US 3209097 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept 28, 1965 B. E. sHLEsINGER, JR 3,209,097
MAGNETIC SNAP ACTION SWITCH 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 20, 1963 INVENTOR BernardEdwardSh/esinger, Jr:
ATTORNEYS Sept 28, 1965 B. E. s|-|| Es|NGER, JR 3,209,097
MAGNETIC SNAP ACTION SWITCH Filed Aug. 20, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Bernard Edward SI1/asin ger, Jr.
United States Patent O 3,209,097 MAGNETIC SNAP ACTIGN SWITCH Bernard Edward Shlesiuger, Jr., 906 Bruce Lane, Annandale, Va. Filed Aug. 20, 1963, Ser. No. 303,315 12 Claims. (Cl. 200-87) This invention relates to electrical switches, and more particularly to those of the snap action type utilizing magnetic forces.
In the past, snap action switches have utilized mechanical linkages and toggle arrangement in combination with spring means to provide for a quick make-break of a circuit dependent upon the operation of the switch handle. However, the mechanical arrangements were not durable nor rugged in their construction as the spring means and various other parts soon failed to perform a function as desired.
In order to improve upon this system, there have been developed a number of snap action type switches which utilize magnetic means to cause the opening and closing of the circuit through the use -of the magnetic forces of attraction and repulsion. Although this type of switch would seem to have solved the problems of the industry, the use of this type of switch has not been widely accepted. Various drawbacks include the combination of the complicated mechanical linkage arrangement which can use breakdown of the functioning of the switch sooner than necessary; unsure making and breaking of the contact as the magnetic force does not function as necessary; misalignment of the magnets which retard the ful utilization of the forces of attraction and repulsion as desired.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide for a simple snap action type switch which is rugged in construction and which does not utilize a complicated mechanical linkage arrangement no1- a spring means to assist in the making and breaking of the circuit.
It is a further object of this invention to provide for a snap action type switch which utilizes the magnetic forces of attraction and repulsion to expeditiously and surely make and break the contact.
It is a further object of this invention to utilize a magnetic snap action type switch in which the circuit contact means is guided and quickly makes and breaks the contact as desired.
It is another object of this invention to utilize a freeoating magnet in combination with a permanently set magnet to cause a quick and sure operation of the circuit opening and closing means.
It is another object of this invention to provide for a combination of the movable magnet and permanent magnet such that the attraction and repulsion of the magnetic poles will cause the one to move quickly when past dead center of the other.
It is another object of this invention to provide for a snap action switch which operates in a reciprocating manner.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide a switch having a free-floating magnet and an operator for initially shifting the magnet, the operator being disconnected at all times from the circuit components thereby providing a safety factor and meeting -Underwriters Laboratories specications.
It is another object of this invention to provide for a snap action switch which operates in a pivotal manner.
Patented Sept. 28, 1965 ICC It is a further object of this invention to provide for a magnetic snap action switch which operates in a rotary manner.
It is a further object of this invention to provide for an improved switch structure of the snap action type wherein magnets are employed to provide a positive and clean break-away from one position of the switch arm and a quick closure of the switch contacts for the other position of said switch arm.
Further objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description and claims and from the following drawings wherein: Y
FIGURE 1 shows a perspective illustrating one form of housing for the magnetic switch;
FIGURE 2 is a side elevation view in section of the switch mechanism taken on line 2-2 of FIGURE 1 viewed in the direction of the arrows;
FIGURE 3 is a sectional view of the switch operating mechanism taken on line 3-3 of FIGURE 2 viewed in the direction ofthe arrows;
FIGURE 4 is an end view, a portion being broken away of the switch structure taken on line 4-4 of FIG- URE 2 viewed in the direction of the arr-ows;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view of the switch structure taken on line 5 5 of FIGURE 2 viewed in the direction of the arrows;
FIGURE 6 is a bottom plane view of the cover plate of the housing;
FIGURE 7 shows a switch housing for a snap action switch of a pivotal type modification;
FIGURE 8 is a sectional view ofthe FIGURE 7 switch modication;
FIGURE 9 is a sectional View taken on the line 9 9 of FIGURE 8 and viewed in the direction of the arrows;
FIGURE 10 is a plan view taken on the line 10--10 of FIGURE 8 and viewed in the direction of the arrows;
FIGURE 11 is a sectional view of a further modified form of this invention;
FIGURE l2 is a plan View taken on the line 12-12 of FIGURE 11 and looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIGURE 13 is a fragmentary view of another modification of this invention showing a pivoting type of magnetic snap action switch;
FIGURE 14 is a further modification of this invention showing a pivotal snap acting magnetic type switch. l
As shown in FIGURE 1, the housing 10 for the reciprocating snap acting magnetic switch is made up of the end portions 12 and side areas 14 as well as a cover member 16. This housing may be made of metal, plastic, or any suitable material depending upon the use to which this switch is to be made. For example, should the environment in which the switch is to be placed is one of an explosive type nature, it may be desired to utilize a plastic material. The cover member 16 is afxed to the body portion of the housing by means of the screws 18 or any suitable like securing means. The cover member 16 also has provided in its face a slot 20 through whi-ch the insulated switch button 22 is moved. It is to be noted that switch button 22 is totally removed and insulated from the circuit to avoid accidental shorting or tampering. If metal is used insulation will be provided to prevent shorting of the contacts.
