US 3212956 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 19, 1965 M'TSUE YOSHIKAWA 3,212,956
BUILDING MATERIAL Filed Dec. 18, 1962 3 Sheets-Sheet l ATTORNEY.
Oct. 19, 1965 MITSUE YOSHIKAWA 3,212,956
BUILDING MATERIAL 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 18, 1962 M ATTORNEY.
Oct. 19, 1965 MITSUE YOSHIKAWA 3,212,956
BUILDING MATERIAL Filed Dec. 18, 1962 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 l I l l 5 )U 75 0 l l l INVENTOR fill'Jl/f 705/0 m4 WA 2. M\ ATTORNEY.
United States Patent 3,212,956 BUILDING MATERIAL Mitsue Yoshikawa, 24 2-chome, Hatsuda, Sibuya-ku,
' Tokyo, Japan Filed Dec. 18, 1962, Ser. No. 245,612 2 Claims. (Cl. 161-133) This invention relates to building material.
According to the present invention, there is provided building material comprising a first sheet portion which is stiff and corrugated, and a second sheet portion which is of an organic sponge material and which is disposed adjacent one face of said first sheet portion, said sponge sheet portion facing said rigid sheet portion and being adhered to said one face at the peaks only thereof, said organic material being such that said second sheet portion is both flexible and stretchable and can take either a corrugated form corresponding to the corrugations in the rigid sheet portion when sheets are stacked or normally assume a substantially flat form in which hollow spaces are present between said flexible sheet portion and one face of the corrugated sheet portion when the material is in use.
The present building material can be used in facing roofs, ceilings, walls and the like of buildings such as factories, garages, and dwelling houses.
In order that the invention may be clearly understood and readily carried into elfect, reference will now be made, by way of example, to the accompanying drawing, in which FIGURE 1 is an end view of building material stacked for delivery,
FIGURE 2 is an end view of such building material ready for use,
FIGURE 3 is a view showing the resilient second sheet portion under tension prior to being adhered to the first sheet portion,
FIGURE 4 is a perspective View of the building material looking at the resilient sheet portion which adhered to the rigid sheet portion at a series of spots,
FIGURE 5 is an end view showing two sheets of the building material joined together,
FIGURE 6A is a front elevational View of a model structure having a roof formed of the building material of the present invention for use in a heat-insulation test,
FIGURE 6B is a central side sectional view of the structure shown in FIG. 6A, and
FIGURE 7 shows the graph of experimental data obtained during the heat-insulation test.
Referring to FIGURE 2, the building material comprises a sheet 1 which is stiff and corrugated, and a sheet 2 which is of an organic material and which is disposed adjacent one face of the sheet 1, the sheet 2 facing the sheet 1 and being adhered to that one face at the peaks or crests of the corrugations thereof. The organic material stretchable so that the sheet 2 can take either a corrugated form corresponding to the corrugations in the sheet 1, which form it takes when stacked (see FIGURE 1), or assume a substantially fiat normal form in which hollow spaces are present between the sheet 2 and the sheet 1 and which it takes when in use (see FIGURE 2). This can be attained by forming the sheet 2 of material having one or more of the following characteristics:
(1) Elasticity due to inherent elasticity in the organic material itself. For example, the organic material could be a soft natural rubber, a synthetic rubber, or a soft synthetic resin, having suitable elasticity.
(2) Elasticity due to the texture of the sheet 2. For example, the sheet 2 could be formed with fine corrugations which are small compared with the corrugations in the sheet 1, or if the sheet 2 is of rubber or synthetic resin, it would be spongy and contain interconnected or independent air bubbles.
3,212,956 Patented Oct. 19, 1965 The rigid sheet 1 must be water-proof if the building material is to be used as outer facing material for outside walls. Any surface treatment, for example, painting polishing, or electroplating, can be applied to the sheet 1 provided that the adhesion between the sheets 1 and 2 is not adversely affected.
Practical examples of the rigid sheet 1 are cement concrete board admixed with various kinds of fibres, plywood sheet, sheet, reinforced wooden board, synthetic resin board, boards made of consolidated animal, vegetable and mineral fibres, metal plate, and porous hard board, all of fixedly corrugated shape.
Adhesion of the sheets 1 and 2 can be obtained by the utilization of the adhesive property of the elastic organic material itself, or by a suitable adhesive.
An example of the present building material is one in which the sheet 1 is of corrugated galvanized iron, and in which the sheet 2 is of polyurethane sponge.
