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Publication numberUS3207657 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 21, 1965
Filing dateJan 22, 1963
Priority dateJan 22, 1963
Also published asDE1461097A1
Publication numberUS 3207657 A, US 3207657A, US-A-3207657, US3207657 A, US3207657A
InventorsWagner Joseph Robert, Charles A Lee, Gordon J Chalmers
Original AssigneeHuyck Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for making paper by contracting the forming carrier to compact the web
US 3207657 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sepi- 21, W5 J. R. WAGNER ETAL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING PAPER BY CONTRACTING THE FORMING CARRIER TO COMPACT THE WEB 3 Sheets-Shea?l l Filed Jan. 22, 1963 www, @JN hm. www, Nm,

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Sept. 21, 1965 J. .WAGNER ETAM. 3,207,657

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Sept 21, 1965 J. R. WAGNER ETAL 3,207,657

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING PAPER BY CONTRACTING THE FORMING CARRIER TO COMPACT THE WEB Zarka nm, am, Ew Nw wm, Nh Nm,

QQ @Nl Filed Jan. 22, 1963 www@ United States Patent 3,297,657 METHD AND APRARATUS EUR MAKING PAPER EY CGNTRACTING THE FRMHNG CARRIER T0 CUMPACT THE WEB Joseph Robert Wagner and Charles A. lace, Knoxville, Tenn., and Gordon J. Chalmers, Wolf'viile, Nova Scotia, Canada, assignors to Hayek Corporation, Stamford, Conn., a corporation of New Yorlr Filed Jan. 22, 1963, Ser. No. 253,112 7 Claims. (Cl. 162-208) The present application relates generally to papermaking and more particularly to novel paperrnaking methods and apparatus which are designed to improve certain physical characteristics in the formed paper, in particular its stretch.

The present application includes a method of forming paper which comprises the steps of flowing a stock suspension of fibrous material onto a continuously moving foraminous carrier, draining sufficient liquid from the stock suspension to form a Wet web of fibrous material on the foraminous carrier, causing controlled dimensional changes to be made in said web thereby to impart improved characteristics to the sheet being formed. The web is compacted laterally or longitudinally or both laterally and longitudinally while it is in a relatively wet state, leaving the web in such condition that, when dried in a conventional manner, the resulting paper has improved qualities, particularly improved stretch.

In the manufacture of paper by conventional procedures, an aqueous suspension of papermalring fibers, with or without additional papermaking materials, is delivered to a foraminous carrier or forming fabric. ln the usual Fourdrinier machine the forming material constitutes an endless woven wire belt. In order to accomplish good formation of the paper web, the suspension of fibers is quite dilute, rarely containing in excess of a few percent of fibers and usually less than one percent. The web which is formed on the forming carrier is generally quite fragile in nature. As it is carried by the forming carrier, water is drained from the web and the solids content increases. Conventionally, a plurality of suction boxes beneath the carrier suck Water from the web through the carrier to reduce the water content. At the end of this section of the machine, the solids content may be as much as percent.

The web is generally transferred from the forming carrier to a felt which carries the web through a press section of the papermaking machine where further water is removed from the formed web down to a solids content of to 35 percent. From the press section of the machine, the web is carried by suitable felts through a drier section which may consist of heated rolls or cylinders wherein the bulk of the water remaining in the web is evaporated and the fibers become chemically bonded to one another by the mucilage-lilte material in the stock. After leaving the -drier section, the web is usually carried through a calendering section where suitable calender rolls smooth the web and provide the desired finish or gloss to the web. The web coming off of the calender section is then wound upon a suitable take-up reel.

It has now been discovered that important improvements in certain physical characterisctics of the formed paper can be accomplished by mechanically working the paper web while it has a relatively low solids content and before the fibers are chemically bonded together. Specifically, in accordance with one form of this invention, the web is laterally compacted while on the forming carrier. More specifically, this procedure, which is a material divergence from accepted papermaking practices, imparts additional stretch to the paper web with generally little if any loss in tensile strength.

