|Publication number||US3206901 A|
|Publication date||Sep 21, 1965|
|Filing date||Jan 12, 1960|
|Priority date||Jan 16, 1959|
|Also published as||DE1212269B|
|Publication number||US 3206901 A, US 3206901A, US-A-3206901, US3206901 A, US3206901A|
|Inventors||Knag Bakke Bjorn|
|Original Assignee||Knag As A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (14), Referenced by (12), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 21, 1965 B. K. BAKKE 3,206,901
WALL STRUCTURES 4 Sheets-Sheet l Zg/f Filed Jan. 13 1960 INVE BJmRN KNAG BAKKE Sept. 21, 1965 B. K. BAKKE WALL STRUCTURES 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR: BJWRN KNAG BAKKE.
Filed Jan. 12, 1960 ATTORNEY P 21, 1955 B K. BAKKE 3,206,901
WALL STRUCTURES Filed Jan. 12, 1960 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR:
BJZRN KNAG BAKKE.
ATTORNEY p 1965 B. K. BAKKE 3,206,901
WALL STRUCTURES Filed Jan. 12, 1960 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 4/ i H65 72 l 3 BJQRN KNAG BAKKE.
United States Patent WALL STRUCTURES Bjtirn Knag Bakke, Bergen, Norway, assignor to A. Knag A/S, Bergen, Norway Filed Jan. 12, 1960, Ser. No. 2,058 Claims priority, application Norway, Jan. 16, 1959,
6 Claims. (Cl. 52--235) This invention relates to wall structures of the kind comprising vertical mullions connected by horizontal transoms to provide a framework with rectangular openings each of which is adapted to be closed by wall panels and/or Opening or non-opening windows. Particularly, the invention relates to wall structures known in the trade as glazed curtain walling. In general terms such structures comprise a main supporting framework formed from reinforced concrete and designed to take the weight of additional wall forming assemblies. For insulating the building non-stressed structures comprising lightweight materials are used. Thus, the outer walls of the building may consist of elements constituting a thin walling having the sole purpose of protecting the interior from the weather by having sufficient thermal insulating properties and by affording protection against wind and rain. The assembly thin-walled structures are suspended in a curtain-like manner to form the exterior walls of the building by being secured to the main structure at the outside thereof. Conventionally, the aforesaid thinwalled structures comprise glass panels and supporting bars, the latter being preferably manufactured from aluminum by well known extrusion processes.
Throughout this specification, such glazed curtain walling comprising glass panels, opening windows, etc., supported by extruded aluminum bars will be referred to as wall structures of the stated kind.
Numerous problems must be considered when constructing wall structures of the stated kind. They should be easy to erect and easy to repair. They must be sufficiently weatherproof and remain weatherproof even after several years exposure to the most extreme climatic conditions. Therefore, all joints between the different parts should be sealed to prevent Water and moisture from entering into the wall structure, or even into the building. Furthermore, if moisture really should enter, provisions must be made for the removal thereof, by discharge and/ or venting.
Secondly, the number of joints should be kept as low as possible. Furthermore, the difference between the thermal expansions of aluminum and glass must be taken into account. If wood elements are incorporated, the elongation and contraction of such elements under the influence of moisture should also be considered.
Structurally, wall structures of the stated kind should be possible to erect from the inside of the building, that is, without the use of scaffolding. Such wall structures usually involve a number of vertical mullions arranged in spaced relationship and suspended upon the main structure, said mullions forming the main support of transoms and panels of the wall structure. Said mullions are first mounted in their correct positions and then the entire wall structure is assembled thereon. On the other hand, when the exterior panels are broken or damaged, they should at least be replaceable from the outside. The insulating materials enclosed within the wall may then prevent any access from the inside after erection. The glass panes of opening as well as non-opening (or rigidly mounted) windows should, on the other hand, preferably be removable from the inside. In wall structures of the stated kind, where the glass panes may consist of a particular kind of prefabricated composite glass pane struc- "ice tures, for instance of the kind sold under the trade name Thermopane the window frames should preferably be removable as a unit in order to enable substitution of the glass pane with associated mounting as a whole.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a wall structure of the stated kind, in which moisture penetrating into the interior of the wall structure may be collected and discharged without detriment to the insulating material of the wall.
