US 3214772 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1965 H. B. ROBERTS ETAL 3,214,772
HOPPER FOR MECHANICAL SEAL TOILETS Filed 001;. 15, 1964 Arron/5r United States Patent HOPPER FOR MECHANICAL SEAL TOILETS Herbert B. Roberts, Studio City, Calif., and Howard A.
Fulton, Perrysville, and Vaughn D. Flinner, Shreve,
Ohio, assignors to Western Pottery Co., Inc., Hollydale,
Califi, a corporation of California, and Mansfield Sanitary, Iuc., Perrysville, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Oct. 15, 1964, Ser. No. 403,971 16 Claims. (Cl. 4-79) This invention relates to toilets of the type utilizing a valve in the outlet of a toilet hopper for normally sealing said outlet to retain in the hopper a required quantity of water except during flushing, when the contents of the hopper is discharged by opening the valve. Toilets of this type (known in the trade as mechanical seal toilets) are commonly used in mobile facilities such as travel-trailers and the like. The general object of the present invention is to provide an improved hopper for this type of toilet.
A principal object is to eliminate the use of an external reservoir at or above the hopper-rim level of such a toilet, for feeding to the hopper the water used in flushing and refilling it.
Toward the attainment of these general objects, the
invention provides a hopper:
(1) Having self-contained storage capacity for flushing and refilling operations;
(2) Embodying a plenum or storage chamber for receiving Water from a pressurized water tank or other water source, and for delivering the water into the hopper;
(3) Adapted to utilize approximately half of the water delivered from the reservoir in flushing the hopper and the remaining half in refilling the hopper to a satisfactory depth to meet requirements for normal water level in the hopper;
(4) Having a flushing rim arranged to receive a portion of the injected water and to utilize the same in a rim-flush operation during the injection;
(5) Having a restricted bleed connecting the plenum chamber to the hopper for draining the balance of the injected water into the hopper at the termination of the rim-flush operation so as to provide a retained body of water standing in the hopper until the next use of the apparatus;
(6) Having a supplementary built-in storage reservoir embodied in the rim of the hopper;
(7) Having a mechanical seal valve normally closing the bottom of the hopper to hold a retained body of water therein, and a water-injection line including a water valve leading from a pressurized water source to the plenum chamber, together with actuator means for simultaneously opening both valves to discharge the contents of the hopper and to then effect a flushing operation resulting from the filling of the plenum chamber through the injection line.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent in the ensuing specification and appended drawing in which:
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a mechanical-seal toilet apparatus embodying my improved hopper, portions of the apparatus, including a pressurized water source, being shown schematically;
FIG. 2 is a vertical-longitudinal sectional view of the hopper and associated parts;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view through the flushing rim and the rearwardly projecting water-receiving chamber of the hopper looking downwardly as indicated by the line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a horizontal sectional view through the plenum chamber portion of the hopper, looking upwardly as indicated by the line 44 of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary vertical longitudinal sectional view taken in a vertical plane forwardly of the median vertical plane of the hopper as indictaed by the line 55 of FIG. 4.
Referring now to the drawing and in particular to FIG. 1, I have shown therein, as an example of one form in which the invention may be embodied, a mechanical seat toilet assembly comprising a discharge throat A adapted to be mounted over an opening in a floor B (e.g. of a mobile trailer) the throat A having a hopper seal valve in its upper end; a hopper unit C, embodying the novel features of the present invention, having a bot-tom outlet and mounted on throat A; a water injection line D including a valve for injecting flushing Water into the hopper C simultaneously with the opening of the valve in the discharge throat A; a pressurized water supply apparatus shown schematically at E; a P-trap F for disposal of overflow if that should occur (eg through stoppage of flushing apertures) and common actuator means G for simultaneously opening the seal valve in the upper end of throat A and the water valve of injection line D. Briefly reviewing the operation of the toilet apparatus before proceeding with a detailed description, it may first be noted that in order to meet sanitary requirements in codes governing the construction and use of such toilet facilities, there is normally maintained in the hopper C (FIG. 1) a retained body of water H which, when the hopper seal valve in the upper end of discharge throat A is opened, will wash most of the contents of the hopper through the bottom outlet thereof. This will be followed by a flushing operation from the rim of the hopper C for Washing down the sides of the hopper, such flushing operation being effected by the injection of water through the injection line D into the rear end of the hopper. When the actuator mechanism G is released and the two valves are thereby closed, there will be a final stage of operation in which the balance of the water that has been injected into the hopper and not used in the rim flush operation, will be drained into the bowl portion of the hopper to restore the retained body of water H.