ICC

The principal object of the invention is the provision of improved papermaking methods and apparatus which result in the formation of paper having improved physical properties. A more specific object of the invention is the provision of an improved method of forming paper which imparts stretch to the formed sheet without substantial loss in tensile strength in the sheet. A further object of the invention is to provide a papermaking procedure wherein stretch is imparted to a web by Work performed on the web during the time that the web is on the forming carrier.

These and other objects of the invention will be made apparent in the accompanying drawings and the following description of certain preferred embodiments of the invention. In the drawings:

FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the wet end of a papermaking machine capable of forming a paper web in accordance with the present invention;

FIGURE 2 is a top plan view of the papermaking machine illustrated in FIGURE l;

FIGURE 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of another part of a papermaking machine for compacting a paper web longitudinally in accordance with the present invention;

FIGURE 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of a papermaking machine incorporating features shown in FIG- URES 1 `and 2 with those shown in FIGURE 3; and

FIGURE 5 is a diagrammatic illustration of a modified form of the apparatus of FIGURE 4.

As noted above, a paper sheet is initially formed as a fragile web of very low solids content. In the present invention, the web is subjected to mechanical working by causing controlled dimensional changes to be made in the i web, preferably while the moisture content of the web is more than about 70 percent of its weight. As a result of the process certain improved physical qualities including additional stretch are given to the paper web.

Stretch is a quality desired in many grades of paper and board, particularly in paper used in packaging. It is also advantageous in paper used for printing, as a backing, etc. Stretchability as used herein refers to the quality of paper to deform under load without rupture, but not necessarily to return to its original state when the stress has been relieved.

All paper and board normally formed on a Fourdrinier papermaking machine or on a cylinder machine using wire faced cylinders has some stretch in both the cross direction and the machine direction. However, such stretch is low, and it is the purpose of the present invention to increase this characteristic in the paper which is formed.

In one method of forming paper in accordance with the present invention the usual Fourdrinier forming carrier (which is formed of a wire screen or wire cloth) is replaced by a generally flexible foraminous carrier formed of synthetic resinous material having high tensile strength and suitable resistance to abrasion, fatigue due to flexing, and the like, whether wet or dry. Nylon, a polyamide ber, is particularly suitable. Other suitable materials are polyesters such as Daeron, or acrylic fibers such as Orlon, Dynel and Acrinan, or copolymers such as Saran.

The above described flexible forming carriers possess a high degree of elasticity and a relatively low modulus of elasticity as compared to the usual Fourdrinier forming wire. When tension is applied mechanically to the forming carrier, dimensional changes are produced in the carrier and in the web which is formed thereon. If such dimensional changes are produced while the fiber mat which forms the paper web is in intimate contact with the fabric weave, any dimensional change in the fabric will produce a similar dimensional change in the paper web being formed.

Referring to FIGURES 1 and 2, there is shown one example of the wet end of a papermaking machine suitable for performing the method of the present invention. The papermaking machine is provided with a headbox adapted to discharge stock of suitable consistency containing fibers for making paper onto a continuous flexible forming fabric 12 at a breast roll 14. The fabric 12, as previously indicated, may be formed of synthetic fibers. The forming fabric 12 is supported to receive stock discharge from the headbox in a continuous stream and is normally driven at a selected uniform rate.

After the stock has been discharged onto the forming fabric 12, the latter permits suicient liquid to drain so that a web 16 begins to form in the well known manner. As shown in the drawings, it is conventional to support the forming fabric by one or more table rolls I8 to facilitate draining and formation of the web. At this point, the web has a solids content of a few percent. The carrier and web are thereupon passed over suction boxes 20A and Ztl which suck water from the web through the carrier, further increasing the solids content of the web to as much as 2G percent. The forming fabric passes over a couch roll 2?; which may be driven by suitable means, such as a gear 23 and then around suitable guide, support and stretch rolls 24, and expanding rolls 26 back to the breast roll lill. The web 16 is taken off the fabric 12 at the couch roll 22, whence the web passes through a press section and thence to a dryer section.

