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Publication numberUS3210960 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 12, 1965
Filing dateMay 5, 1964
Priority dateDec 12, 1962
Publication numberUS 3210960 A, US 3210960A, US-A-3210960, US3210960 A, US3210960A
InventorsVaughn Jack S
Original AssigneeIngersoll Rand Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Centrifugal type impulse tool
US 3210960 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

O 12, 1 6 J. VAUGHN 3,210,960

CENTRIFUGAL TYPE IMPULSE TOOL Original Filed Dec. 12, 1962 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 x I M 1 II /T l k a, 4 E1. Iii! P L." U l u FIG.

INVENTOR JACK .9 MUG/7W Oct. 12, 1965 J. s. VAUGHN CENTRIFUGAL TYPE IMPULSE TOOL Original Filed Dec. 12. 1962 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 3

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cmzwamuean TYPE IMPULSE TOOL Original Filed Dec. 12. 1962 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR JACK 5. M H/GHA/ BY 6W ATTORNEY Oct. 12, 1965 J. 5. VAUGHN 3,210,960

' v CENTRIFUGAL TYPE IMPULSE r001.

Original Filed Dec. 12, 1962 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR JACK 5. M4U6H/V BY age 9.9

QRNEY Oct. 12, 1965 h J. 5. VAUGHN 3,2 0, 60

CENTRIFUGAL TYPE IMPULSE TOOL Original Filed Dec. 12, 1962 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 (E 33m 1' I B l I6n 151' 5b *1 208 5b T i3 T P 2n I zl Q 202 INVENTOR JACK 5. VAUGHN BY Q Q I ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,210,960 CENTRIFUGAL TYPE IMPULSE TOOL Jack S. Vaughn, Sayre, Pa.,, assignor to Ingersoll-Rand Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey Original application Dec. 12, 1962, Ser. No. 244,151. Divided and this application May 5, 1964, Ser. No.

19 Claims. CI. 6426) This application is a divisional application of US. patent application Serial #244,151 filed December 12, 1962 by Donald K. Skoog', et al. and entitled Impulse Tool. The present invention relates to impulse tools of the type disclosed in US. Patent No. 3,116,617, issued January 7, 1964 to D. K. Skoog and in US. patent application Serial No. 285,160, filed March 18, 1963 by D. K. Skoog and more particularly to an improved impulse tool of the centrifugal type.

Heretofore, conventional portable, power operated tools for driving nuts, bolts and screws or for applying a torque to other objects have been of the stall, clutch and impact type. While the stall type and clutch type tools give satisfactory torque control in most applications, these types are larger and hence heavier than the impact type tool. Further the stall type and clutch type tools are slower in operation than the impact type tool. In addition the stall type and clutch type tools provide an undesirable torque reaction to the operator, which torque reaction is not present in a tool of the impact type.

In the impact type of tool the kinetic energy of the rotary hammer (of large mass) is transferred to the spindle (of relatively lower mass) by a collision between the jaws of the hammer and the spindle. These conventional impact tools have several limitations. First the rigid jaws of the hammer and the similar jaws of the spindle are relatively light in order to satisfy the demand of the fabricating industries for a light portable tool. However the forces between the jaws of the hammer and the jaws of the spindle are very high during the time of impact therebetween, with resultant breakage or failure of such jaws and a shorter service life than in other conventional power tools, such as those of the stall or clutch types. Secondly, with these conventional impact tools it is very difficult to control or limit the final torque on a threaded fastener to a final predetermined value within satisfactory limits of accuracy. Further the impact tools are difficult to manufacture because of their complicated structure and are rather noisy in their operation.

It is the general object of the present invention to avoid and overcome the foregoing and other difficulties of and objections to prior art practices by the provision of an improved tool of the impulse type which tool has all of the advantages of the stall type, clutch type and impact type tools and none of the disadvantages thereof,

A further object of the present invention is the provision of an impulse type tool which operates in a fluid at low force levels with resultant minimum wear and attendant longer service life than conventional impact tools.

Another object of the present invention is the provision of an impulse tool which is operable to control the final torque on a threaded fastener accurately and precisely within predetermined limits.

Still another object of the present invention is the provision of an impulse tool which, because of the simplicity of its structure, is easy to manufacture.

Yet another object of the present invention is the provision of an impulse tool which provides relatively quiet operation as compared to an impact tool.

A further object of the present invention is the provision of an improved tool of the impulse type, the major elements of which tool act to seal dynamically or at high velocity and function as a valve statically or at low velocity.

