US 3205667 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 14, 1 965 0 Ta I a 1 MM ATTORNEY Sept. 14, 1965 E. w. FRANTTl 3,205,667
SUBMARINE AIR CONDITIONING MODULE Filed Sept. 8, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
EDSEL W. FRANTTI BY d. a. $44.1. ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,205,667 SUBMARINE AIR CONDITIONING MODULE Edsel W. Frantti, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor, by mesne assignments, to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy Filed Sept. 8, 1964, Ser. No. 395,104 3 Claims. (Cl. 623) The invention relates to theremoelectric heating and cooling apparatus and in particular involves Peltier thermocouple apparatus for heating and cooling separate bodies of liquids utilized in heat transfer.
Two dissimilar thermoelectric materials, which have different thermoelectric powers, may be joined together to form a Peltier couple which function when current is passed therethrough to provide a hot junction and a cold junction. When a plurality of such couples are arranged in an array in which the hot junctions and cold junctions are segregated into separate groups, a heat pumping device known as a thermopile is produced. Heat will be absorbed by the cold junctions of the thermopile and liberated by the hot junctions and consequently liquid circulated in heat exchange relation with the cold junctions will give up heat thereto and when circulated in heat exchange relation with the hot junctions will absorb heat therefrom.
In accordance with the present invention, the appartus arranged for the circulation of one fluid through certain of the heat exchangers and the circulation of another fluid simultaneously through certain other of the heat exchangers. The heat exchangers are generally similarly designed in that each is formed with a passageway through which a fluid may be circulated and each is provided with flat faces permitting assembly in face to face relation. Thermoelectric elements forming thermocouples are arranged between adjacent faces of the assembled housings for effecting heat transfer between circulated fluids.
Additionally, each housing is provided with a pair of openings in communication with the passageways for connecting the passageways with inlet and outlet manifolding conduits and each housing is also provided with a pair of notches or cutout areas for receiving the fluid inlet and outlet manifolding conduits. This arrangement permits the convenient assembly of the unit by stacking the heat exchangers with the apertures and notches positioned in alternation, that is, with an aperture and a notched area aligned with each other. The apertures and notches will be diametrically opposed and preferably the heat exchangers will be of rectangular shape with the apertures located at one pair of opposite corners and the notches located at the other pair of opposite corners.
Such an arangement permits varying the capacity of an apparatus by assembling a number of the units since the heat exchangers of each unit are readily manifolded and similarly the units are readily manifolded. In order to effect heat transfer, the dissimilar thermocouple elements will be located between adjacent faces of the heat exchangers preferably by mounting the dissimilar elements on one face of one heat exchanger and a cooperating element on the adjacent surface of an adjacent heat exchanger and heat exchangers so arranged as to locate the cold junctions for absorbing heat from one liquid and the hot junctions located for supplying heat to another liquid.
The broad object of the present invention is to provide a thermoelectric heat exchanger unit for use as a heat pump.
3,205,667 Patented Sept. 14, 1965 ice Another object is to provide a thermoelectric heat exchanger unit which is particularly useful in air conditioning.
And another object is to provide a compact thermoelectric heat exchanger unit which is readily arranged for multiple operations for varying cooling capacities.
Other objects, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a view in perspective of the heat exchanger unit or module of the invention.
FIGURE 2 is a cutaway view showing the interior construction of one of the heat exchanger elements of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is an exploded view of FIGURE 1 to show additional details of construction.
In FIGURE 1 the thermoelectric unit or module is indicated at 10 and is formed of outer heat exchangers 11 and 12 and an inner or central heat exchanger indicated at 13. In appearance and construction the heat exchangers are generally similar and preferably are formed of rectangular shape and are of confined thickness in relation to their length and width. For example, a unit constructed as shown in the figure and capable of producing one-quarter ton of air conditioning was square having the measurements of twelve inches in length and width and three inches in thickness.
FIGURE 2 shows the preferred heat exchanger construction wherein 15 indicates a tubing of copper nickel alloy, for example, which is embedded in a casting 16 and provides a sinuous passageway. The castings for each of the exchangers 11, 12 and 13 are approximately three-quarters of an inch in thickness allowing onequarter inch between their adjacent surfaces for locating the thermoelectric elements.