A further object is to provide a simple and rugged construction which is easy to erect and to disassemble particularly when there is a need for repair and maintenance.
Further objects, advantages and features of the present invention will become apparent in the course of the following description, in which reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this specification and which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a wall structure according to the invention, with a part cut away to show a sectional view of the wall.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the mounting of the mullions on the substructure of the building.
FIG. 3 is a vertical sectional view of the mounting according to FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a somewhat simplified horizontal sectional view of the wall, illustrating the means for mounting transoms in the wall.
FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of part of the wall at the upper part of an opening window.
FIG. 6 is a vertical sectional view corresponding to FIG. 5, but showing the lower part of an opening window.
Referring now to FIG. 1, this shows part of a glazed curtain walling comprising horizontal members 10 forming part of the main structure, said main structure being formed from reinforced concrete to form columns which support such horizontal members as are indicated by the reference numeral 10, at desired levels. A number of vertical mullions 11 are suspended in spaced parallel relationship upon said main structure. Horizontal transoms 12 are arranged between the mullions to define rectangular openings 13 in which glass windows 14 or panels 15 are received. In conventional glazed curtain walling the panels 15 may consist of non-transparent glass panes, preferably colored or toned to give a desired architectural effect. Inwardly of the panels 15 is arranged an inner wall structure 16, there being disposed within part of the space between said panels and the structure, insulating material 17. Mineral wool has been found to be very suitable for this particular purpose.
In the wall structure according to the invention the vertical mullions 11 form the main support of the wall. As known in the art, each mullion comprises a number of mullion section bars, each section bar spanning from one floor to the adjacent floor, and being mounted at the top upon the floor plate 10 of the main structure.
At its lower end each section bar is slidably located by guide means on the next adjacent section bar, whereby vertical movements, for instance due to thermal ex pansion and contraction, are taken up and limited to a single floor spacing. This individual mounting of mullion section bars of a length corresponding to one single floor spacing has the further advantage that the inherent variations due to constructional tolerances which are unavoidable in such buildings are readily compensated for, enabling the use of prefabricated elements.
Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3, the individual mullion section bars 11 are mounted on the floor plates 10 of the main structure by a threaded stud 18. This stud 18 has at its lower end a support member 19 attached thereto, said support member being bent to hairpin shape and embedded in the reinforced concrete during pouring thereof. The stud 18 protrudes from the bottom of a recess 20, said recess being open at the top and at its outwardly facing side. The mullion 11 has the general shape of an I-beam, having a web portion 21, an outer flange 22 and an inner flange 23. The inner flange 23 carries a vertical mounting plate 24 secured to the inner flange 23 by means of rivets 25, which at the outer side of the flange 23 maintainsin position a pair of angular mounting plate members 26. The mounting plate members 26 are also secured to the web 21 by rivets 27. The inner mounting plate 24 carries a horizontal bracket 28 with an opening '29 receiving the stud 18, nut and washer means 30 being associated with said stud 18 to keep the brackets 28 in position upon the supporting stud. make the opening 29 of the bracket of greater dimensions than the stud 18 in order to enable adjustment in the positioning of each individual mullion section bar on the corresponding stud 18 to permit exact alignment of adjacent mullion section bars even in the event of misalignment of the studs arising from constructural tolerances.
The mounting plate 24 and the mounting plate members 26 are extended beyond the top of the section bar to define a T-shaped space into which the lower end of the adjacent section bar may be slidably received. Thus, the adjacent section bar is firmly held against lateral displacement, while being aligned in vertical direction in end to end contiguous relation. 7
The outer flange 22 of each section bar is'provided with a lip portion 31 at its lower end, said lip portion 31 covering the joint between adjacent section bars.
Referring now to FIG. 4, the inner flange 23 of the mullion bar is provided with a pair of inwardly extending flange portions 32 terminating at their remote ends in beads 33. Said flange portions 32 are arranged to support the inner wall structure 16. The inner flange terminates at its remote edges in protrusions 34 having generally a T-shaped cross section with a groove 35, whereby a sealing strip 36 with a U-shaped cross section maybe arranged to cover the protrusions 34. The sealing strip 36 seals the joint between the inner wall and the mullion while also forming a cover to prevent exposure of bare metal of the mullion towards the inside of the building.
