US 3215186 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 2, 1965 RB. LEVITT 3,215,186
FLAME COLORATION APPARATUS Filed April 7, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. PERCY B. LEVITT ATTORNEY Nov. 2, 1965 P. B. LEVlTT FLAME COLORATION APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 7, 1964 m w W.
PERCY B. L VITT ATTORNEY United States Patent v 3,215,186 FLAME COLORATION APPARATUS Percy B. Levitt, Milburn, N.J., assignor to Cities Service Oil Company, a corporation of Delaware Filed Apr. 7, 1964, Ser. No. 357,914 3 Claims. (Cl. 158-63) This invention relates to apparatus for coloring a flame in the combustion of a hydrocarbon. More particularly this invention relates to apparatus for imparting coloration to a flame from a petroleum fuel such as petroleum oil or liquified petroleum gas used in flame cultivation.
Flame methods for the destruction of weeds have gained in usage in the cultivation of certain crops as a substitute for or in conjunction with plow methods. Thus, in flame cultivation the flames are used to destroy or impair vegetation in or adjacent to a plant row. The fuel employed for the flame is generally that of a petroleum oil or liquified petroleum gas.
Eflective burning of the weeds or other undesired vegetation without undue damage to the desired crop requires that the farmer or operator of the flame cultivation equipment be able to see the total flame area. However, liquified petroleum gas, which is also simply referred to herein as L.P.G., normally burns with a non-luminous flame which is particularly diflicult to see in bright daylight. Also, in bright daylight, it is often diflicult to see the flame from petroleum oil. Thus, the operator cannot always determine the flame front and whether all of the burners are in operation.
It is an object of this invention to provide apparatus for coloration of a hydrocarbon flame issuing from a burner.
It is another object of this invention to provide apparatus for injecting a solution of flame colorant into a flame wherein it is not necessary to pump or maintain pressure on the flame colorant solution.
It is a further object of this invention to provide apparatus for injecting a colorant into a flame from L.P.G. used in flame cultivation.
Other objects and advantages of the invention which is designed for simplicity, economy and efliciency will become more apparent from the following description.
Briefly, the apparatus comprises a burner nozzle for injection of petroleum fuel into a combustion area, aspirator or spraying means including an opening aligned with said combustion area, fuel conduit means having a first opening for supplying fuel to said burner and a second opening for supplying a stream of fuel to said aspirator for ejection out of the aspirator means opening, said aspirator means opening and said burner opening being in spaced relation and said aspirator opening operatively aligned to permit injection of fuel and aspirated or sprayed fluid from the aspirator into fuel injected from the burner.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the fuel employed is a pressurized normally gaseous petroleum fuel having from 3 to 4 carbon atoms such as liquified petroleum gas. The apparatus comprises an enclosed expansion chamber for expansion or vaporization of the petroleum gas. The expansion chamber has means for receiving a stream of the petroleum. A burner nozzle in a combustion chamber has conduit means communicating with the expansion chamber. Vaporous fuel is ejected from the burner nozzle into the combustion chamher where it is ignited and projected out of the combustion chamber into the atmosphere. A second portion or stream of vaporous petroleum from the expansion chamber passes through conduit means and operates an aspirator assembly for the aspiration of a fluid such as an aqueous solution of a flame colorant into this 3,215,186 Patented Nov. 2, 1965 portion of the fuel. The petroleum operating the aspirator assembly is then injected from the aspirator assembly into the vapors from the burner nozzle either within the combustion chamber or forward of the combustion chamber. The fuel ejected from the burner nozzle is then burned in contact with the flame colorant.
For a better understanding of the invention reference is made to the accompanying drawings which show one embodiment of the invention and wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a side view of a mobile flame cultivation assembly;
FIGURE 2 is a rear view of the assembly showing the flame cultivation equipment;
FIGURE 3 is a top view of a burner assembly employed in this invention;
FIGURE 4 is a side elevation of the burner assembly of FIGURE 3.