The galvanized sheet iron is reflective of heat energy, whereas the sponge is absorptive, and the hollow spaces between the two provide insulation. When the iron sheet is subjected to sun-light, due to its corrugated form it radiates and reflects well. The spaces between the sponge and the iron sheet intercept the radiation directed inwardly from the iron sheet. Moreover, since the hollow spaces between the corrugated iron sheet and the sponge are equivalent to a row of pipes, if the building material is so used that the pipes are vertical or upwardly inclined, when the sun heats the air in the pipes, the latter act as chimneys, giving so-called draught action. It is thus possible to control this cooling action by opening or closing the upper and/or lower ends of the pipes.
Heat insulation in winter can be simply provided by closing the upper and lower ends, or closing only the upper ends, of the pipes in order to stop the draught action.
As for sound-proofness, a corresponding effectiveness to that in respect of heat-proofness can be attained. The corrugated outer surface of the sheet 1 has the effect of dispersingly reflecting sounds and eliminating them by interference, and the sheet 2 further eliminates them by absorption. Moreover, the intermediate air spaces can eliminate sounds by resonance and, since the sheet 2 is free to vibrate, the sheet 2 can have a wide range of soundeliminating characteristics.
Where this building material is used in roofing and has a lap joint at one end, the sheet 2, if of sponge, can readily be cut to the required size, since the sheet 2 is not closely adhered to the entire adjacent surface of the sheet 1. It does no harm even if the sponge protruding beyond the sheet 1 is left as it is, but it can be cut away if it is not desired.
FIGURE 5 shows an example of the cross section of a joint between two sheets of building material (FIGURE 2) when used as roofing. Since both sides 2a of sheet with sponge 2 of said second sheet portion are raised upward A along with corrugation of said first sheet portion 1, the sponge part of said second sheet portion being adhered to said first sheet portion of the upper building material 1, when overlapped, serves as packing, as seen in FIGURE 5 and thus prevents water from entering, that is part 11a of said first sheet portion of the lower composite sheet material 11, 12 pushes up the sponge part 2 of the upper material 2, so the undulatory form between 2a and 2b results. Thus, no additional processing is required for the purpose of joining the two composite sheets. As can be seen from FIGURE 4, spot 3 adhesion is permissible instead of continuous adhesion along the crest of each corrugation. As shown in FIG- URE 3, when attaching the sponge 2, it is desirable to adhere spots 3 of the sponge when under tension (FIG- URE 3, arrows T) between the crests of the corrugations in order to provide residual stress, which helps shrink the sponge during use (see FIGURE 2) following periods of stacking (see FIGURE 1).
Corrugated sheet (25 cm. X 20 cm.) was used as roofing on a model (see FIGURES 6A, 6B) and the temperature was measured at points X, Y. The rigid sheet portion was a common galvanized sheet, and the elastic sheet portion was a polyurethane sponge, mm. in thickness. The results obtained are shown in FIGURE 7 (distance 1:30 cm.). As a heat-source, an infrared lamp H (500 w.) was used. As a result, it was found that a constant temperature difference was observed between the upper part (X point) of the rigid sheet portion 1 exposed to direct light of the infrared lamp and the lower part (Y point) of the sponge. Since the radiation is in proportion to fourth power of the absolute temperature, the radiation of heat from the elastic sheet portion of the surface inside the building will be considerably reduced. Although sponge was used in the abovementioned experiment, independent foam soft plastic is most easily used.
While I have shown and described What I believe to be the best embodiments of my invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in theappended claims.
What I claim is:
1. Composite sheet building material comprising: a first portion formed of rigid sheet material having a series of fixedly shaped undulatory corrugations formed therein; a second portion formed of elastic sheet material; means adhering said second portion to one side of said first portion at the crests of said corrugations, said second portion being normally fiat intermediate said crests, said elastic material being stretchable to conform said second portion to the undulatory configuration of said corrugations on said one side when a plurality of sheets of said composite material are stacked, said elastic material causing said second portion to resume said normally flat condition when said composite :sheets are unstacked.
2. Composite sheet material according to claim 1, wherein saidfirst porttion is formed of galvanized iron and said second portion is formed of polyurethane sponge.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,802,522 4/31 Moll 161-135 2,129,488 9/38 Bomberger 161135 2,299,988 10/42 Irving 156210 X FOREIGN PATENTS 1,122,369 5/56 France.
913,893 12/62 Great Britain. 542,985 5/56 Italy.
EARL M. BERGERT, Primary Examiner.
MORRIS SUSSMAN, Examiner.