As shown in FIGURE 2, the switch button 22 is secured to an inverted F-shaped reciprocating member 24 by means of a screw 26 or similar connecting member. The F-shaped member 24 serves as a guard for the slot 20 to prevent accidental shorting of the contacts and tampering by inserting something into the slot. The member 24 is further provided at either end thereof with depending portions 28 and 30 and extending portion 31. The purpose of the depending portions 28 and 30 is to initially move a free-floating magnet 40 having the usual magnetic poles north and south, such that the magnet will be shifted to a position where the forces of attraction and repulsion will cooperate with a permanent magnet 42 led within the housing 44. The permanently atxed magnet 42 also has the usual poles north and south. The poles of the free-oating magnet 4t) and permanent magnet 42 are positioned relative to each other such that when the free-floating magnet 40 is initially moved by button 22 and the member 24 to a position past the dead center of thel combined force elds of the two opposed magnets, the force of repulsion wherein like poles repel each other causes rapid movement of the free-floating magnet 40 to open or close a circuit as hereinafter described.
Also aixed to the housing 44 are two contact arms 50. These arms are similar in structure and complementary and a description of one will suiice for the construction of the other. It is also within the scope of the invention to provide for more than two contact arms.
As shown, leads 52 are secured to base portions 54 of the contact arms by means of screws or like securing means 56. The contact arms 50 have upstanding leg portions 60 from the base area 54 and horizontally extending portions 62 from the leg portion 60. Extending transversely in the horizontal plane from the portion 62 is the portion 64 having rearwardly extending horizontal portions 66 and a transverse horizontally extending portion 68. Provided on the portion 66 is a protrusion or nib 70. These protrusions are designed to cooperate with depressions 72 formed within the circuit closing or opening conductive member 74.
The circuit opening and closing member 74 is O shaped and has a head portion 76 in which the depressions 72 are formed. The circuit closing and opening member is further provided with the end portions 78 and 79 and side portions 80. The circuit closing and opening member is positioned around the free-floating magnet 40 so that operation of the button 22 and the magnet reciprocating member 24 causes the free-floating magnet 40 to move past dead center of the permanent magnet 42 to cause the like poles to repel each other and to cause the circuit Iconductive member 74 to be shifted when the free-floating magnet engages one of the end portions 78 and 79. The force 4of the free-floating magnet engaging in the end portions causes the circuit closing and opening member 74 to be shifted either into a position where the circuit is closed when the depressions 72 engage the protrusions 70 or the circuit is open when the vdepressions and protrusions are disengaged.
The circuit closing and openingy member is further guided in its movement by means ofthe ways 82 upon which the side portions 80 are guided. The cover member 16 is provided on its underside with guides 84 and 86 which project down from the surface of the cover and serve as bearings for the sides 80 of the member 74. Ways 82 and guides 84 and 86 may be nylon or a like bearing substance to provide long wear and ease of travel to the member 74.
Uperation It will be apparent from the above description that with the switch parts positioned as shown in FIGURE 2, the application of a force F on button 22 in the direction of the arrow as shown will cause the depending portion 30 to engage the free-floating magnet 40 to initially displace it from its position where the unlike poles of the free-floating magnet 40 and permanent magnet 42 retain the magnet in a position of rest. A shift of the freeoating magnet 40 will cause it to move past a dead center position where the like poles of the two magnets will cause the free-floating magnet 40 to be repelled quickly from the stationary magnet 42. The magnet will then hit against the end 78 of the circuit closing and opening member '74 to cause its head portion 76 having the depressions 72 to engage the protrusions 70 provided `on the spring-like contact arms 50. This engagement will then close the circuit. To open the circuit it is necessary to only shift the 'button 22 in the opposite direction such that the foot portion 28 of the member 24 will engage the magnet 40 displacing it from its place of rest where the opposite poles have attracted each other, to a position past dead center where the like poles of the magnets will cause the free-floating magnet 40 to be .propelled quickly against the opposite end 79 of the circuit closing and opening member 74 to thereby cause disengagement of the head portion 76 and its depressions 72 from the protrusions 70 provided on the springlike arms of the contacts 50.
