|Publication number||US3213179 A|
|Publication date||Oct 19, 1965|
|Filing date||Apr 17, 1963|
|Priority date||Apr 17, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3213179 A, US 3213179A, US-A-3213179, US3213179 A, US3213179A|
|Inventors||Clauson Ralph A|
|Original Assignee||Clauson Ralph A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (24), Classifications (16)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 19, 1965 R. A. CLAUSON ORGAN COMBINATION ACTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 17, 1963 INVENTOR. fPa/p/z A. 004/500 BY his af/omeys Oct. 19, 1965 R. A. cLAusoN ORGAN COMBINATION ACTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 17, 1965 INVENTOR. fia/ph A. 6/04/50/7 BY h/s af/omeys United States Patent Ofiice 3,213,179 Patented Oct. 19, 1965 3,213,179 ORGAN COMBINATION ACTION Ralph A. Clauson, 244 Lawrence Ave., Staten Island, N .Y. Filed Apr. 17, 1963, Ser. No. 273,747 18 Claims. (Cl. 841.03)
This invention relates to voice controls for pipe and electric organs. More particularly, it relates to combination actions for controlling organ voices in various combinations to obtain different musical effects.
Organ consoles normally have a plurality of switches, more commonly referred to as stop tablets or stop knobs, for controlling individual organ voices. Each stop tablet controls one organ voice, and may be operated manually or electromagnetically.
In most modern organ consoles, the organist can bring a group or combination of these stop tablets on or off by the operation of a single push button known as a piston. These pistons are usually located in the slip of wood which separates one keyboard from another. Many organs have twelve of these pistons, but some have more and some less. Each piston may be set in advance of the performance or service to bring on a different combination of stop tablets. This is done in some organs by manipulating the piston and then operating to on position the stops which it is desired to bring on when that piston is operated. In some cases, the setting is completed by actuating a third or capture button. Thus, whenever during the performance that piston is operated, the combination of voices for which it is set will be put on. For example, with four organ voices and four pistons, each piston may be set to bring on a difi erent combination as follows:
Piston Number Stop Tablets On Off On Off On On Oil Oil On On Ofi Off Diapason 011 Oil Oil On Many more combinations are possible.
The mechanism for turning on a desired combination of stop tablets, all others being simultaneously turned off, is called 'a combination action. Prior art combination actions rely on large numbers of electrical contacts, electromagnets and electrical contrivances which often prove troublesome. In addition, prior art combination actions for large organs require a large amount of space remote from the organ console. Because of current building costs and space limitations in new structures as well as space limitations in existing structures, space is both a physical and financial problem.
Furthermore, because prior art combination actions require extensive manual manipulations by the organist to set desired combinations of stop tablets, an organist playing a recital or service of five selections, for example, has to set the combinations he needs in advance. The time required to reset the combinations prohibits the resetting between each number, especially in organs with many stop tablets. Moreover, because combinations cannot be easily changed during a concert or service, each organ must have enough pistons to carry all the combinations needed.
One object of this invention is to provide an improved combination organ action which takes up considerably less space than heretofore.
Another object is to provide a combination organ action capable of having the combinations of stops associated with a piston changed so quickly that such change can be made during the performance between selections.
Another object of this invention is to provide a combination action having a closed electrical operating circuit, except for one contact in each piston, thereby reducing maintenance requirements to a minimum and improving reliability.
Another object is to provide means to change the combination of the stops associated with all of the various pistons simultaneously.
Another object is to provide for changing the combination of the stops associated with the various pistons according to a desired arrangement by selection and insertion of a single member, card or element into control apparatus. A related object is to provide for choice of the combinations of stops to be associated with the different pistons by varying the configuration of the insertable element.
Another object is to provide apparatus into which differently punched cards may be inserted to select the stops associated with the several pistons in a combination organ action. A related object is to enable such selection by making selected punchings or openings in such cards.
The apparatus herein described is not limited to use in controlling organ actions, but may be used to select and to control the combinations of branch circuits energized or inactivated by operation of any of a number of actuating members.
Other objects and advantages will appear as the invention is described in connection with the drawings.
To accomplish its various objectives, the invention provides a punch-card holder containing a plurality of light sources one or more of which are activated or deactivated by each piston or actuating member when pushed or pulled. Light from these activated sources passes via fibre optic rods to a punched card in the holder.