A still further object of the present invention is the provision of an impulse tool which is lighter in weight and faster in operation than the tools of the stall type and clutch type.

A further object of the present invention is the provision of an impulse tool which is operable to apply a torque or a series of impulses at an angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the impulse tool.

Another object of the present invention is the provision of a centrifugal type impulse tool which is capable of high torques and the provision of multiple impulses during each revolution of the driven means and eliminates the pressure relief means.

Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a cushion type impulse tool capable of producing high torque output and a long operational tool life.

For a better understanding of the present invention reference should behad to the accompanying drawings, wherein like numerals of reference indicate similar parts throughout the several views and wherein:

FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of the improved Tool of the impulse type, shown in engagement with a threaded fastener and with a stationary casing means shown in vertical section;

FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of the centrifugal type Impulse Tool showing the housing means as the driven member;

FIG. 3 is a vertical sectional view along the line 3-3 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 3a is a view similar to FIG. 2 showing the spindle means connected to the output shaft of the drive means and carrying the blade and with the housing means connected to the square drive for the fastener socket and carrying the jaw;

FIG. 3b is a view similar to FIGS. 2, 3a showing the spindle means connected to the output shaft of the drive means and provided with the bypass slot and the housing means connected to the square drive for the fastener socket and provided with the blade slot thus eliminating the loading cam and the effect of centrifugal force on the blade;

FIG. 3c is a horizontal sectional view along the line 3c3c of FIG. 3b in the direction of the arrows;

FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the Cushion type Impulse Tool showing the housing means as the driven member;

FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view along the line 5-5 of FIG. 4 in the direction of the arrows;

FIG. 5a is a view similar to FIG. 4 showing the spindle means connected to the drive means and the housing means connected to the square drive for the fastener socket;

FIG. 5b is a horizontal sectional view along the line 5b-5b of FIG. 5a in the direction of the arrows;

FIG. 5c is a view similar to FIGS. 4, 5a showing the housing means as the driven member and provided with the lug and the spindle means connected to the square drive for the fastener socket and provided with the slot and roller and the pressure relief means;

FIG. 5d is a horizontal sectional view along the line 5d'5d of FIG. 50' in the direction of the arrows;

FIG. Se is a view similar to FIGS. 4, 5a, 5c (and more particularly FIG. 50) showing the spindle means as the driven member and provided with the slot and roller and pressure relief means; the housing means connected to the square drive for the fastener socket and provided with the lug;

FIG. 5 is a horizontal sectional view along the line Sf-Sf of FIG. Se in the direction of the arrows.

The aforesaid objects of the present, invention and other objects which will become apparent as the description proceeds are achieved by providing an impulse tool for applying a predetermined torque to an object. This impulse tool comprises housing means provided with a cavity adapted to contain a fluid, a spindle means rotatable in the housing means and in the fluid and drive means connected to one of the housing means and spindle means for rotating the other of the housing means and spindle means with respect to the object. Blade means are reciprocable in a recess in one of the housing means and the spindle means and are adapted by centrifugal force to engage the other. Jaw means are on the other. The blade means and the other and the jaw means and the one are operable during a relatively small portion of each revolution of the relative rotary movement to dynamically seal off a portion of the cavity into a high pressure portion and to apply an impulse to the other and the object.

The centrifugal type impulse tool has blade means carried by the driven means (either housing means or spindle means) and adapted by centrifugal force to engage the normally stationary means. Jaw means are carried by the normally stationary means and receive the impulse.

The cushion type impulse tool has jaw means on the normally stationary means (either the housing means or the spindle means). The other element is provided with receiving means and has sealing means normally disposed in such receiving means.

While the impulse tool of the present invention may be advantageously employed for applying a torque to objects and as a source of fluid impulses in general, the impulse tool of the present invention is particularly adapted for use in conjunction with applying a torque to a threaded fastener and hence it has been so illustrated and will be so described.

With specific reference to the form of the present invention illustrated in the drawings, and referring particularly to FIG. 1, the impulse tool of the present inven tion (for applying torque to a nut N on a screw S by a socket 25) is indicated generally by the reference letter T.

As shown in FIG. 1 this impulse tool T has a housing means AL adapted to contain a fluid, such as oil F.