Modification, FIGURES 7-10 As shown in FIGURE 7 there is illustrated ya modified form of switch housing having end and side portions 102 and 104 respectively and cover plate 116 secured by screws or like members 106 and 108. Positioned within lthe ycover plate 116 is the operating button 122.
FIGURE 7 shows a pivotal type of magnet-ic type snap acting switch wherein the pendulum but-ton 122 pivots about the pin 124 on a projecting boss 125 of cover 116 and has incorporated therewith a magnetic shifting member 126 having the depending foot portions 128 and 130. The housing 144 has permanently affixed therein ya magnet 146 having the usual north and `south poles. The free-floating magnet 148 has atiixed by weld or mechanical means a circuit closing and opening member 150. Magnet 148 operates within the segment of a ycircle having guide channels 152. Contact arms 154 are positioned at one end of the housing with the suitable leads connected thereto. These arms 154 have protrusions or spring lingers 166 provided on a portion thereof, with cooperating depressions 158 provided in the circuit closing and opening member 150.
The cont-act arms 154 are provided with a base portion 160 having upstanding leg portions 162 and angularly extending arm portions 164 with springlike finger means 166. It is 4also w-ithin the scope of this invention to construct the springlike linger means in such a manner that the lingers 166 have protrusions which engage within the depressions 158, a-s in the modification shown in FIGURES 1-6.
Operation, FIGURES 7-10 The operation of the modification is is similar to that as disclosed in FIGURES 1 through 6 but the switch button 122 pivots rather than reciprocates.
With the switch parts in a position as shown in FIG.- URE 8, the application of a force F in the direction of the arrow will cause the button 122 to pivot about the pin 124 so that the depending foot portion 128 of the magnetic actuating member 126 will abut against the free-floating magnet 148 to displace this magnet from its position of rest (where the unlike poles of the freeoating magnet 148 and permanently aiixed magnet 142 attract each other with the greatest force) and will cause the free-floating magnet to move to `a position past dead center where the like poles of the two magnets will cause repulsion of each other such that a snap action is obtained similar to that in mechanical spring switches, causing the circuit to close or open as desired. The button when the circuit is closed is in the position as shown by the dotted lines. To open the circuit it is only necessary to swing the button 122 in the opposite direction such that the yfoot portion engages the free-floating magnet 148 to move the magnet past dead center position thereby opening the circuit when the circuit closing and opening member disengages the finger portions 166 or protrusions provided thereon.
Modification of FIGURES' 11i, 1.2
As shown in FIGURES 11 and lf2 there is disclosed a reciprocating magnetic snap action type switch 200 wherein the circuit closing and opening member 202 is affixed to the shifting magnet 204. In this modification, the magnet 204 is also permanently aiiixed to the reciprocating button 206 by means of the connecting member 208. A permanently laixed magnet 210 is positioned within the switch as shown. Contact arms 212 are provided with protrusions 214 upon their lingerlike portions. It will be obvious that the protrusions 214 may be recesses or strike-outs on the larms 212. Any type of spring contact may be used along the types generally set out as will be obvious to one skilled -in the art. A contact closing and opening member 216 which is aliixed to the moving magnet 204 is provided with contact depressions 218 which are adapted to engage the contact protrusions 214.
Operation, FIGURES 11, 12
With the parts as shown in FIGURE 11, application of a Force F" upon the button 206 in the direction as shown, will cause the magnet 204 to be moved from the position of rest where the like poles of the two magnets repel each other, to a posi-tion where the unlike poles of the two magnets will attract each other thereby causing the circuit closing and opening member 216 to engage the contacts 212 withtthe protrusions 214. The parts are then as shown in dotted lines -in FIGURE 11 where the circuit is closed. To open the circuit it is necessary only to apply opposite pressure to the but-ton 206 to shift the magnet 204 and disengage the contact 214 from the depression 218.
The switch in this modication acts directly not -indirectly on the magnet 204 as do the other modifications previously described.
Modification, FIGURE 13 A modification as disclosed in FIGURE 13 also employs the cooperation of two magnets to cause the snap action of a closing and opening of a circuit as desired. As disclosed therein, .a magnet 300 is pivoted :about the point 302 in a ,continuous manner such that a second magnet 310 will be moved within a slot 312 and guided therein by a pin 314 to engage the contacts 320 and 322 thereby opening and closing the circuit. The poles of the two magnets will alternately repel and :attract each other with each notation through an arc of 180 of the magnet 300.