In the machine structure shown in FIGURES l and 2, the suction boxes 20 cause drag on the fabric 12. The couch roll 22 drives the fabric forward, while the suction box drag holds it back. This places the fabric in tension in the machine direction and stretches the fabric in that direction. In this form of the invention, the fabric must be such that tension in the machine direction produces a contraction in the cross direction. This fabric may be made in the manner disclosed in the copending application of Joseph Robert Wagner, Serial No. Y'

253,129, filed January 22, 1963, for Papermaking Fabric. As there disclosed, the fabric is made of synthetic yarn with relatively straight yarns in the cross direction and relatively tortuous yarns in the machine direction. In such a case, the stretching of the fabric in the machine direction straightens the yarns in the machine direction and forces the cross yarns to take a more tortuous path. The cross yarns then do not extend so far in the cross direction and the fabric necks down or contracts in the cross direction. A certain amount of necking down has been found in previously known fabrics; see, for example, Oy Kaukas Finds Plastic Wires Are Fine, by Olli Saarnio, Paper Trade Journal, September 12, 1960, page 49. However, the prior art has sought to avoid or compensate for this condition which is used and taken advantage of in the present invention. The drag of the suction boxes and the drive of the couch roll thus stretches the fabric in the machine direction and contracts it in the cross direction. Since this happens while the fiber mat forming the web 16 is in intimate contact with the fabric weave, the dimensional change in the width of the fabric 12 produces a similar dimensional change in the liber mat o-n the fabric carrier. This results in a compacting of the web 16 in the cross direction which results in a higher stretch in this direction. In order to improve the stretch of the formed sheet in the cross machine direction significantly, the reduction in width of the web 16 should be at least one percent and should occur while the mosture content of the web is more than 65 percent of its weight and preferably between about 75 and about 85 percent of its weight.

Although it is known in the prior art to utilize forming fabrics made of synthetic bers on conventional Fourdrinier paperrnaking machines and although such fabrics have a certain amount of stretch, this stretch has been unintentional and incidental and the fabrics were finished in such a manner as to limit their stretch, for this stretching makes the fabrics difficult to handle and could result in their wrinkling and in spoiling of the paper. The pres-A ent invention does not relate to the use of these known synthetic fabrics on conventional Fourdrinier papermaking machines, but rather contemplates the use of more stretchable fabric arranged on a conventional Fourdrinier machine in such manner as to provide compaction of the web at a critical point in its travel. There is no great advantage in compacting the Web while it is in a substantially fluid state, as when the solids content is less than about l0 percent. In this highly fluid state, the web does not stay compacted, if indeed it follows the contraction of the forming fabric at all; rather the iibers are relatively free to flow back into their uncompacted state. It is important, therefore, that at least a substantial amount of contraction of the fabric occur after a substantial amount of water has been removed from the web. At the same time, it is important that there be no substantial contraction after the web has achieved any substantial amount of chemical bonding. As the paper is dried, the fibers become chemically joined together by the setting of the mucilage-like materials between the fibers. If the compaction occurs after this chemical bonding has been achieved, the bonds are often ruptured, thus materially reducing the tensile strength of the paper.

In the present invention the compaction is achieved while the fibers are water lubricated and before appreciable chemical bonding has been achieved so that there is no substantial breaking of bonds. At the same time, there is some bonding through surface tension of the water; yet the amount of water is not so great that the fibers are merely floating around. The compaction in the critical region repositions and bends the fibers. It compacts the fibers so that they are mechanically bound together better, at the same time placing them closer together so that the later chemical bonding is more effective. Still further, the individual fibers are bent and otherwise deformed to provide a pre-stressing of the fibers in the finished paper. This improved bonding and prestressing results in a paper in which there is an added amount of stretch in the paper as the pre-stressing is relieved, thus permitting appreciable stretching of the paper before the fibers ever reach the relaxed condition of the fibers in conventionally made paper. At the same time, the improved bonding permits this stretching of the paper without appreciable rupturing of the bonds.

In methods of the prior art, stretchable paper has been made by a shrinking operation carried on in the drier section of the machine. Such methods have the disadvantage that they are carried out after there has been chemical bonding of the fibers, therefore resulting in rupturing of these bonds and weakening of the tensile strength of the paper. By use of the present invention, stretchable paper is made without substantial reduction in the tensile strength of the paper, thus permitting the use of thinner paper, at a saving of material. The particular region on the machine where the compaction of the web can be most effectively achieved depends upon the particular paper being made as well as upon the manner of operation of the machine. Ordinarily, however, the compaction should not be made until after at least one suction box 20A. The drag of the first suction box 20A, however, tends to contact the fabric laterally as it passes over the suction box 26A. Such contraction is premature, and it is preferable to maintain the fabric at full width until after this first suction box 20A.