In FIGURE 2 the apertures are indicated at 17 and 18 and formed in alternate corners in communication with the tubing and the notched areas indicated at 19 and 20 are formed at the other alternate corners as shown. The thermoelectric elements are not shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 but will be mounted on the adjacent inner face of the central heat exchanger housing and the inner faces of the outer heat exchangers will be described in connection with FIGURE 3.
The heat exchangers or elements 11, 12 and 13 are further formed as an integral unit by means of bolt connections 21 as shown in FIGURE 1. Conduits 22 and 23 represent the inlet and outlet conduits, respectively, for one liquid which is circulated through the inner or central heat exchanger 13. At 24 and 25 are represented the inlet and outlet conduits for another liquid which is circulated through the outer heat exchangers 11 and 12 which are interconnected by a communicating connector 26. Similar fittings 27 are provided in association with the respective heat exchangers 11, 12 and 13, as shown, to direct the fluids through the tubing passageways 15 in the respective heat exchangers for desired circulation of the liquids between conduits 22 and 23 and between conduits 24 and 25.
The various elements in FIGURES l and 2 are similarly identified in the exploded view of FIGURE 3 which shows adequately the relationship between the various elements.
In FIGURE 3 the thermocouples are formed, for example, by copper plasma straps 30 sprayed on the inner face of heat exchanger 13 and extending horizontally between its side walls and copper straps 31 soldered to the face of the inner heat exchanger 12 and extending vertically between its upper and lower edges as shown and having suitable pellets 3232 of dissimilar materials.
Similar straps are provided on the other face of the inner heat exchanger and straps similar to 30 are provided on the inner face of heat exchanger 12. The thermocouples are assembled and a thermopile is formed when the heat exchangers 11, 12 and 13 are united and the straps 30 interconnect pellets 32 of adjacent straps 31 in a manner to form a continuous circuit providing the cold junctions on the inner heat exchanger 12 and the hot junctions on the outer heat exchangers 11 and 13.
Although this invention has various applications, the thermoelectric unit has particular application in air conditioning a submarine since it involves no moving parts and is practically free of noise providing characteristics requisite for submarine operation, especially under war conditions. In using the unit for such an operation the fresh water which is used in room heat exchangers of the submarine would be directed by conduit 22 to the central or inner heat exchanger 13 for removal of the heat extracted from the rooms and this heat would be dissipated in sea water admitted by conduit 24 to the outer heat exchangers 11 and 13.
It will be understood that current flow through the unit or module 10 is in the direction requisite for establishing the hot junction at the elements 30 and the cold junctions at the elements 31. The unit or module 10 may be used as a heat pump by current flow in the opposite direction which reverses the locations of the hot and cold junctions to extract heat from the sea Water and disperse it through the submarine air heat exchangers by means of the fresh water.
Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that, within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
1. Apparatus for simultaneously heating one body of fluid and cooling another body of fluid which comprises:
(a) a unit formed of similar rectangular central and end housings having opposed flat front and rear faces,
(b) a sinuous passageway between the opposed flat faces having an inlet conduit and an outlet conduit communicating therewith for the circulation of fluid,
(c) said conduits being located at one pair of diametrically opposed corners of a housing with One conduit extending normal to one face and the other conduit extending normal to the other face,
(d) a pair of notches in each housing located at the other pair of diametrically opposed corners,
(e) said housings being assembled in face to face relation and positioning the conduits extending from one housing in the notches of an adjacent housing and (f) a first set of thermocouples located between the central housing and one end housing and a second set of thermocouples located between the central housing and the other end housing.
2. Apparatus as in claim 1, further characterized by the housings being formed of a casting having a sinuous passageway between the front and rear faces and a pair of diametrically opposed transverse passageways in communication with the sinuous passageway for receiving the inlet and outlet conduits and wherein one transverse passageway communicates through one face of the housing and the other transverse passageway communicates through the other face of the housing.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,793,243 5/57 Lindenblad 62-3 2,886,618 5/59 Goldsmid 623 3,111,813 11/63 Blumentritt 62-3 WILLIAM J. WYE, Primary Examiner.