Co., Ltd.Tundish for the continuous casting of steel
US4022358 *Jul 9, 1975May 10, 1977Foseco International LimitedVessels for containing molten metal
US4117052 *Mar 28, 1977Sep 26, 1978Dorentruper Sand- Und Thonwerker G.M.B.H.Method and arrangement for use in lining articles, particularly melting oven
US4268015 *Feb 12, 1979May 19, 1981Didier-Werke AgBottom outlet or discharge for use in metallurgical vessels for steel melts, particularly tundishes
US4372544 *May 7, 1981Feb 8, 1983Labate Michael DBlast furnace trough and liner combination
US4390170 *Mar 19, 1982Jun 28, 1983Schaefer Iv Louis BClosure plug for ladle car
US4422625 *Feb 23, 1982Dec 27, 1983Fmc CorporationFoundry pouring ladle protective liner
US4441700 *Sep 29, 1982Apr 10, 1984Labate M DBlast furnace trough and liner combination
US4783061 *Jun 12, 1987Nov 8, 1988Insul Company, Inc.Tundish liner
US5312506 *Sep 21, 1992May 17, 1994Mitsui Mining Company, LimitedMethod for growing single crystals from melt
US6763981Apr 29, 2002Jul 20, 2004North American Refractories Co.Well block for metallurgical vessel
EP0051910A1 *Apr 27, 1981May 19, 1982Aikoh Co. Ltd.A vessel for molten metal
U.S. Classification266/286, 266/281, 222/607
International ClassificationB22D41/02
Cooperative ClassificationB22D41/02
European ClassificationB22D41/02