As shown in the drawings, Wheels 30 and 32 may be provided to stretch the fabric laterally to keep it at its full dimension until the point where it is desired to compact the web. The wheels 3ft and 32 may be covered with pneumatic tires, and in fact these may be ordinary airplane tires and wheels. By pressure exerted on razor/,657

mounting brackets 31, wheels 30 are pressed against wheels 32 with the fabric therebetween. The wheels 30 and 32 are located on the edge of the fabric outside the part on which the web is laid. The wheels are canted outwardly so as to drive the fabric outwardly and thus keep it at its full dimension. Inasmuch as the fabric is in tension even before it reaches the rst suction box A, the fabric is not at its full lateral dimension in this region unless it is stretched laterally in this region as well. A series of rolls 34 and 36 are provided to operate in the same manner as rolls 3) and 32 to stretch the fabric in the region where the web is still in a substantially fluid state. This stretching may be sufficient to stretch the fabric even beyond its normal relaxed width. This adds to the amount the fabric, and hence the web, is contracted when the critical region has been reached. By such means, it is possible to provide a contraction of as much as 5 percent. Because of certain diiculties in handling the fabric when it isV very stretchable, it is preferable that the compaction be no more than necessary to achieve the desired results. Hence, it has been found satisfactory to provide a compaction of the order of 3 percent in many mstances.

As shown in FIGURES 1 and 2, the web is taken from the couch roll while the fabric is laterally contracted and before it is again permitted to expand. Were the tension on the fabric to be relieved while the web was on the fabric the web would be stretched back to its original uncompacted condition.

The apparatus of FIGURES l and 2 can be used to develop stretch in the cross direction. In FIGURE 3, there is illustrated apparatus which may be used to provide stretch in the machine direction. The apparatus of FIGURE 3 may be located between the forming section shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 and the press section of the papermaking machine, or it may constitute the press section itself. Depending upon the particular machine and the particular paper being made, it may on occasion be located between the press section and drier section. The important condition is that the apparatus be located to compact the web in the machine direction before there has been any substantial chemical bonding of the bers.

The apparatus shown in FIGURE 3 includes a pair of fabrics 38 and 46. Fabric 38 is supported and driven by press rolls 42 and 44, and fabric 4t) is supported and driven by press rolls 46 and 48. Fabric 38 is additionally supported by rolls 50 and 52. Fabric 46 is similarly supported by rolls 54 and 56. Stretch rolls 58 and 6I) are provided to take up the stretch in the fabrics 38 and 46, respectively, and to provide appropriate tension in the fabrics.

Fabrics 38 and 46 are preferably made of synthetic bers as in the case of the forming fabric 12; however, they are preferably made so as to contract very little in the cross direction when placed in tension in the machine direction. These fabrics will then not expand laterally when the tension is relieved in the machine direction. These fabrics 38 and 4@ may be made in the manner disclosed in the copending application of Joseph Robert Wagner, Serial No. 253,099, led Ianuary 22, 1963, for Papermaking Fabric. As there disclosed, the fabric is made with relatively straight yarns in the machine direction and relatively tortuous yarns in the cross direction. In such a case, the placing of the fabric in tension in the machine direction does not cause the cross yarns to take a more tortuous path and the fabric does not neck down or contract in the cross direction. At the same time, it is desirable that the fabrics 33 and 46 be stretchable in the machine direction. This may be achieved by utilizing yarns that themselves will stretch. Nylon is particularly suitable for this purpose. Also suitable are elastic or spandex yarns7 such as Lycra, or stretch yarns such as Helanca. High twist yarns exhibit substantial stretch properties.