Discharge throat A may comprise a cylindrical tubular pedestal 10 having at its upper end an integral head 11 provided with a centrally disposed valve opening 12. A hopper seal valve comprising an arcuately movable gate valve 13 of segmental-spherical form is normally closed against a circular valve seat in head 11 defining the valve openeing 12. This type of valve has the advantage of being self-cleaning and requiring only mini mum spring-loading for returning it to a closed position at the end of a flushing operation, and is therefore a preferred type. However, it is to be understood that my improved hopper can be embodied in mechanical seal toilets utilizing valves of other types (e.g. flapper type) and that the present invention is not restricted to the combination of the hopper with the particular toilet mechanism herein disclosed. The valve 13 has a suitable extension arm 14 which is mounted upon a rock-shaft 15 intersecting the geometric center of the spherical face of the valve 13, the ends of shaft 15 being rotatably mounted in suitable bearings 16 in opposite sides of throat A, with the shaft 15 extending along a diameter of the throat A. To one end of shaft 15 is secured an arm 17 forming part of the operating linkage G.
In its normally closed position, the hopper seal valve 13 is disposed horizontally as shown in full lines in FIG. 2. The valve is rotated through approximtaely about the axis of shaft 15 to dispose it in the open posi tion shown in broken lines in FIG. 2.
At its lower end, throat A has a suitable base flange 3 (which is open) communicating with a suitable opening 19 in the floor B.
The hopper C comprises, in general, a bowl 20 having a bottom outlet neck 21 defining an outlet 22 and terminating in an annular base flange 23 which is provided with suitable apertures to receive bolts 24 (FIG. 1) for bolting the hopper to the head 11 of the throat A. Hollow gussets 25, 26 and 27 or equivalent bracing means are formed integrally with the bowl 20 and with the base flange 23 at the front, back and sides of the bowl respectively and function as braces between the base and the bowl to strengthen the outlet neck 21. The bowl has a tubular rim 28, including a peripheral wall 29, encircling the top thereof and provided with rim flush apertures 30 in an internal underneath shoulder 31 thereof. The upper portion of the rim defines an annular flushing passage 32. The lower portion of the rim is a channel 33 which extends below the plane of apertures 30 to provide a water reservoir 34 supplementing the plenum chamber reservoir which will now be described.
' As a principal water storage reservoir, which can be of suflicient volume so that the supplementary reservoir 34 can be dispensed with, but is preferably combined with supplementary reservoir 34 as shown herein, a plenum chamber is defined by a skirt which extends around the back and forwardly along the sides of the bowl 25 in spaced relation thereto, said skirt including a transverse back wall 36, a pair of laterally spaced, parallel, forwardly extending ofiset walls 37, a pair of laterally extending intermediate walls 38, and a pair of diverging wings 39, joined integrally to the sides of the bowl 25 at 40. The plenum chamber 35 is further defined by a bottom wall 41 and an upper wall 42. By enlarging the channel 33, the plenum chamber 35 can be reduced in volume or dispensed with.
Above the upper wall 42, an entry chamber 45 (FIGS. 3 and 5) is defined between a shoulder wall 46 projecting rearwardly from back wall 36, a cover wall 47 which is formed as a rearward extension of the top web of tubular rim 28, and a peripheral wall 48 which is formed as an extension of the outer wall 29 of the tubular rim 28. The entry chamber 45 is in communication with the plenum chamber 35 through one or more ports 50 in the upper wall 42 of the plenum chamber. The entry chamber 45 is in direct communication with the two rearward extremities of the flushing passage 32 within a rim 28 and with the supplementary reservoir 34, of which it forms a rearward extension. Hopper C has a tail portion 156 defined by the portions of walls 4648 which project rearwardly from the back wall 36 so as to provide for connection to the water injection line D. Horizontal walls 46 and 47 are provided with respective apertures 56 and 57 for such connection.
A supporting strut extends vertically across the entry chamber 45 being joined integrally to upper wall 42 at its lower end and to cover wall 47 at its upper end. It provides support for the central portion of cover wall 47. Integral sleeves 155 of similar construction (FIG. 3) are provided in the tail portion 156. Sleeves 155 define vertical openings for through bolts to connect a seat and cover to the hopper in a conventional manner.