This card has openings selectively punched in it through i which light from selected fibre optic rods passes. Light passing through these openings is conducted through other fibre optic rods to photo-conductive elements which serve to turn on or off the desired combination of organ voices. The photo-conductive elements are connected in closed electrical circuits to operate the stop tablets. When light impinges upon these elements, the stop tablets to which they are connected operates. One such element is used to turn a given organ voice on and another to turn it off. Selection of voices for any desired combination is accomplished by selectively punching openings in the punch card.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view, partly broken away, of the holder, light sources and photosensitive devices and punch card embodying the invention.
FIG. 2 is a cutaway detail view of FIG. 1 taken on line 22 of FIG. 1 showing some light paths through the punch card.
FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram as used in the invention showing means for turning a stop tablet on or off.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of the piston circuit for energizing two light sources with each piston switch.
Referring to the drawings, a punch card holder has a body of an opaque material. It is preferably a laminated structure comprising a back plate 2, a front plate 3 separated by a spacer 4 inserted between the front and back plates, the terms front and back being used for convenience and not in a limiting sense. Separators 4 are of shape and thickness to create a slot 5 between the plates into which a punch card 6 may be slid. Slot 5 should be of a size which does not permit significant lateral or horizontal movement of punch card 6. Front and back plates 3 and 2 have a plurality of openings 7 and 7' through them. These openings are arranged in an array of horizontal rows and vertical columns. One row is provided for each piston of the organ action with which the unit is to be associated, and one column is provided for each on and each off position of the organ stop tablets associated with the unit, openings 7 in front plate 3 (FIG. 2) being in line with the openings 7 in back plate 2. For example, in a holder arranged for 12 pistons, each of which controls 20 stop tablets, there would be 12 horizontal rows of 40 openings each.
Attached to and extending perpendicularly from front plate 3 are two vertical opaque supporting plates 8, 8 for supporting groups of fibre optic rods hereinafter described. These plates are attached at positions near the ends of the plate on either side of the area containing openings 7. Each of the supporting plates 8, 3 has two columns 9, 9a of relatively large openings with sufficient vertical offset with respect to each other to ensure that the openings in each of said columns 9, 9a are substantially in the horizontal plane of a different horizontal row of openings 7 in front plate 3.
To support the hereinafter described fibre optic rods on the opposite side of the holder, an opaque supporting plate 10, containing a plurality of openings extending horizontally, is mounted perpendicularly upon back plate 2 beneath the area containing openings 7. Relatively large openings are arranged in two rows 11, 110, the openings in one row being offset from those in the other with each opening in substantially the vertical plane of a different column of openings 7 in back plate 2.
In order to conduct light in predetermined separate and individual conduits to the openings 7 in the front plate and from the openings 7 in the back plate wherever there is a hole punched in the card, light conduits preferably in the form of fibre optic rods 12 are provided. These conduits or rods may be formed of polymeric methacrylate esters for example as sold under the trade names of Lucite or Plexiglas, or they may be specially compounded glass, all of which have the property of conducting light along their length without appreciable lateral loss in transmission. In normal usage, these rods will be enclosed in a large enclosure, organ housing or the like so that the problem of exterior light affecting the operation of the apparatus is avoided. The advantage of the polymeric methacrylate esters is that they can be easily softened, bent and molded when heated to temperatures of the order of 100 C. The rods are equal in number to the openings 7. Preferably all the rods in :one half of the top horizontal row are bent at right angles in one direction and bunched into a group running parallel to the front plate to the supporting plate 8 and thence through that opening in column 9 or 9a in the supporting plate which is coplanar with said top row. The rods in the remaining openings in the rows directly below are likewise bent and bunched and pass through their corresponding openings in the columns 9 and 9a.
Likewise, in the other half of the front plate 3, fibre optic rods 12 whose ends are inserted in the corresponding openings 7 thereof are oppositely bent and bunched and directed through the openings in columns 9 and 9a of the opposite supporting plate 8.