As shown in FIGURE 3, the fabrics 3S and 4) are placed against opposite sides of the web 16 between press rolls 42 and 46 as the web is received from couch roll 22. Unless the apparatus is used in the press section itself, the pressure exerted by the press rolls need not be sucient to remove any substantial amount of water but merely sucient to bind the web between the two fabrics 38 and 4t) so that any contraction of the fabrics provides similar contraction of the web. The pressure may be exerted through mounting brackets 43. Similarly, press rolls 44 and 4S are pressed together so that the web 16 is held relatively rmly between the two fabrics 38 and 40; additional `rolls or press shoes, such as shoes 49 and 51, may be pressed together with the fabrics therebetween, as by brackets 53, to hold the web 16 relatively firmly between the fabrics 38 and 40 as they travel from press rolls 42 and 46 to press rolls 44 and 48. In this form of the invention, the stretch rolls 58 and 60 are adjusted to provide sucient tension in the fabrics 38 and 40, that the fabrics are stretched several percent, preferably at least 5 percent, in the region other than where the two fabrics 38 and 40 are pressed together with the web therebetween.

Rolls 42 and 46 are driven, as by gears 45, at circumferential speed equal to that of couch roll 22, and rolls 44 and 48 are driven, as by gears 47, at a slightly less circumferential speed thereby relieving part of the tension on the fabrics 38 and 40 in the region between the rolls. This results in contraction (shrinking) of the fabrics in the machine direction in this region and hence compaction of the web in the machine direction. The tension should not be completely relieved, or the fabrics will go slack and not be pulled properly through the shoes, and the web may pull away from one or both of the fabrics Without being compacted. The web 16 is removed from between the fabrics 38 and 46 before they are again stretched. The web thus compacted in the machine direction is then passed on to the next section of the papermaking machine, as to rolls 62 and 64 of a succeeding press section.

If the compacting action in the web 16 described above is accomplished before the fibers in the web are substantially bonded together and the formation set, the characteristic of stretch is imparted to the web without any material reduction in tensile strength of the web.

Although only certain embodiments of papermaking machines capable of performing the method of the present invention have been disclosed, it is to be understood that these are merely by way of example and are not to be considered in any manner as limitations. For example, the methods of the present invention may be applied to Yankee papermaking machines of the Fourdrinier type which are commonly used to provide light basis Weight papers. It is contemplated that various modifications may be made within the scope of the Claims without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.

For example, it is not always necessary or desirable to provide stretch in both the machine and cross directions. Further, means other than wheels 30, 32, 34 and 36 can be used such as spreader or expander rolls, particularly those known as Mt. Hope rolls. It is also within the scope of this invention to compact the web in the cross direction after it has left the couch roll. This may be done in much the same fashion as described in connection with FIGURES 1 and 2, or it may be achieved with the apparatus shown in FIGURE 3. In the latter case, the fabrics 33 and 40 should be as described for fabric 12, and rolls 42 and 46 should be driven at a slightly slower circumferential rate than rolls 44 and 48 so that the fabrics neck down as they leave rolls 42 and 46. Still further, drag on the fabric may be supplied by means other than the suction boxes 20 and 20A; for example, a retarded roll may be used. Also, the stretching of the fabric 12 in the machine direction is not always necessary; the release of the tension applied by the wheels 3i), 32, 34 and 36 often provide Suficient compaction of the web in the cross direction. This is particularly true when the cross yarns themselves are stretchable. In this case, or in the case where stretch in the cross direction is not desired, the apparatus shown in FIGURE 3 may be used in the forming section shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 and the fabric 12 may be run on through the appaartus of FIGURE 3 in lieu of fabric 38.

In FIGURE 4 there is illustrated such an arrangement where the fabric 12 is passed through the apparatus of FIGURE 3. In the form of the invention shown in FIG- URE 4, the apparatus of FIGURE 3 is used as part of the press section and two-way stretch is imparted to the paper. As noted above, any stretch of the fabric inthe cross direction after the web is compacted reduces the effect of compaction. To the extent that there remains a net contraction of the fabric and therefore a net compaction of the web, the apparatus may be effectively used to produce cross direction stretch. The relieving of tension in the machine direction, necesssary to produce machine direction stretch in the paper, tends to stretch the fabric in the cross direction. To reduce this stretch, the fabric l2 may be of the type described in connection with the apparatus of FIGURE 3 for producing machine direction stretch in the paper. Cross direction stretch is then achieved by first stretching the fabric in the cross direction, using means such as wheels 30, 32, 34 and 36. This stretches the fabric beyond its normal width. After the fabric passes the last of these wheels, it returns to substantially its normal width, at the same time compacting the web in the cross direction. Additionally or alternatively, the differentially driven press rolls are placed close together so as to minimize any lateral stretching of the fabric as it is contracted in the machine direction. That is, with the successive rolls spaced but a short distance apart, there is insuflicient space or time for the fabric to stretch fully in the cross direction when tension is relieved in the machine direction.