Modification, F1GURE14 The modification illustrated in FIGURE 14, discloses a pivoting snap acting type magnet wherein a magnet 400 pivots about the point 402 on an arm 404 to engage the contacts 406. Cooperating with the magnet 400 is a permanently Iaffixed magnet 410.
An opera-tor for the arm 404 (not shown) could be a solenoid type or .a simple mechanical device. The unlt could be installed in any area where a snap action would be used.
While the invention has been described, it will be under- V stood that it is capable of further modilications and this application is intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations Iof the invention following in general, the principles of the invention and including such departures from the present disclosure as com-e within known or customary practice in the art to which the invention pertains, and as may be applied to the essential features hereinbefore set forth and as fall within the scope of the invention or the limits of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention what I claim is:
1. A snap acting switch comprising a permanent stationary and a free-floating, movable magnet, a switch operator for said movable magnet having a pair of spaced magnet engaging members, one of said pair being positioned in front of said movable magnet and the other lmovable within the force eld of said stationary magnet from a position of attraction to a position of repulsion, whereby when said switch operator initially moves said movable magnet to a slightly past dead center position with respect to the opposing magnetic ields of force of said magnets, the combined magnetic force ields thereupon act on said movable magnet causing it to be Self propelled by said force fields, so as to move said connector means with respect to said stationary contacts to open or close said switch.
2. A snap acting switch as in cla-im 1 and wherein said movable magnet is slidable in an arcuate guide channel.
3. A snap acting switch as in claim 1 and wherein said movable magnet is slidable and said movable contact connector means is conn-ected to said movable magnet.
4. A snap acting switch as in claim 1 and wherein said movable magnet is reciprocably slidable and wherein said switch operator comprises an F-shaped member and said pair of engaging members are the projecting arms of said F.
5. A snap acting switch as in claim 1 and wherein said movable magnet is reciprocably slidable and wherein said switch operator comprises an F-shaped member and said pair of engaging members are the projecting arms of said F, and wherein said movable contact connector encompasses said movable magnet at least on three sides.
6. A snap acting switch as in claim 1 and wherein said movable magnet is reciprocably slidable and wherein said switch operator comprises an F-shaped member and said pair of engaging members are the projecting arms of said F, and wherein said movable contact connector is ringlike and slidable, and engages with only one side of said magnet at anytime.
7. A snap acting switch as in -claim 1 and wherein said movable magnet is slidable in an arcuate guide channel and said switch operator is the base of a pivotally mounted pendulum.
8. A snap acting switch as in claim 1 and wherein said switch operator is provided with shielding means.
9. A snap acting switch as in claim 1 and having a switch housing and a housing cover and wherein said housing cover has depending guide portions for said movable contact connector means.
10. A snap acting switch as in claim 1 and wherein said switch operator comprises a U-shaped member and said pair of engaging members are the projecting arms of said U.
11. A snap acting switch as in claim 1 and wherein said connector means is generally O shaped.
12. A snap acting switch comprising a housing, a cover for said housing, said housing having depending guide portions, an opening in said cover, a reciprocating switch button with said opening, said button including a switch operator, said switch operator including an F-shaped member having a shielding means, a permanent stationary and a permanent movable magnet within said housing, said movable magnet being free floating, said movable magnet movable within the force lield of said stationary magnet from a position of attraction to a position of repulsion when moved to a slightly past-dead-center position with respect to the opposing magnetic fields of force causing said movable magnet to be self propelled 'by said force fields, said switch operator engaging said movable magnet between the projecting arms of said F to initially move said movable magnet, a movable contact connector for said movable magnet, said contact connector surrounding said movable magnet, said movable magnet and said con-tact connector slidable in a guide channel, said movable contact connector movable by said movable magnet, stationary contacts xed lin said housing, and said stationarycontacts having springlike projections adapted to cooperate with said movable contact con- ,nector to open or close said switch; whereby when said switch button is moved, said switch operator shifts said movable magnet to cause it to engage said Contact connector to force said connector into and out of engagement with said stationary contacts to close and open an electrical circuit.
References Cited bythe Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS l2,853,576 9/58 Tigerschiold 2008 7 2,896,043 6/59 Andrews ZOO-87 3,025,372 3/62 Benson 200-87 3,055,999 9/62 Lucas 200--87 3,114,809 12/63 Benson 200-87 BERNARD A. GILHEANY, Primary Examiner.