In addition, opposite the underside of each opening in mounting piece is a photo-conductive cell 13 on which light may fall from any one or more of the fibre optic rods in the opening. On or adjacent the outer face of each supporting plate 8, 8' opposite each opening in columns 9, 9a, a light source 14, such as a small electric lamp bulb, is supported to cast its beam upon the end of the bunch of rods in its opening. Two light sources 14, 14' are required to light one horizontal row of openings 7 in front plate 3, one source being for each half row. However, it is within the scope of the invention to bunch all rods in one row and pass them through one opening and to use one light source for such bunch. Preferably the lamps are each shielded or are in compartments 34 so as to allow light from one lamp to issue only toward the end of one bunch of rods. Compartments 34 are shown in FIG. 2, but are omitted in FIG. 1 to simplify the view.
The opaque punch card 6 which is cut to fit into the slot 5, may contain slugs 16 which are preferably prepunched to facilitate making openings by removing one or more of these slugs, with the point of a pencil or some other convenient tool.
In FIG. 1, prepunched slugs 16 are indicated by dark circles and openings resulting from removal of slugs are indicated by light circles. The prcpunching of slugs is ordered so that there is a slug or hole in line with each of the registering openings 7, 7' in front and back plates 3 and 2 when the punch card rests in cavity 5.
In order for light from fibre optic rods 12 passing through the openings in the punched card 6 to be transmitted to hereinafter described organ control apparatus, a second array of fibre optic rods 12F is provided on the opposite side of the card holder. The ends of the rods 12F of this second array are inserted in the openings 7' of the back plate 2 and extend outwardly from the back plate and are bent at right angles downwardly parallel to the back plate. Extending at right angles from and secured to the back plate is a horizontal supporting plate 10 having two row 11, 11A of relatively large holes therein receiving bunches of the lower ends of the rods. The holes of row 11 are offset from those of row 111A with the holes in row 11 substantially in the vertical planes of alternate or even numbered vertical columns of holes 7 in the back plate and vice versa as to row 11A and odd-numbered vertical columns of holes 7'.
Beneath each hole in the rows 11 and 11A under the supporting plate 10 is fixedly attached a photo-conductive cell 13, as shown in FIG. 2, which is connected as hereinafter described in an electric circuit to operate a stop tablet.
FIGS. 1 and 2 show how the punch card 6 cooperates with the holder. Assuming that light is being fed into an opening 9 in supporting plate 8, light from this opening is fed via rods 12 to half the openings 7 in one row. A light 14' at the opposite end of the holder feeds light via rods 12' to the other half of the openings in that row. Wherever slugs 16 in that row of the punch card 6 have been removed, light will pass through to rods 12F. Fibre optic rods 12F carry the light coming through punch card 6 to the photoconductive cell 13 for operating a stop tablet. In the sectioned edge of the card holder, the card is seen containing slugs 16 in some places and openings in others.
Referring to FIG. 1 again, the card 6 is arranged so that each organ voice is assigned two columns of slugs 16, an on column 15 and an off column 30. These columns are preferably adjacent one another so that traversing the card from left to right, one meets a new organ voice every two columns and the organist may readily select the voices he desires for a particular combination. By punching out a slug 16 in either the on or off column for every voice in one row, the organist very quickly and simply chooses the voice combination for a given piston and just as readily the same can be done for all pistons.
Now referring to the circuit diagram of FIG. 4, each of the pistons, designated by letters and numbers P to P controls two light sources 14, 14 at opposite ends of the holder, which illuminate a single row of openings 7, each source illuminating half the openings in the row via the fibre optic rods as previously described. Each piston when pushed, causes a different row of openings 7 to be illuminated. FIG. 4 shows the circuitry for the pistons. It comprises current source 18 connected in parallel with a plurality of branches 19. Each branch includes a piston P, P and P for example, each individually connected in series with two light sources 14, 14 connected in parallel with each other and with the source 18. When any piston is pushed, the two light sources controlled by it light up and feed light to the fibre optic rods 12 which individually transmit the light to the openings 7 in one row.
In operation, the organist chooses the voice combinations he desires by selectively punching out the appropriate slugs 16 in each row in punch card 6.
The punched card is then placed in slot 5. When a piston 17 is pushed, light is fed via rods 12, 12' to one row, but it passes through the card only where there are openings. Light passing through the selected openings is fed via fibre optic rods 12F to the photo-conductive devices 13 which control the individual stop tablets as follows.