In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGURE 4, the apparatus of FIGURE 3 is disposed at the end of the Fourdrinier section shown in FIGURES 1 and 2. As shown, this apparatus forms part of the press section of the machine. The forming fabric 12 is used in lieu of separate fabric 38 and a roll 22/44 serves as press roll 44 to press against press roll 48 and as couch roll 22 at which the web is taken from the fabric, in this case directly to drier 66. Roll 2.2/44 and 48 are driven at a slightly lower circumferential speed than rolls 42 and 46 so as to relieve machine direction tension in the fabrics 12 and 40 and to contract these fabrics in the machine direction, thus compacting the web in the machine direction. When necessary or desirable, additional press rolls 6&5 may be used to remove additional water.

In many operations, the web I6 sufficiently adheres to the forming fabric 12 that the second fabric 4@ is not necessary. In this case, it is possible to eliminate not only rolls 54, 56 and 60 but also press roll 4S, for the web 16 may then be pressed between roll 2.2/44 and the drier 66 in the process of transferring the web I6 from the fabric 12 to the drier 66, as shown in FIGURE 5. The press rolls 42 and 46 are then placed near the nip between roll 22/44 and drier 66, the latter being driven at a slightly slower circumferential speed than press rolls 42 and 46, relieving machine direction tension in the fabric I2 and thus compacting the web 12 in the machine direction. As shown, the fabric 12 and web I6 are wrapped part way around rolls 46 and 22/44 so that the fabric and web are off rolls and free to stretch in the cross direction in but a very short distance and time.

In some instances differentially driven press rolls are not necessary. Where there is no need to remove additional water, the driving rolls may frictionally engage the fabric l2 without opposing press rolls. In this case, it is preferable that the fabric wrap a substantial distance around the roll and that the roll have a relatively large diameter, as is the case with the driving couch roll 2.2.

Still other modifications are within this invention. The

invention is, therefore, limited only as set forth in the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A method of making paper which comprises the steps of continuously flowing an aqueous suspension of fibers onto a continuously moving forarninous carrier to form a web of fibers thereon, continuously removing sufficient water from said web to reduce successive portions of the web to a non-fiuid state in which the web sticks to said carrier, and at the same time stretching successive portions of said carrier transversely as the web sticks thereto; continuously substantially relieving the transverse stretching with the web sticking thereto, thereby continuously substantially contracting said portions transversely and continuously substantially compacting successive portions of the web transversely in said state in the plane of the web; continuously removing the web from said carrier while the transverse stretch is relieved; and continuously drying successive portions of the removed compacted web into paper.

2. A method of making paper which comprises the steps of continuously owing an aqueous suspension of fibers onto a continuously moving foraminous carrier to form a web of fibers thereon, said carrier being formed of fabric that contracts in the cross direction upon stretching in the machine direction, said fabric having machine direction yarns crimped around the cross direction yarns, said cross direction yarns being relatively straight, continuously removing suiiicient water from said web to reduce successive portions of the web to a non-duid state in which the web sticks to said carrier, continuously substantially stretching successive portions of said carrier in the machine direction with the web sticking thereto, thereby continuously substantially contracting said portions in the cross direction and continuously substantially compacting successive portions of the web in said state in the plane of the web, Continuously removing the web from said carrier while said carrier is stretched in the machine direction, and continuously drying successive portions of the removed compacted web into paper.