Formed integrally with the bottom wall 41 of the plenum chamber, extending upwardly therefrom and joined integrally to the back wall of bowl 20 and with top wall 42, is an overflow tube 58 which terminates in an overflow nipple 59 projecting upwardly into the entry chamber 45 and having at its tip an overflow port 60 disposed above the level of flushing apertures 30 but below the level of the top of rim 28, for limiting the rise of the water level in the entry chamber 45 (and within the bowl 20) so as to prevent overflow from the bowl over the rim 28 in the event of stoppage of the bowl outlet 22 during a flushing operation.
In the back wall of bowl 20, just above the bottom wall 41 of the plenum chamber 35, is a bleed port 61 which communicates with the bottom of plenum chamber 35 to drain from the plenum chamber and from the supplementary reservoir 34, the water standing therein below the level of flushing apertures 30 at the completion of a rim-flush operation, which will occur when the actuator mechanism G is released to effect closing of the hopper seal valve 13 and of the water valve of injection line D. The quantity of water thus drained from the plenum chamber reservoir and the supplementary reservoir is sufficient to fill the lower portion of the bowl 20 to provide the retained body of water H.
Injection line D, which may be of conventional construction, comprises a supply line 65 leading from the pressurized source of Water E to a normally-closed water valve 66 which may be mounted on the side of discharge throat A; an extension line 67 leading from the outlet of valve 66 to the bottom of the rearwardly projecting tail portion 156 of the hopper; and a standpipe 68 which is coupled to the extension line 67, secured in the bottom wall 46 and sealed thereto by a suitable gasket or O-ring 69. Standpipe 68 extends upwardly through the openings 56 and 57 and terminates at a suflicient height above the cover wall 47 to meet the requirements of plumbing codes for the injection of flushing water into a toilet bowl. The upper end of standpipe 68 is normally closed by a poppet 70 seated thereon and having a stem slidably mounted in a guide bushing in the top 71 of a tubular jacket 72 enclosing standpipe 68 and having its lower end secured and sealed to the cover wall 47 in the aperture 57 by suitable convention securing nuts and gaskets elernents, indicated collectively at 73.
In the injection of water into the entry chamber 45, the poppet 70 will lift to permit the flow of water (under pressure from source E) from the thus-opened upper end of standpipe 68 into an annular passage defined between standpipe 68 and jacket 72, thence downwardly through such annular passage and through its open lower end into the entry chamber 45, from which it Will flow into plenum chamber 35 and into the rim chambers 32 and 34.
Water source E, which in itself forms no part of the present invention, may comprise a conventional reservoir tank 75 containing an adequate supply of water and having suflicient additional space above the body of water therein for the reception of air under pressure through a suitable valve inlet 76. The tank 75 is maintained under sufficient pressure to lift the water to the top of standpipe 68.
A conventional vacuum-breaker 77 for preventing backflow of water from hopper C into supply line D, is provided for protection in any installation involving connection of line D to a public water supply line, thus meeting code requirements for preventing contamination of a water system.
P-trap F may be of conventional construction comprising a tube 80 having its upper end coupled to the lower end of overflow tube 58 of hopper C and having a goose neck trap portion 81 at its lower end, terminating in a connection to the upper end of discharge throat A. Thus any overflow will be discharged through the throat A below the valve 13.
Actuator linkage G may comprise a lever 85 pivoted at 86 to the side of throat A and having a forwardly projecting foot pedal 87 adapted to be depressed by a users foot, thus raising the rearward arm of lever 85 so as to transmit opening movement to water valve 66 through a valve stem 88 pivoted to the rear end of lever 85; and to correspondingly transmit opening movement to hopper seal valve 13 through a push rod 89 linked to the lever 85 and to the valve arm 17 respectively. A retrun spring 90 is suitably connected between lever 85 and throat A to return the lever 85 to its normal position shown in full lines, thus effecting closing of the valves 13 and 66 when pressure on the pedal 87 is released.
Operation The operation of the apparatus will be largely understood from the foregoing description, and will be reviewed only briefly at this point. Water in the reservoir 75, under pressure from the compressed air in the top of the reservoir, will normally be retained by the closed water valve 66. The body of water H in the bowl 20 will likewise be retained by the normally closed hopper seal valve 13.
