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Publication numberUS3215211 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 2, 1965
Filing dateOct 1, 1963
Priority dateOct 1, 1963
Publication numberUS 3215211 A, US 3215211A, US-A-3215211, US3215211 A, US3215211A
InventorsWebb Derrel D
Original AssigneeHouston Engineers Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hydraulic jar
US 3215211 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

D. D. WEBB HYDRAULIC JAR Nov. 2, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Oct. 1, 1963 u W ZZZ INVENTOR DERREL D. WEBB ATTORNEY 0. D. WEBB HYDRAULIC JAR Nov. 2, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 1, 1963 INVENTOR DERREL D. WEBB ATTORNEY United States Patent Office 3,215,211 Patented Nov. 2, 1965 3,215,211 HYDRAULIC JAR Derrel B. Webb, Houston, Tex., assignor to Houston Engineers, lnc., Houston, Tern, a corporation of Texas Filed Oct. 1, 1963, Ser. No. 312,949 Claims. (Cl. 175296) This invention relates to well apparatus and more particularly to a hydraulic jar designed to impart an impact to well tools or other objects lodged in a well beore for the purpose of removing the same and also contemplates a device which will operate substantially independently of external pressur s or temperatures.

As is well known, broken drills, broken sections of pipe and other objects occasionally become lodged in the bore of a well during drilling operations and when this occurs, drilling operations must be suspended until the objects have been removed. This often requires long and tedious fishing operations and in order to facilitate the removal of such objects, it has heretofore been proposed to utilize various types of jarring mechanisms to impart an impact to the objects lodged in the well bore in order to free the same and such jarring mechanisms have also included those of the so-called hydraulic type in which a fluid is utilized to facilitate building up a force or tension in a pipe string, Wire line or the like, which when released, imparts an upward impact to the objects lodged in a well bore in order to free the same.

It is accordingly an object of the present invention to provide a hydraulic jar which may be suspended in a well on the end of a wire line and is designed to deliver an impact only in one direction.

A further object of the invention is the provision of a hydraulic jar which is relatively simple in construction embodying only four relatively movable parts thereby reducing the cost of manufacture and providing a long wearing dependable device.

A still further object of the invention is the provision of a hydraulic jar designed to deliver an impact in one direction only and which may be rapidly and conveniently reset for delivering a further impact, such resetting operation being entirely free of impact in the opposite direction to that desired Another object of the invention is the provision of a hydraulic jar utilizing a closed fluid chamber filled with a hydraulic working fluid and in which means is provided for adjusting for differences in pressure and temperature between the chamber and the exterior of the device thereby maintaining the operation of such device substantially independent of such differences in pressure or temperature.

Further objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view showing a hydraulic jar constructed in accordance with this invention;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken substantially on the line 22 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a secional view taken substantially on the line 33 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view showing the relationship between the piston and valve sleeve prior to delivering an impact; and

FIG. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view similar to FIG. 4, but showing the relative position between the piston and valve sleeve at one point during the resetting operation.

With continued reference to the drawings, there is shown a hydraulic jar constructed in accordance with this invention and comprising an elongated hollow cylinder body which is of a suflicient length to provide for adequate travel of the parts received therein and also for containing an adequate quantity of hydraulic working fluid. Secured to the upper end of the cylinder body 10 is a gland 11 having a bore 12 extending therethrough and the gland 11 may be removably secured to the cylinder body 10 by screw threaded means 13 and a suitable packing means 14 is provided for preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the cylinder body 10. It is to be noted that a portion 15 of the bore 12 is somewhat enlarged and the purpose thereof will be later described. The lower end 16 of the gland 11 forms a shoulder within the cylinder body 10 to provide an anvil, the function of which will be later described.

An elongated valve sleeve 25 is slidably received in bore 12 of the gland 11 and projects downwardly into the cylinder body 10 and terminates at the lower end in a piston 18 disposed in the chamber 19 provided by the cylinder body 10. Packing means 40 is provided in the gland 11 engaging the surface of mandrel 17 to prevent leakage of fluid from the chamber 19 and furthermore, wiping means 20 is provided in the gland 11 engaging the surface of mandrel 17 to wipe fluid and foreign material therefrom, thereby reducing wear during operation of the apparatus.

A suitable coupling means 21 is removably secured by screw threaded means 22 to the upper end of the mandrel 17 and the coupling means 21 is locked against removal from the mandrel 17 by a suitable set screw 23. The upper end of the coupling means 21 is provided with screw threaded coupling means 24 for attaching the same to a complementary coupling means on a wire line from which the device of this invention is suspended.