As stated, the flange portions 32 with the associated beads 33 are arranged to support the inner Wall structure together with the insulating material. As shown in FIG. 4 the connection between the mullion 11 and the inner wall 16 with the insulating material is solely obtained by interengagement between the beads 33 and "recesses in the wooden members 37 supporting the inner walling. Thus, a sliding connection is obtained between the mullions and inner walling, enabling the mullions and associated parts carried thereby to expand or contract without transfer of such movements caused by thermal influences to the interior part of the wall structure.
The outer flange 22 terminates along its free edges in L-shaped protrusions 38. A channel member 39 is provided adjacent its outer edges with recesses 40 receiving the ends of said protrusions 38. An inclined entering portion 41 enables movement of the channel member 39 into snap engagement with the flange 22 by virtue of the engagement between the protrusions 39 and the recesses 40, thus the channel member is firmly but removably held in position on the outer flange 22. This flange 22 and the channel member 39 define together a .hollow space extending continuously from the ground to the'roof at the outer side of the wall structure.
A sealing strip 42 is received in a groove 43 at the outer edges of the outer flange. This strip 42 serves mainly to ensure a firm fit between the channel member and other parts of the walling.
Referring now to FIG. 1, the channel members 39 have a length corresponding to the length of the associated mullion section bar 11, i.e., corresponding to the spacing between adjacent floors. However, the joint between two It is preferred to abutting channel members is situated at 44, remote from the joint between the corresponding mullion section bars. The channel members will therefore bridge the latter joints to form a reinforcement of the outer flanges at said joints.
When the section bars are assembled and mounted to form a mullion with the channel members attached thereto for reinforcement each mullion will form a rigid vertical support of the wall structure, on which supports the transoms 12 may be arranged without, any need for the transoms to take horizontal stresses in the wall. There fore, the transoms may be supported on the bottom webs 50 of, the brackets. The brackets are secured by rivets 51 to the mullions 11 (see FIG. 4). Said brackets are moulded to fit into the channel shaped space at the corresponding side of the mullions. A peripheral flange 52 surrounds each bracket thus the bracket will form a tray having a depression 53 leading into an outlet 54. This outlet leads into the space defined by the outer flange 22 and the channel member 39, whereby this space may form a discharge conduit for moisture. In every alternate bracket web 50 a central opening 55 having a peripheral flange 56 is arranged in order to obtain a venting effect within the wall structure.
At one end the transom 12 is provided with a hole 57 receiving a pin 58 of the corresponding bracket. A similar pin 58 is arranged on the bracket of the opposite mullion, this second pin being received in an elongated hole 59 at the corresponding end of the transom 12. By means of the elongated hole 59 longitudinal movements, for example thermal expansion and contraction, of the transom 12 may take place without stresses being applied to the mullions in the horizontal direction. Here again, this arrangement, which is similar to the arrangement at the joints of the mullion section bars, will not only act to take up thermal expansion and contraction, but enables easy erection and security against variations in the main structure, specifically relating to the spacings between the vertical mullions.
The transoms are shown to have a central channel portion 60 for conducting water. that may have penetrated into the wall to the trays formed by the brackets, such water being eifectively removed through the outlets 54. The actual design of one such transom is shown in FIG. 5, which illustrates a vertical sectional View of a transom 12 forming the upper bar defining an opening for a transparent window, said transom also forming the support of a glass panel 15 in the next higher rectangular space of the wall.
Thisupper transom is provided at the exterior side, with a flange portion 61 extending downwardly to terminate in a recess receiving a sealing strip 62 abutting the exterior face of the window pane. From a central horizontal portion 63 containing the channel portion 60 a similar exterior vertical flange portion 64 extends upwards to terminate in a recess receiving a sealing strip 65 abutting the outer face of the glass panel 15. At the inner side the transom has an upwards extending flange portion 66 terminating in a hook shaped end 67. At the extreme inner part the transom has a small flange portion 68, serving as a support of the lower face of a wooden window sill 69. This wooden sill is at its upper face gripped by the hook shaped end 67.