FIG. 3 shows the circuitry for electromagnetically operating a stop tablet. A low voltage alternating current source 20 is connected in parallel with the two branches 21. Each branch is a voltage divider circuit having divisions 22 and 23. Each division 22 comprises a fixed current limiting resistor 24 series-com nected to one of the photo-conductive devices 13 which is, in turn, series-connected to a sensitivity-control potentiometer 25 having an adjustable output terminal 26. Each division 23 comprises an electromagnet coil 27 series-connected to a silicon wntrolled rectifier 28 having a gate terminal 29 which is connected to the adjustable output terminal 26 of the potentiometer 25 in its associated division 22. The electromagnet coils 27 are pictured in a schematic representation of a conventional stop tablet device. One coil 27 moves the stop tablet to the on position, the other to the off position. An overcenter coiled compression spring 32 biases the amature 34 in its opposite positions. A movable flexible leaf-spring contact 36 carried by the armature engages (in FIG. 3) or disengages a fixed leaf-spring contact 38 as the armature tilts contact 36 clockwise.
In the circuit of FIG. 3 when a 22 V. AC. source is used, resistor 24 may be approximately about 1 megohm, and potentiometer 25 about 1.5 megohms. Photoconductive device 13 preferably has a resistance, when no light impinges upon it, sufliciently high to restrict the flow of current through division 22 so that little or no voltage appears at the gate terminal 29 of silicon controlled rectifier 28. When light does impinge upon photo-conductive device 13, however, its resistance decreases to the point where sufficient current flows in division 22 to apply a voltage on gate 29, making rectifier 28 conductive thereby allowing current to flow through the electromagnet coil 27 connected in series with it. This, in turn, moves the stop tablet to the required position. Adjustable output terminal 26 on potentiometer 25 allows the voltage applied to gate terminal 29 of rectifier 28 to be varied so that the overall sensitivity of this circuit may be adjusted to differing conditions.
The description of this device thus far has directed its use to the control of stop tablets or stop knobs on a pipe or electronic organ console. It would appear, however, that in addition to this prime application, a considerable number of other fields of use are possible. The manufacturing of paint for example requires the addition of several tinting pigments to a base pigment to produce a given color. If the given color, say green, was to be produced by the operation of a push button, which might be compared to a piston, then the various tinting pigments required for the color green, similar to the desired organ stops, would be punched on for push button 1. All tinting pigments not required to produce the color green would be punched 01f.
Similarly other colors might be produced on the remaining push buttons, each having assigned to them or punched on the tinting pigments required for the final color desired.
Thus, this invention may be applied to many additional activities, viz., the mixing of animal feeds, the
'6 control of alarm systems, the distribution of varied materials in a manufacturing plant, and other equivalent operations.
Many modifications will occur to those skilled in the art. Therefore, the invention is not limited to the specific embodiment described and illustrated.
What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for controlling a combination organ action, comprising a plurality of organ voice control devices for activating or deactivating voices selectively, means including photo-electric devices operable to actuate said control devices between on and off positions and selecting means determining which of said photo-electric devices shall be operated for controlling selective activation and deactivation of predetermined voices.
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the means to actuate the control devices includes a light source, a plurality of light conduits for individually conducting light from the light source, a plurality of photo-electric cells individually associated with each of said conduits, said selecting means controlling the light flow from said conduits to said cells.
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein said selecting means includes an interchangeable element which is transparent in selected places to permit passage of light to selected photo-electric cells for activating and de activating selected voices.
4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 3 wherein said selecting means includes a holder adapted to receive said interchangeable element, said element being a card perforated in selected places to permit passage of light to the selected photo-electric cells.
5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 4 wherein the holder is perforated, the light conduits connect with the holder perforations, and the selected perforations in the card register with selected holder perforations.
6. Apparatus for controlling a combination organ action comprising a plurality of organ stops for activating organ voices individually, a plurality of pistons each operable to operate selected combinations of organ stops and activate the voices controlled by the selected stops, plural light source means, a plurality of photo-electric cells, means predetermining said combinations of stops, and means responsive to the operation of each piston to energize certain light means and photo-electric cells to operate a selected combination of stops.