A flushing operation is initiated by depressing the pedal 87, simultaneously opening the valves 13 and 66. The retained body of water H in the bowl will quickly be discharged from the bowl through the discharge throat A as a result of the opening of hopper seal valve 13, and most of the matter deposited in the bowl during its use will be carried away with the body of water H.
The opening of water valve 66 will result in water being injected under pressure through the extension line 67 and the stand pipe 68, raising poppet 70 and thence flowing downwardly through jacket 72 into the entry chamber 45 at the rear end of the hopper C. From the entry chamber 45, the water will flow into the plenum chamber 35 through the openings 50 in upper wall 42 thereof and into the auxiliary reservoir 34 and the flushing chamber 32 of flushing rim 28. As the water rises above the level of flushing apertures 30 in flushing chamber 32, rim flush discharge of water through apertures 30 will commence. It is contemplated that approximately two quarts of water will be used in a normal flushing operation and will be adequate to complete the operation. The plenum chamber 35 and auxiliary reservoir 34 will tobether hold approximately half of this volume, and the remaining half of the injected water will flow into the flushing chamber 32 and through the flushing apertures 30 during injection.
The user will learn by experience approximately how long the valves must be held open to effect the delivery of the proper amount of water to the hopper C, and will release the pedal 87 to arrest the injection of water into the hopper. The rim flush operation will continue until the level of water in flushing chamber 32 has dropped to the level of apertures 30. Thereafter, the water standing in plenum chamber 35 and auxiliary reservoir 34 will drain slowly through the bleed aperture 61, filling the bottom of the bowl (now closed by flush valve 13) to provide the retained body of water H therein.
1. A hopper for a mechanical-seal toilet having a tubu lar discharge throat provided with a valve opening at its upper end and a hopper seal valve for normally closing said hopper comprising: a receiving bowl having a tubular flushing rim provided with rim-flush apertures, said bowl having in its bottom an outlet for coupling to said upper end of the throat so as to be normally closed by said hopper seal valve; means integral with said bowl defining a plenum chamber externally of said bowl, said chamber extending to the level of said rim and communicating therewith for delivering water to said rim for flushing said bowl; and means providing for restricted bleed of water from said plenum chamber into the lower area of said bowl after completion of a flushing operation, whereby to deposit a body of retained water in said bowl.
2. A hopper as defined in claim 1, wherein said plenum chamber is disposed largely at the rear of said bowl and communicates with the rear portion of said flushing rim.
3. A hopper as defined in claim 2, wherein said plenum chamber extends horizontally and forwardly around the sides of said bowl.
4. A hopper as defined in claim 3, wherein said plenum chamber has a bottom disposed at a level intermediate between the levels of said flushing rim and of said bottom outlet and wherein said bleed means comprises at least one restricted aperture in the back of said bowl adjacent the said plenum chamber bottom.
5. A hopper as defined in claim 4, wherein said plenum chamber bottom is disposed in a horizontal plane substantailly midway between the planes of said flushing rim and said bottom outlet, wherein said plenum chamber has an upper wall disposed in a horizontal plane below said flushing rim; and wherein said communication means comprises a port in said upper wall adjacent the back of said plenum chamber.
6. A hopper as defined in claim 1, including a channel member encircling said bowl in the upper portion thereof and formed as a downward extension of said flushing rim below said rim flush apertures, said channel member communicating with said plenum chamber at the back of the bowl to provide a supplementary water storage reservoir.
7. A hopper for a mechanical-seal toilet having a tubular discharge throat provided with a valve opening at its upper end and a valve for normally closing said opening, said hopper comprising: a receiving bowl having a tubular rim provided with rim-flush apertures intermediate the top and bottom thereof, whereby said rim provides above said apertures an annular conduit for circulation of flushing water to said apertures and provides, below said apetures, an annular reservoir for water to be drained into the bowl at the completion of a flushing operation; means at the back of the bowl defining a chamber communicating with said reservoir and adapted to receive flushing water from a pressurized source and to deliver it to said reservoir; and a restricted bleed port in the back wall of said bowl communicating with the lower area of said chamber for effecting said draining of water from said annular reservoir into said bowl at the completion of a flushing operation.
8. A hopper as defined in claim 7, wherein said chamber extends downwardly from said annular reservoir to a level approximately midway between the level of said rim flush apertures and the bottom of the bowl, said bleed port being located adjacent the bottom of said chamber.