The window pane comprises a laminated structure 70 embedded in a plastic mass 71 such as mastic in a recess 72 of a window frame bar'73. A sealing gasket strip 74 is arranged along the inner side to seal between the glass pane 70 and the window frame, bar 73. A flange portion 75 extends upwards to engage a sealing strip 76 covering the inwardly facing part 68 of the transom 12.
The glass panel 15 is supported on small blocks 80 their lower edges thereby being situated above the bottom of the channels 60. As will appear, the flange portion' 66 has an inclined portion in order to co-operatewith wedge members 81 by means of which the glass panel may be .5 pressed firmly outwards against the sealing strip 65. Thus no substantial stress will be exerted against the glass panels even though the wall will remain watertight.
A small flange 82 serves as a location for a partition member 83, said partition member retaining the insulating material 17 (FIG. 1) in position, there being a hollow space between the glass panel and the partition member.
At the lower edge of the window 14 another arrangement is used, because it may be undesirable in cold climates to have such channels 60 at the lower end of opening windows. In this arrangement shown in FIG. 6, the window frame comprises a recess 84 receiving the plastic mass 71 in which the lower edges of the window pane 70 are embedded. Here again, a sealing strip 85 is arranged between the window pane and the aluminum bar forming the frame. At the exterior side, however, the aluminum bar comprises a vertical flange portion 86 terminating in a recess receiving a sealing strip 87 directed towards and abutting the surface of the lower glass panel 15. The flange 86 will entirely cover the aluminum bar forming the lower transom 12. At the inner side the transom has a vertical flange portion 91 terminating in a T-shaped portion 92 with a recess for receiving a sealing gasket strip 93. Said strip engages the inner face of the window pane 70. A horizontal flange Portion 94 ter-- minates in a hook shaped portion 95 to grip a wooden sill plate 96. It remains to be noted that a hairpin clip member 97 serves to keep the glass panel 15 in position while also serving as an engagement for the partition member 83.
It will appear from FIGS. and 6 that the flange portions 61 and 86, respectively, will form cover means for defining an air pocket between the window frame and the wall, while still allowing opening windows to be pivoted over an angle of up to 170, when the opening window frame is pivotably supported on a horizontal axis intermediate the upper and lower edges of the window frame (FIG. 1). Capping strips 98 (FIG. 1) are arranged to bridge the gap between the mullions 11 and the vertical edges of the wall panels 14, 15.
In windows of the non-opening or non-ventilating kind, the upper and lower edges are preferably arranged in the same manner as in opening windows.
To erect the wall structure, the mullion section bars of the lowermost floor are first brought into position by being mounted as aforesaid upon the studs 18, while their lower ends are secured in a manner not shown to the lowermost floor. Generally, in curtain walling, the walling covers the building from the first floor and upwards, the ground floor being occupied by shops etc.
The mullion section bars may be erected with the channel members 39 secured to the outer flanges. As mentioned, said channel members have a snapping engage ment with said flange. Any subsequent section bar may be brought into position by sliding engagement between the overlapping channel member 39 and the section bar, whereby correct alignment of the mullion will be easy to obtain. Any misalignment may also be corrected by loosening the nuts engaging the studs 18.
When the mullions have been erected, the transoms are brought in position one by one and the panels as sembled with the strips. Finally, the inner Walling is mounted on the flange portions 32, 33.
It will appear herefrom that the outer walling consisting of mullions, transoms and glass panels is erected first, whereby mounting of the inner walling parts may take place under protection of the outer walling.
It will be readily observable from the foregoing, that the wall structure may be erected in a minimum of time from the inside of the building. Furthermore, the novel arrangement enabling discharge of water as well as a venting effect within the wall structure will assist in obtaining and maintaining dry conditions within the wall.