7. Apparatus as claimed in claim 6 wherein the combination-predetermining means comprises a perforated element controlling action of said light source means on said photo-electric cells.
8. Apparatus as claimed in claim 7 in which the perforated element is a card, a holder adapted to receive cards perforated for selective passage of light and resultant actuation of different combinations of stops, said holder and card having their perforations in register.
9. Apparatus as claimed in claim 6 wherein the combination-predetermining means comprises a perforated element controlling action of said light source means on said photo-electric cells, and light conduits from said light source means to said combination-predetermining means and from the latter to said photo-electric cells.
10. Apparatus as claimed in claim 9 in which said combination-predetermining means is perforated in rows and columns with the conduits from the light means leading to the one while from the other the conduits lead to said photo-electric devices.
11. Apparatus as claimed in claim 9 in which said combination-predetermining means is perforated in rows and columns with the conduits from a row being bunched and fed by one light source, while the conduits from a column being bunched and feeding one photo-electric cell, whereby one light source feeds light to the combination represented by one row as one piston is operated, while another light source feeds light to the combination represented by another row as another piston is operated.
12. Apparatus for controlling a combination organ action comprising a plurality of organ stops for activating organ voices individually, electromagnetic means to move said stops between on and off positions, a plurality of pistons each operable to energize the electromagnetic means of selected combinations of stops and activate the voices controlled by the selected stops, means connecting the electromagnetic means for each stop in a voltage divider circuit, a photo-electric cell in each of said circuits permitting increased current flow when illuminated, means to cause operation of the electromagnetic means in a given voltage divider circuit when the photo-cell in that circuit is illuminated, a plurality of light sources selectively energizable by said pistons, means predetermining the combination of stops to be operated by illumination of said selected lights in accordance with a desired selection.
13. Apparatus as claimed in claim 6 having means to energize predetermined light source means, electromagnetic means to operate each stop, a voltage divider circuit in which each electromagnetic means and a photocell are connected, and means causing operation of said electromagnetic means when said photo-cell is illuminated.
14. Apparatus as claimed in claim 13 wherein the combinationpredetermining means comprises a perforated element controlling action of said light source means on said photo-electric cells.
15. Apparatus as claimed in claim 14 having light conduits from said light source means to said combinationpredetermining means and from the latter to said photoelectric cells.
16. Apparatus as claimed in claim 15 in which said combination-predetermining means is perforated in rows and columns with the conduits from a row being bunched and fed by one light source, while the conduits from a column being bunched and feeding one photo-electric cell, whereby one light source feeds light to the combination represented by one row as one piston is operated, while another light source feeds light to the combination represented by another row as another piston is operated.
17. Control apparatus comprising a holder having a pair of parallel plates, said plates having registering perforations, a removable selector element between said plates perforated at certain places in register with selected plate perforations, a plurality of light conduit means connected to some perforations in one of said plates, other pluralities of light conduit means connected to other perforations in said one plate, separate light source means adapted to feed light into said first and other pluralities of light conduit means respectively, a plurality of light conduit means connected to some perforations of the second of said plates, other pluralities of light conduit means connected to other perforations in said second plate, separate photo-electric cells connected to said pluralities of light conduit means of said second plate respectively, both the first and other pluralities of light conduit means of said one plate being arranged to feed light to both the first and other pluralities of light conduit means of the second plate as permitted by said selector element, whereby illumination of a selected light source means will energize selected photoelectric cells as determined by said selector element perforations.
18. Apparatus as claimed in claim 17 wherein the perforations in said plates are arranged in rows and columns, the light source means of one plate being connected to the rows, and the light source means of the second plate being connected to the columns, and the light conductive conduits are made of a polymeric methacrylate ester.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,799,781 7/57 Joyce et al. 2502l4 3,065,356 11/62 Blake et al. 250-2l9 3,143,729 8/64 Power 307-885 XR 3,172,939 3/65 Campbell et al. 84-1.03 3,177,470 4/65 Galopin.
ARTHUR GAUSS, Primary Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||84/724, 178/17.00D, 235/473, 250/227.28, 235/460, 84/345, 250/227.21, 84/742, 250/214.0SW, 984/12, 84/85, 327/460|
|International Classification||G10B3/00, G10B3/10|