An elongated value sleeve 25 is slidably received in the chamber 19 of the cylinder body 10 and the valve sleeve 25 surrounds the piston 18 and is provided at the lower end thereof with an inwardly extending radial flange 26. As clearly shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, the valve sleeve 25 is provided with by-pass slots 27 in the wall thereof extending between the flange 26 and a point 28 substantially intermediate the length of the sleeve 25. It is to be noted that the clearance between the sleeve 25 and the outer surface of the piston 18 and between the outer surface of the sleeve 25 and the inner surface of the cylinder body 10 is sufl'icient to permit limited flow of fluid therebetween during operation of the device and the significance of this fluid flow will later appear during a description of the operation of the device.

Below the valve sleeve 25 is a packing member 29 which is slidably received in the chamber 19 of the cylinder body 10 and suitable packing means 30 is provided on said packing member 29 for engaging the inner wall of the cylinder body 10.

A lower coupling means 31 is removably secured to the lower end of the cylinder body 10 by screw threaded means or the like 32 and the coupling 31 is provided at the lower end with a threaded socket 33 for attaching fishing or other tools to the device. The lower coupling 31 is also provided with a longitudinal passage 34 communicating with the lower end of the chamber 19 in the cylinder body 10 and the passage 34 in turn communicates with radial passages 35 which are open to the exterior of the device.

The upper end 36 of the psiton 18 provides a hammer surface which cooperates with the anvil 16 on the lower end of the gland 11.

In order to facilitate movement of the piston 18 into the upper end of the valve sleeve 25, such upper end may be tapered or flared as shown at 37.

The chamber 19 of the cylinder body 19 may be filled with a suitable hydraulic operating fluid by assembling the tool except for packing member 29 and lower coupling'member 31 and then inverting the tool and filling with the hydraulic fluid. Packing member 29 is then =1) placed in proper position and lower coupling 31 is partially threaded into cylinder body at threads 32. The tool is then turned over and screw threaded plug 39 in opening 38 is removed. Lower coupling 31 is now completely threaded into cylinder body 10, thus permitting any air or excess oil to be discharged through enlarged portion of the bore 12 and out through opening 38, at which time screw threaded plug 39 is replaced.

In operating the device of this invention, the chamber 19 in the cylinder body 10 has been filled with suitable hydraulic fluid and a fishing tool is attached to the lower coupling means 31 while the upper coupling means 21 is attached to a wire line and weight bars, not shown. The device is then lowered into the well and the fishing tool engaged with the object to be removed from the well. Upon exerting an upward pull on the wire line, the mandrel 17 and piston 18 move upward within the valve sleeve 25, and since this operates to create a hydraulic pressure above the sleeve 25, such pressure will exert a downward force on the upper surface of sleeve 25 thereby tending to hold such sleeve in contact with packing member 29. At the same time differential pressures will be exerted on packing member 29 due to the tendency to create a void caused by the upward movement of mandrel 17 out of chamber 19 and from hydrostatic well pressures below packing member 29. When suflicient differential pressures are exerted, packing member 29 will move upward as the mandrel 17 and piston 18 move upward in sleeve 25, thus raising sleeve 25 off its lowermost position. Since the volumetric displacement of packing member 29 is much greater than the volumetric displacement created by withdrawal of mandrel 17 from the fluid chamber 19, this upward movement of packing member 29 and sleeve 25 will be much less than the upward movement of the mandrel 17 and piston 18. During this upward movement of piston 13, there will be a slight leakage of hydraulic fluid between the piston 18 and sleeve 25 and between sleeve 25 and the inner surface of cylinder body 10. Since the hydraulic fluid above piston 18 in chamber 19 is substantially incompressible, the wire line will stretch thereby storing energy therein, but upward movement of piston 18 will be permitted. When the lower end of piston 18 reaches a point in the upper end of valve sleeve 25, there will be a sudden flow of fluid from above the piston 18 to beneath the same, thereby permitting sudden upward movement of piston 18 and this sudden upward movement of piston 18 will result in striking of the upper hammer surface 36 of the piston 18 on the anvil 16 of gland 11 thereby providing an impact which is transmitted through the cylinder body 10 and the lower coupling member 31 to the object in the well engaged by the fishing tool thereby tending to dislodge such stuck object.

Thereafter the wire line and weight bars are lowered which permits downward movement of the mandrel 17 and piston 18 in the chamber 19 and since the majority of the fluid in the chamber 19 is now below the piston 18, there will be created a pressure tending to move packing member 29 downward and at the same time to force valve sleeve 25 upwardly and such upward movement of sleeve 25 and downward movement of piston 18 and packing member 29 will continue until the upper end of the piston 18 moves below the upper ends 28 of the by-pass slots 27 in the sleeve 25 thereby permitting flow of fluid from below piston 18 through the by-pass slots 27 to the space in the chamber 19 above the piston 18, at which time the piston 18, valve sleeve 25 and packing member 29 will resume the relative positions shown in FIG. 1 and the device is now in condition for a further impact or jarring operation.