Although the present invention has been desccribed in conjunction with a preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that modifications and variations may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, as those skilled in the art will readily understand. Such modifications and variations are considered to be within the purview and scope of the invention and the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. In a building structure: a plurality of vertically spaced floors, a framework, means suspending the framework outwardly of said floors in spaced relation thereto, said framework including a plurality of vertically extending, horizontally spaced mullions and a plurality of vertically spaced horizontally extending transoms supported between said spaced mullions to define a plurality of rectangular spaces, each mullion including a plurality of vertically aligned members substantially I-shaped in crosssection in end to end contiguous relationship, each I-shaped member including a Web extending outwardly from said floors and a pair of parallel flanges connected to the Web and constituting inner and outer flanges, each mullion further including a plurality of vertically aligned channel members in end to end contiguous relationship, each including a web portion and leg portions integral therewith, the leg portions having ends remote from said web portions connected to the ends of the outer flanges of the I-shaped members, the contiguous ends of the I-shaped members being vertically offset from the contiguous ends of the channel shaped members, said web portions and leg portions of the channel members forming with the outer flanges of the I-shaped members a substantially continuous vertically extending hollow space throughout the extent of said mullions, said framework further including a plurality of vertically spaced brackets fixed to the webs and flanges of respective mullions, said brackets being disposed in opposed pairs between horizontally adjacent mullions, each bracket including a horizontally disposed bottom web and an upstanding peripheral flange integral therewith, each pair of brackets supporting an associated horizontally extending transom therebetwecn, and means securing the ends of each of said transoms to the respective brackets, in spaced relation from the webs of the associated I-shaped member, said means including structure permitting linear expansion and contraction of said transoms between said horizontally spaced mullions.
2. In a building as claimed in claim 1, wherein each of the opposite ends of the transoms is provided with a hole, one of which is of elongated shape, said means supporting each transom, comprising for each opposed pair of brackets integral supporting means engaging an associated transom through said holes.
3. In a building as claimed in claim 1, comprising an inner wall structure for each floor of said structure, intermediate supporting means interposed between the inner flanges of the I-shaped members and the inner Wall structure, the inner flanges of said I-shaped members including integral flange portions extending inwardly towards the inner wall structure and engaging in recesses provided in the intermediate supporting means, such that the intermediate supporting means provides sliding connection between the mullions and the inner wall structure whereby the inner wall structure is indirectly supported by the mullions through the intermediate supporting means.
4. In a building structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein the means suspending the framework outwardly of the floors comprises means connecting each I-shaped member at the upper end thereof to a respective floor, the latter means defining a T-shaped slot accommodating the contiguous end of the next higher I-shaped member in vertical sliding arrangement, a fixed stud at each floor and a bracket secured to the inner flange of each I-shaped member engaging a corresponding stud.
5. In a building structure as claimed in claim 1, comprising vertically alternating wall panel elements and glass window elements, in said spaces in said framework, each of said transoms being between one of the wall panel elements and one of the glass window elements for supporting the element thereabove and engaging the element therebelow, each said transom including a flange portion adapted to sealably engage said elements corresponding therewith.
6. In a building structure as claimed in claim 1, comprising a window structure operatively positioned in at least one of said rectangular spaces, said window structure comprising an upper horizontal wall member, a lower horizontal wall member and a windowmember in said space between said upper and lower members, said win+ dow member including an inner and outer face, said upper wall member including a downwardly extending flange and a sealing member on said flange for engaging the outer face of the Window member in sealing engagement, the lower horizontal wall member including an upwardly extending flange and a sealing member on the latter flange for engaging the inner face of said Window member in sealing engagement, the upper and lower ends of the window members each including a flange provided with a sealing member, said sealing members respectively engaging the upper and lower'horizontal wall members and the said two pairs of'flanges defining a pair of air pockets one at each end of the window member.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 385,624 7/88 Hodges 50-320 1,052,207 2/ 13 Beckman 50-324 2,164,261 1/39 Small 50-320 2,280,142 4/42 Daniels 18-9-64 2,711,233 6/55 Pierce 189-75 2,885,040 5/59 Grossman.
2,914,145 11/59 Benson 189-34 X 2,916,108 12/59 Gartner 189-76 2,944,641 7/ 60 Peterson 189-34 2,949,981 8/60 Ferrell 189-34 2,963,126 12/60 Cudini 189-34 2,966,242 12/ 60 Kaiser 50-320 2,985,263 5/ 61 Maciunas 189-34 2,996,160 8/61 Voight 189-40 X JACOB L. NACKENOFF, Primary Examiner.
JOSEPH D. BEIN, GEORGE A. NINAS, 111., WILLIAM I. MUSHAKE, BENJAMIN BENDETT, Examiners.
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|U.S. Classification||52/235, 52/508, 52/209|
|International Classification||E04B2/88, E04B2/96|