3. A method of making paper which comprises the steps of continuously flowing an aqueous suspension of fibers onto a continuously moving foraminous carrier to form a web of fibers thereon, said carrier being formed of fabric that contracts in the cross direction upon stretching in the machine direction; continuously removing sufficient water from said web to reduce successive portions of the web to a non-fluid state in which the web sticks to said carrier, and at the same time stretching said carrier in the cross direction as the web sticks thereto; continuously stretching successive portions of said carrier in the machine direction with the web sticking thereto, and at the same time relieving the stretching in the cross direction with the web sticking thereto, thereby continuously contracting said portions in the cross direction and continuously compacting successive portions of the web in said state in the plane of the web; continuously removing the web from said carrier while said carrier is stretched in the machine direction; and continuously drying successive portions of the removed compacted web into paper.

4. In a papermaking machine, apparatus for compacting a paper web in the cross direction comprising an endless fabric, said fabric having machine direction yarns crimped around the cross direction yarns, said cross direction yarns being relatively straight, said fabric being substantially stretchable in the machine direction and contracting substantially in the cross direction upon being placed in tension in the machine direction, means for supporting said fabric in tension in the machine direction and driving it continuously in the machine direction, means for firmly engaging a paper web continuously with said fabric in a first region, means for continuously placing successive portions of said fabric in substantial additional tension in the machine direction in a second region downstream from said first region, and means for continuously removing said web from said fabric in said second region where said fabric is under such additional tension.

5. In a papermaking machine, apparatus for compacting a paper web in the cross direction comprising an endless fabric, said fabric being substantially stretchable in the machine direction and contracting substantially in the cross direction upon the application of tension thereto in the machine direction, means for supporting said fabric in tension in the machine direction and driving it continuously in the machine direction, means for firmly engaging a paper web continuously with said fabric in a first region, means for continuously applying substantial tension in the cross direction to successive portions of said fabric in said first region, means for continuously applying substantial additional tension in the machine direction to successive portions of said fabric in a second region downstream from said first region, and means for continuously removing said web from said fabric in said second region.

6. In a papermaking machine, apparatus for compacting a paper web in the cross direction comprising an endless fabric, means for supporting said fabric and driving it continuously in the machine direction, means for firmly engaging a paper web continuously with said fabric in a first region, tensioning means for continuously placing successive portions of said fabric in substantial tension in the cross direction in said first region, and means for continuously removing said web from said fabric in a second region downstream from said first region.

7. In a papermaking machine, apparatus for compacting a paper web in the cross direction comprising an endless fabric, means for supporting said fabric and driving it continuously in the machine direction, means for firmly engaging a paper web continuously with said References Cited bythe Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,582,970 5/26 Christman 162-280 1,643,147 9/27 Augier 162-205 2,535,734 12/50 Grettve 162-280 2,622,492 12/52 Goodwillie 162-306 2,624,245 1/53 Cluett 162-206 2,903,021 9/59 Holden et al 162-348 2,979,131 4/61 Bentov 162-206 2,992,965 7/ 61 Hornbostel et al. 162-273 2,995,485 8/61 Lee 162-348 3,140,224 7/64 Hornbostel 162-348 OTHER REFERENCES Collins: Shafting Pulleys and Belting, Hill Pub. Co., New York 1908, pp. 106-107.

Flather: Transmission of Power, The University Press, Minneapolis 1908, pp. 5-7.

MacPherson: Interim Report of Formex Fabbrics Pulp and Pap. Mag. of Canada, July 1961, PPT-351-T-356.

Saarnio: Plastic Wires Are Fine, Paper Trade Journal, Sept. 12, 1960, Page 49.

DONALL H. SYLVESTER, Primary Examiner.

MORRIS O. WOLK, Examiner,

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3861996 *Mar 16, 1971Jan 21, 1975Ahlstroem OyPaper web transfer system carrying the web from forming wire to press section
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Classifications
U.S. Classification162/208, 162/313, 162/308, 162/206, 162/361
International ClassificationD21F1/00, B65G47/26, B65G47/28
Cooperative ClassificationD21H5/245, D21F1/00, B65G47/28, B65G47/26, D21H25/005
European ClassificationD21F1/00, D21H25/00B, B65G47/28, D21H5/24B, B65G47/26
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Nov 5, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: HUYCK CORPORATION A CORP. OF NY.
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:HUYCK CORPORATION (MERGED INTO) BTR FABRICS (USA) AND CHANGED INTO;REEL/FRAME:003927/0115
Effective date: 19810630