FIGS. 2, 3, 3a-3c Alternatively, blade means, such as the blade 175 (FIGS. 2, 3), can be carried by one of either the housing means A (inner housing 170) or spindle means B (spindle L) in this case by the housing means A and is adapted by centrifugal force to engage the other of either the housing means A or spindle means B in this case the spindle means B Jaw means, such as the jaws 174 (FIGS. 2, 3) are mounted on the other of either the housing means A or the spindle means B in this case spindle means B As the inner housing 170 rotates in counterclockwise direction (FIG. 3) a stationary loading cam 171 (FIGS. 2, 3) on spindle 15L (FIGS. 2, 3) moves the blade 175 carried by the inner housing 170 (radially outwardly in a slot 170a (FIGS. 2, 3) in the inner housing 170) into the (dotted line loading position, FIG. 3) and against the side wall of the oil-filled cavity 2L (FIGS. 2, 3). The blade 175 is held by centrifugal force against such side wall. A by-pass slot 172 (FIGS. 2, 3) in the spindle 15L permits passage or free flow of the oil F around the blade 175 as it moves from the dotted line position (FIG. 3) to the solid line position (FIG. 3).

As the leading edge B of the blade 175 reaches the end C of the slot 172, oil F is entrapped and compressed between blade 175 and a spindle jaw 174 (in high pressure section HP) to provide an impulse and cause rotation of the spindle jaw 174 and spindle 15L.

It will be noted that no pressure relief means is utilized thereby preventing metal-to-metal contact on impact between the blade 175 and jaw 174.

In order to provide disengagement between the blade 175 and jaw 174, the oil pressure in high pressure section HP is utilized to force the blade 175 past the impulsed spindle jaw 174.

One impulse per revolution of the inner housing is obtained. The use of multiple jaws 174 would provide a like number of impulses.

As shown in FIG. 3a, the spindle means B may be connected to the output shaft 33L of a drive means, such as an air motor similar to motor D FIG. 1 as the driven member. In this embodiment the spindle means B is provided with the blade slot 170a and the blade is reciprocable in the blade slot 170a by centrifugal force. The shaft 176 of the housing means A is connected to the square drive 16a for the fastener socket (not shown) and carries the loading cam 171 The housing means A is provided with the by-pass slot 172 Referring now to FIGS. 3b, 30 it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the loading cams 171 (FIGS. 2, 3) and 171 (FIG. 3a) and the effect of centrifugal force on the blades 175 (FIGS. 2, 3) and 175 (FIG. 3a) can be eliminated by connecting the spindle shaft 16L to the output shaft 33L of an air motor similar to motor D FIG. 1; by providing the spindle means B with a bypass slot 172 by connecting the housing shaft 176 of the housing means A to the square drive 16a for the fastener socket similar to socket 25 FIG. 1; and by providing the housing means A with a blade slot 170a in which a blade 175 is biased radially outwardly by a spring 177. The spring 177 is contained in the blade slot 170a and a slot 178 in the blade 175 FIGS. 4, 5, 5a-5f In this embodiment the cushion type impulse wrench has jaw means, such as the spindle lug 206 (FIG. 5) carried by the normally stationary one of either the housing means A, or the spindle means 13 in this case spindle means B,,. The driven or other element (i.e. housing means A is provided with receiving means, such as the roller slot 210 (FIGS. 4, 5). Sealing means, such as the roller 208 (FIGS. 4, 5), is normally disposed in such receiving means or roller slot 210.

The housing means A comprises a rear end plate 200 (FIG. 4) connected to an output shaft 33n (FIG. 4) of an air motor D FIG. 1, a cylinder 202 (FIGS. 4, 5) and a front end plate 204 (FIG. 4). The oil cavity 2n (FIGS. 4, 5) in the cylinder 202 is eccentric with respect thereto, as shown in FIG. 5 by the location of the center 203 (FIG. 5) of the cavity 2n and the center 205 (FIG. 5) of the outside diameter of the cylinder 202. The spindle 15n (FIGS. 4, 5) is concentric with the outside diameter of the cylinder 202 and carries a spindle lug 206 (FIG. 5).

As the housing means A, rotates in counterclockwise direction (FIG. 5), a rolling means, such as the roller 208 (FIGS. 4, 5), or sliding means, such as a spindle, having a square, rectangular, etc. cross section (not shown) entraps oil F between the roller 208 and lug 206 (FIGS. 4, 5 (portion 209 (FIG. 5), or high pressure portion HP of cavity 2n) and the roller 208 and end of roller slot 210 (FIGS. 4, 5) in housing means A,,, thereby cushioning the impact of roller 208 against lug 206 and applying an impulse and rotation to the lug 206 and spindle 15n.