From the foregoing, it can be seen that packing member 29 not only provides a division between the clean operating fluid required in chamber 19 and the well fluid that may be found in well bores, but also operates to correct unequal pressure tendencies both internally and externally so as to permit automatic adjustments in the restrictive and free travel relationship of piston 18 and sleeve 25, thereby enabling the jar to deliver impact blows over a long period of time and in well bores of great depths and pressures.

It will be obvious that by the above described invention there has been provided a relatively simple, yet highly effective hydraulic jar which may be utilized at the end of a wire line to dislodge objects from a well and which will maintain operating efliciency over a relatively long period of time regardless of pressure or temperature conditions encountered in the well.

It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes may be made in the invention without departing from the spirit and scope thereof and therefore the invention is not limited by that which is shown in the drawings and described in the specification, but only as indicated in the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A uni-directional hydraulic jar comprising a hollow elongated cylinder body, means providing an anvil carried by said body, an elongated mandrel slidably received in said body, the space within said body providing a fluid receiving chamber, packing means in the upper part of said body engaging said mandrel, coupling means on the upper end of said mandrel for attaching the same to a line or fishing string, a piston on the lower end of said mandrel disposed in said chamber, means on said piston providing a hammer surface for striking said anvil upon completion of upward movement of said mandrel with respect to said body, a sleeve slidably received in said body, an inwardly extending flange at the lower end of said sleeve, by-pass slots in the wall of said sleeve extending between said flange and a point intermediate the length of said sleeve, said sleeve slidably receiving said piston, a clearance space between said sleeve and said body and between said sleeve and said piston, said sleeve providing a valve cooperating with said piston during a portion of the travel of said piston to restrict liquid flow in one direction to said clearance spaces and during another portion of piston travel to permit substantially unrestricted flow of liquid in the opposite direction, a packing member slidably received in said body below said sleeve, packing means on said packing member engaging the inner wall of said body and a coupling means secured to the lower end of said body for attaching the same to a tool, said last named coupling means having a passage communicating with the interior of said body below said packing member and with the exterior of said last named coupling member to permit the flow of well fluid into and out of said body below said packing member, the aforesaid combination of elements constituting means to move said packing member upwardly or downwardly in said body when said piston is moved to adjust the restrictive and free travel relationship of said piston and sleeve and to maintain substantial pressure equilibrium between the interior of said body above said packing member and the exterior of said body.

2. A uni-directional hydraulic jar comprising a hollow elongated cylinder body, means providing an anvil carried by said body, an elongated mandrel slidably received in said body, the space within said body providing a fluid receiving chamber, packing means in the upper part of said body engaging said mandrel, coupling means on the upper end of said mandrel for attaching the same to a line or fishing string, a piston on the lower end of said mandrel disposed in said chamber, means on said piston providing a hammer surface for striking said anvil upon completion of upper movement of said mandrel with respect to said body, a sleeve slidably received in said body, an inwardly extending flange at the lower end of said sleeve, by-pass slots in the wall of said sleeve extending between said flange and a point intermediate the length of said sleeve, said sleeve slidably receiving said piston, a clearance space between said sleeve and said body and between said sleeve and said piston, said sleeve providing a valve cooperating with said piston during a portion of the travel of said piston to restrict liquid flow in one direction to said clearance spaces and during another portion of piston travel to permit substantially unretricted flow of liquid in the opposite direction, a packing member slidably received in said body below said sleeve and a coupling means secured to the lower end of said body for attaching the same to a tool, said last named coupling means having a passage communicating with the interior of said body below said packing member and with the exterior of said last named coupling member to permit the flow of well fluid into and out of said body below said packing member, the aforesaid combination of elements constituting means to move said packing member upwardly or downwardly in said body when said piston is moved to adjust the restrictive and free travel relationship of said piston and sleeve and to maintain substantial pressure equilibrium between the interior of said body above said packing member and the exterior of said body.