Referring now to the drawings wherein identical numerals refer to identical parts, tractor 10 carries flame cultivation assembly 11 supported and held in place by cradle 16 together with straps 17. The flame cultivation assembly comprises tank 14 containing liquified petroleum gas under a pressure of about 200 p.s.i. (pounds per square inch), a short outlet line 18, communicating with the L.P.G. in tank 14, and a valve 19 for releasing L.P.G. into conduits 20 and 20 which feed L.P.G. into expansion zones 26 of burners 12. The L.P.G. is vaporized in the expansion zones. Each of the burners 12 comprises a hollow elongated casing which is divided into two chambers by plate 36. The lower, or combustion chamber 28 has a front open end 27a, a plate 27 defining the bottom of the combustion chamber 28 and a plate 33 at its back end. Plate 33 has openings 32 for admitting air into combustion chamber 28 and an opening through which aspirator assembly tube 24 protrudes into chamber 28. A burner nozzle 29 having a burner orifice 29a is positioned within the combustion chamber 28, and communicates with expansion chamber 26 through an opening in plate 36. The burner nozzle and its orifice 29a is aligned with com bustion chamber front opening 27a. The bottom of expansion chamber 26 is defined by the plate 36, whereas its top is defined by plate 25. The front end of expansion chamber 26 is closed by plate 37. Plate 36 has an extension 30 which protrudes outwardly of the front end of the burner assembly. One end of tube 23 communicates with the expansion chamber 26 and its other end is within aspirator or spray tube 24 which is mounted at the rear of combustion chamber 28. Tube 24 has an opening 24a within the combustion chamber and is aligned with the combustion chamber opening 27a. Vapors from tube 23 pass through tube 24 and its opening 24a and are injected into the vapors ejected from burner orifice 29a.
Mounted on each of conduits 20 and 20 are containers 15 which can carry a 1% solution, by weight, of sodium nitrate in water which is continuously metered out through valve 22 into conduit 21. Conduit 21 communicates with the interior of aspirator tube 24. The colorant solution, i.e. aqueous solution of sodium nitrate, is aspirated into the petroleum vapors passing through aspirator tube 24 and these petroleum vapors together with the colorant are injected into the vapors from burner orifice 29a. In addition to aspiration, a substantial portion of the colorant is simply sprayed out of orifice 24a by the passage of the pressurized petroleum therethrough. Burning of the projected vapor from 29a together with the injected colorant gives the flame a coloration.
Although this invention has been described with relation to the injection of a flame colorant into petroleum vapors ejected from a burner used in flame cultivation, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the apparatus of this invention can be employed for other uses and with other types of fuels and injected additives. A use which easily comes to mind is that this invention can be employed for producing a colored flame in a fireplace using L.P.G. or petroleum oil.
What is claimed is:
1. A burner assembly comprising an enclosed expansion chamber, means for supplying a steady stream of petroleum fuel into said expansion chamber, a combustion tube having an open forward end, openings rear- Wardly of the open end for admitting air therein, conduit means having one end in the expansion chamber and the other end in the combustion tube, said conduit means end in the combustion tube having a burner nozzle for ejecting petroleum fuel into said combustion tube, second conduit means for conducting petroleum fuel from said expansion chamber and injecting said fuel into the fuel ejected from the burner nozzle, and aspirator means operatively connected with said second conduit means for aspirating a fluid into the fuel of said second conduit means.
2. A burner assembly comprising a casing, a plate dividing said casing into a combustion chamber having an open end and an expansion chamber, first conduit means through said plate communicating with both the expansion and combustion chambers, said first conduit means having a burner nozzle within the combustion chamber and aligned to eject petroleum fuel through the combustion chamber open end, second conduit means for conducting petroleum fuel from the expansion chamber and injecting it into the combustion chamber and the fuel ejected from said burner nozzle, aspirator means operatively connected to said second conduit means for aspirating a fluid therein, said aspirator means operated by petroleum fuel conducted through said second conduit means, and means for admitting petroleum fuel into said expansion chamber.
3. A burner for liquified petroleum gas comprising a casing, a plate dividing said casing into an upper expansion chamber and a lower elongated combustion chamber, said combustion chamber having an open front end and an opening behind said end for admitting air into the combustion chamber, a first conduit having one end in communication with the expansion chamber through an opening in said dividing plate, the other end of said conduit having a burner nozzle in said combustion chamber, the burner nozzle being aligned with the combustion chamber front open end for ejection of petroleum gas therethrough, means for admitting liquified petroleum gas into said expansion chamber, a second conduit having one end in communication with the expansion cham ber above the dividing plate, an aspirator tube having a closed end and a front end having a restricted orifice aligned with the combustion chamber open end, the front end of said aspirator tube positioned within the combustion chamber behind the burner nozzle, said second conduit means communicating with the aspirator tube behind the aspirator tube front end for supplying petroleum gas to said aspirator tube for ejection out of the aspirator tube restricted opening toward the combustion chamber open end and means for supplying the aspirator tube with a colorant solution for aspiration into the petroleum gas passing through the aspirator tube.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,270,442 1/ 42 J ares 67-1 2,858,729 11/58 Keyes 67--1 X 3,075,577 1/63 Cazalas l58--117.5 X
JAMES W. WESTHAVER, Primary Examiner.
ROBERT A. DUA, Examiner.