As the pressure in portion 209 (FIG. 5) increases, the roller 208 is moved outwardly in the slot 209 thus relieving the oil pressure at sealing point 211 (FIG. 5) in portion 209.

The number of impulses per revolution of the housing means depends on the number of pairs of associated rollers 208 and of roller slots 210.

At predetermined torque a pressure relief valve 212 (FIG. 4) (which is in communication with roller slot 210 and in housing means A opens, thus relieving the fluid pressure thereon, and allowing roller 208 to clear the spindle lug 206.

As shown in FIGS. 5a, 5b the shaft 1611 of spindle means B,, may be connected to the output shaft 33): of

a drive means, such as an air motor similar to 15,, (FIG. 1) as the driven member, and the shaft 213 of the housing means A connected to the square drive 16a for a fastener socket similar to socket 25 (FIG. 1).

Referring now to FIGS. 5c, 5d the housing means A is connected to the output shaft 33n of an air motor similar to motor D (FIG. 1). The housing means A carries the lug 206 The shaft 1611 of the spindle means B,, is connected to the square drive 16a and such spindle means B, is provided with a slot 210 (in which the roller 208 reciprocates). In addition, the pressure relief means 212 is disposed in the spindle means B In FIGS. 5e, 5) the shaft 16!: of the spindle means B is driven by the output shaft 3311 of an air motor similar to motor D (FIG. 1). The spindle means B,, is provided with a slot 210 (on which the roller 208 is reciprocated) and a pressure relief means 212 The shaft 213 of the housing means A,, is connected to the square drive 16a for the fastener socket similar to socket 25 (FIG. 1) and carries the lug 206 It will be recognized by those skilled in the art that the objects of the present invention have been achieved by the provision of an impulse tool which applies a force, namely oil pressure, on the spindle blade and spindle for a short time (namely during the dynamic sealing portion of the operating cycle of the impulse tool) thus providing operation in a fluid at low force levels with resultant minimum wear and attendant longer service life than conventional impact tools.

The impulse tool of the present invention is operable to control the final torque on a threaded fastener accurately and precisely within predetermined practical limits. Further, because of the simplicity of its structure, the impulse tool is easy and economical to manufacture. In addition, the impulse tool provides relatively quiet operation as compared with conventional impact tools. The impulse tool acts as a seal dynamically and as a valve statically; has all of the advantages of the stall type, clutch type and impact type tools and none of the disadvantages thereof; is lighter in weight and faster in operation than the tools of the stall type and clutch type.

In addition a centrifugal type impulse tool has been provided which produces high torques and multiple impulses during each revolution of the driven means and eliminates the pressure relief means.

Further a cushion type impulse tool has been provided capable of a long operational life and adapted to produce high torque output.

While in accordance with the patent statutes one best known embodiment of and alternative embodiments of the present invention has been illustrated and described in detail, it is to be particularly understood that the invention is not limited thereto or thereby.

I claim:

1. An impulse tool for applying a torque to an object, said impulse tool comprising:

(a) housing means provided with a cavity for sealingly containing a fluid,

(b) spindle means in said housing means and in said fluid,

(c) drive means operatively associated with one of said housing means and said spindle means for causing relative rotary movement between said housing means and said spindle means,

(d) the other of said housing means and said spindle means being adapted to engage said object,

(e) one of said housing means and said spindle means being provided with a recess,

(f) blade means reciprocable in said recess and adapted by centrifugal force to engage said other, jaw means on said other,

(g) said blade means and said other and said jaw means and said one being disposed in sealing relation during a relatively small portion of each revolution of said relative rotary movement,

(h) said blade means and said other and said jaw means and said one being operable during said rela= tively small portion of each revolution of said rela= tive 'r'otary movement to dynamically seal off a por- 5 tion of said cavity into a high pressure portion so that the pressure in said high pressure portion of the cavity and on said other increases thereby causing the other of said housing means and said spindle means to rotate with respect to said one and to apply a torque to said object.

2. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein said drive means is connected to said housing means.

3. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein drive means is connected to said spindle means.

4. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein blade meansis in said housing means.

5. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein blade means is in said spindle means.

6. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein jaw means is in said housing means.

7. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein jaw means is in said spindle means.

8. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein said blade means is in said housing means and having cam means on said other engageable with said blade means for forcing said blade means into engagement with said spindle means.

9. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein said blade means is in said spindle means and having cam means on said other engageable with said blade means for forcing said blade means into engagement with said housing means.

10. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein said blade means is in said housing means and having biasing means in said housing means for forcing said blade means into engagement with said spindle means.

11. The impulse tool recited in claim 1 wherein said blade means is in said spindle means and having biasing means in said spindle means for forcing said blade means into engagement with said housing means.

12. An impulse tool for applying a torque to an object, said impulse tool comprising:

(a) housing means provided with a cavity for sealingly containing a fluid,

(b) spindle means in said housing means and in said fluid,

(c) drive means operatively associated with one of said housing means and said spindle means for causing relative rotary movement between said housing means and said spindle means,

(d) the other of said housing means and said spindle means being adapted to engage said object,

(e) one of said housing means and said spindle means being provided with a recess,

(f) sealing means in said recess,

(g) jaw means on said other of said housing means and said spindle means,

(h) said jaw means and said one and said sealing means and said other being disposed in sealing relation during a relatively small portion of each revolution of said relative rotary movement,

(i) said jaw means and said one and said sealing means and said other being operable during said relatively small portion of each revolution of said relative rotary movement to dynamically seal off a portion of said cavity into a high pressure portion so that the pressure in said high pressure portion of the cavity and on said other increases thereby causing the other of said housing means and said spindle means to rotate with respect to said one and to apply a torque to said object.

13. The impulse tool recited in claim 12 wherein said drive means is connected to said housing means.

14. The impulse tool recited in claim 12. wherein said 7 drive means is connected to said spindle means.

said

said said said said 7 8' 15. The-impulse tool recited in claim '12 wherein said References Cited by the Examiner sealing means is in said housing means. 7 16. The impulse tool recited in claim 12 wherein said UNITED STATES PATENTS sealing means is in said spindle means. 2,564,212 8/51 Ramsey 192 58 17. The impulse tool recited in claim 12 wherein said 5 2565289 8/51 Zak 64 28 jaw means is on said housing means. 2,986,024 5/61 Powers 64-46 18. The impulse tool recited in claim 12 wherein said 3116617 1/64 Skoog 6426 jaw means is on said spindle means.

19. The impulse tool recited in claim 12 wherein said BROUGHTON DURHAM Primary Examiner sealing means is a roller. 10 FRANK SUSKO, ROBERT C. RIORDON, Examiners.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2564212 *May 8, 1948Aug 14, 1951Ramsey George HPower converter
US2565289 *Mar 8, 1948Aug 21, 1951Joseph Zak AlphonseFluid power transmission
US2986024 *May 18, 1959May 30, 1961 power
US3116617 *Dec 12, 1961Jan 7, 1964Ingersoll Rand CoFluid impulse torque tool
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3304746 *Feb 1, 1965Feb 21, 1967Ingersoll Rand CoTorque control device
US3322212 *Apr 13, 1965May 30, 1967Ingersoll Rand CoOscillatory driven impulse tool
US3368631 *Oct 14, 1965Feb 13, 1968Ingersoll Rand CoTorque control apparatus for impulse tools
US3552499 *Oct 10, 1968Jan 5, 1971Maurer Spencer BRotary power tool clutch mechanism
US4321973 *Aug 10, 1979Mar 30, 1982Maurer Spencer BRotary impact clutch
US4635731 *Dec 13, 1984Jan 13, 1987Chicago Pneumatic Tool CompanyImpulse tool
US4836296 *Aug 22, 1988Jun 6, 1989Dresser Industries, Inc.Fluid pressure impulse nut runner
DE3347016A1 *Dec 24, 1983Jul 18, 1985Bijon SarkarImpulse screwdriver
DE3401082A1 *Jan 13, 1984Sep 6, 1984Uryu Seisaku LtdDruckluftdrehmomentschluessel vom oeldrucktyp
EP0267169A2 *Oct 2, 1987May 11, 1988Atlas Copco AktiebolagHydraulic torque impulse generator
EP0290411A2 *May 6, 1988Nov 9, 1988Atlas Copco AktiebolagHydraulic torque impulse generator
EP0521898A1 *Mar 11, 1991Jan 13, 1993Chicago Pneumatic Tool CompanyAdjustable pressure dual piston impulse clutch
Classifications
U.S. Classification464/25, 192/58.91, 173/93
International ClassificationB25B21/02, B25B23/145, B25B23/14
Cooperative ClassificationB25B21/026, B25B23/1453
European ClassificationB25B21/02C, B25B23/145B