3. A uni-directional hydraulic jar comprising a hollow elongated cylinder body, means providing an anvil carried by said body, an elongated mandrel slidably received in said body, the space within said body providing a fluid receiving chamber, packing means in the upper end of said body engaging said mandrel, coupling means on the upper end of said mandrel for attaching the same to a line or fishing string, a piston on the lower end of said mandrel disposed in said chamber, means on said piston providing a hammer surface for striking said anvil upon completion of upward movement of said mandrel with respect to said body, a sleeve slidably received in said body, inwardly extending means at the lower end of said sleeve, bypass slots in the wall of said sleeve extending between a point adjacent the lower end of said sleeve and a point intermediate the length of said sleeve, said sleeve slidably receiving said piston, a clearance space between said sleeve and said body and between said sleeve and said piston, said sleeve providing a valve cooperating with said piston during a portion of the travel of said piston to restrict liquid flow in one direction to said clearance spaces and during another portion of piston travel to permit substantially unrestricted flow of liquid in the opposite direction, a solid packing member having a diameter substantially equal to that of said sleeve slidably received in said body below said sleeve and a coupling means secured to the lower end of said body for attaching the same to a tool, said last named coupling means having a passage comunicating with the interior of said body below said packing member and with the exterior of said last named coupling member to permit the flow of well fluid into and out of said body below said packing member, whereby said packing member may move upwardly or downwardly in said body to adjust the restrictive and free travel relationship of said piston and sleeve and to maintain substantial pressure equilibrium between the interior of said body above said packing member and the exterior of said body.

4. A uni-directional hydraulic jar comprising a hollow elongated cylinder body, means providing an anvil carried by said body, an elongated mandrel slidably received in said body, the space within said body providing a fluid receiving chamber, packing means in the upper part of said body engaging said mandrel, coupling means on the upper end of said mandrel for attaching the same to a line or fishing string, a piston on the lower end of said mandrel disposed in said chamber, means on said piston providing a hammer surface for striking said anvil upon completion of upward movement of said mandrel with respect to said body, a sleeve slidably received in said body, inwardly extending means at the lower end of said sleeve, by-pass slots in the wall of said sleeve extending between a point adjacent the lower end of said sleeve and a point intermediate the length of said sleeve, said sleeve slidably receiving said piston, a clearance space between said sleeve and said body and between said sleeve and said piston, said sleeve providing a valve cooperating with said piston during a portion of the travel of said piston to restrict liquid flow in one direction to said clearance spaces and during another portion of piston travel to permit substantially unrestricted flow of liquid in the opposite direction, a packing member slidably received in said body below said sleeve, a coupling means secured to the lower end of said body for attaching the same to a tool and means providing communication between the interior of said body below said packingmember and the exterior of said body to permit the flow of well fluid into and out of said body below said packing member, the aforesaid combination of elements constituting means to move said packing member upwardly or downwardly in said body when said piston is moved to adjust the restrictive and free travel relationship of said piston and sleeve and to maintain substantial pressure equilibrium between the interior of said body above said packing member and the exterior of said body.

5. A uni-directional hydraulic jar comprising a hollow elongated cylinder body, means providing an avil carried by said body, an elongated mandrel slidably received in said body, the space within said body providing a fluid receiving chamber, packing means in the upper part of said body engaging said mandrel, coupling means on the upper end of said mandrel for attaching the same to a line or fishing string, a piston on the lower end of said mandrel disposed in said chamber, means on said piston providing a hammer surface for striking said anvil upon completion of upward movement of said mandrel with respect to said body, a sleeve slidably received in said body, means on said sleeve for engaging said piston, bypass slots in the wall of said sleeve extending between a point adjacent the lower end of said sleeve and a point intermediate the length of said sleeve, said sleeve slidably receiving said piston, a clearance space between said sleeve and said body and between said sleeve and said piston, said sleeve providing a valve cooperating with said piston during a portion of the travel of said piston to restrict liquid flow in one direction to said clearance spaces and during another portion of piston travel to permit substantially unrestricted flow of liquid in the opposite direction, a solid packing member having a diameter substantially equal to that of said sleeve slidably received in said body below said sleeve, a coupling means secured to the lower end of said body for attaching the same to a tool and means providing communication between the interior of said body below said packing member and the exterior of said body to permit the flow of well fluid into and out of said body below said packing member, whereby said packing member may move upwardly or downwardly in said body to adjust the restrictive and free travel relationship of said piston and sleeve and to maintain substantial pressure equilibrium between the interior of said body above said packing member and the exterior of said body.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,637,505 8/27 Wigle -297 X 2,645,459 7/53 Sutliif 175297 2,802,703 8/57 Harrison 175297 3,005,505 10/61 Webb 175297 CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1637505 *Jun 1, 1925Aug 2, 1927Wm D ShafferRotary hydraulic jar mechanism
US2645459 *Aug 6, 1951Jul 14, 1953Sutliff Wayne NHydraulic jar
US2802703 *Aug 2, 1956Aug 13, 1957Houston Engineers IncHydraulic jar
US3005505 *Jul 27, 1959Oct 24, 1961Houston Engineers IncHydraulic jar
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3385384 *Mar 14, 1966May 28, 1968Rowe A. PlunkHydraulic jar
US5033557 *May 7, 1990Jul 23, 1991Anadrill, Inc.Hydraulic drilling jar
Classifications
U.S. Classification175/296
International ClassificationE21B31/113, E21B31/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21B31/113
European ClassificationE21B31/113