9. A hopper for a mechanical-seal toilet having a tubular discharge throat provided with a valve opening at its upper end and a valve for normally closing said opening, said hopper comprising: a receiving bowl having a tubular rim provided with rim-flush apertures intermediate the top and bottom thereof, whereby said rim provides above said apertures an annular conduit for circulation of flushing water to said apertures and provides, below said apertures, an annular reservoir for water to be drained into the bowl at the completion of a flushing operation; means at the back of the bowl for injecting water from a pressurized source into said reservoir; and a restricted bleed port in the back wall of said bowl communicating with said annular reservoir for effecting said draining of water from said annular reservoir into said bowl at the completion of a flushing operation.
10. A hopper as defined in claim 9, wherein said hopper includes at its rear end, a rearwardly projecting tail portion defining an entry chamber formed as a rearward extension of said annular reservoir; a Water line attached to said tail portion and communicating with said entry chamber to provide said injecting means; and means providing communication between said entry chamber and said bleed port.
11. A hopper as defined in claim 10, wherein said annular reservoir is circumferentially coextensive with said rim.
12. A hopper for a mechanical-seal toilet having a tubular discharge throat provided with a valve opening at its upper end and hopper seal valve for normally closing said opening, said hopper comprising: a receiving bowl having a tubular flushing rim and having a bottom outlet for coupling to the upper end of said throat so as to be normally closed by said valve; a skirt extending around the back and forwardly around the sides of said bowl and integrally joined thereto so that a plenum chamber is defined between said skirt, said bottom wall and said bowl around the back and sides of said bowl; means providing communication between the top of said plenum chamber and the rearward portion of said flushing rim for delivery of water from said plenum chamber to said rim for flushing said bowl; and means providing for restricted bleed of water from said plenum chamber into the lower area of said bowl after completion of a flushing operation, whereby to deposit a body of retained water in said bowl.
13. A hopper as defined in claim 12, wherein said restricted bleed means comprises at least one restricted port in the rear wall portion of said bowl communicating with said plenum chamber just above said bottom wall whereby said plenum chamber will be substantially drained at the completion of a flushing operation.
14. A hopper for a mechanical seal toilet having a discharge throat and a hopper seal valve for closing the upper end of said throat, said hopper comprising: a bowl having a tubular flushing rim and a bottom outlet attachable to the upper end of said throat and normally closed by said valve; a skirt extending around the back and forwardly around the side of said bowl in spaced relation thereto; means sealing the bottom of said skirt to the bowl to define between said bowl and skirt a plenum chamber having, at the back of the hopper a rearwardly extended pocket portion; means defining above said pocket portion, an entry chamber at the level of said rim and communicating therewith to deliver thereto, flushing water when the same is injected into said entry chamber from a pressurized source; means providing for flow of water from said entry chamber into said pocket portion; and a bleed port in the wall of said bowl communicating with said plenum chamber near the bottom thereof for draining from said plenum chamber the residual water therein following a flushing operation, whereby to deposit a body of retained water in said bowl.
15. A hopper as defined in claim 14, including an upper wall for said plenum chamber, bridging horizontally from said skirt to said bowl between said entry and plenum chambers in a horizontal plane disposed below said flushing rim, said upper wall having therein a port providing said communication between said entry chamber and said pocket portion of the plenum chamber.
7 16. A mechanical-seal toilet comprising in combination: a hopper including a flushing rim and a bottom outlet; a tubular discharge throat having an upper end supporting said hopper and having in said upper end a valve opening sealed to said outlet; a hopper seal valve mounted in said throat for normally closing said opening and movable to an open position for discharging the contents of the hopper downwardly through said throat; means defining a plenum chamber externally of said bowl, said chamber communicating with said rim for delivering water thereto for flushing said bowl; means including a water valve for eifecting the injection of water from a pressurized source into said plenum chamber and into said flushing rim; control means for simultaneously opening said hopper seal valve and said water valve; and means providing for restricted bleed of water from said plenum chamber into the lower area of said bowl after completion of a flushing operation, whereby to deposit a body of retained water in said bowl.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,343,730 6/20 Krohn 479 2,815,510 12/57 Mayne et al. 479 3,038,169 6/62 OBrien 479 LEWIS J. LENNY, Primary Examiner.