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Publication numberUS3215902 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 2, 1965
Filing dateDec 28, 1962
Priority dateDec 28, 1962
Publication numberUS 3215902 A, US 3215902A, US-A-3215902, US3215902 A, US3215902A
InventorsFoley Arthur J, Thomas Foley Clifford
Original AssigneeFoley Arthur J, Thomas Foley Clifford
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Diode rectified and solenoid actuated mechanism
US 3215902 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

N viz, 1965 M. FOLEY Em 3,215,902




United States Patent 3,215,902 DIODE RECTIFIED AND SOLENOID ACTUATED MECHANISM Arthur J. Foley and Clifford Thomas Foley, Portland, Conn. Filed Dec. 28, 1962, Ser. No. 251,459 3 Claims. (Cl. 317-123) This application is a continuation-in-part of our formerly copending application Serial No. 209,940 filed on July 16, 1962, for a Solenoid Actuated Mechanism which was abandoned subsequently to the filing of this application.

This invention relates in general to solenoid actuated mechanisms and, in particular, todirect current rectified solenoid actuated devices.

Although a wide variety of solenoid actuated mechanisms are well known in the art, these devices have basically fallen into two separate groups, those which operate with an AC. energized coil and those which are operated by a DC. source.

The AC. energized group, although convenient for use in any standard AC. power outlet, are, nevertheless, noted for low durability after repeated use. In this type of device a centrally disposed iron bar is initially displaced to a position within a surrounding energized solenoid, at which point it continues to vibrate in response to the alternating direction of magnetic flux caused by the AC. current. The disadvantages of this constant vibration are compounded by the eddy currents developed by the AC. operated coil and the high amount of power loss dissipated in the development of heat. This heat, in turn, must be transmitted away from the coil, a fact which may severely limit the wide use of this type of device.

Realizing these limitations a number of solenoid actuated mechanisms have been developed which use a direct current source, such as a battery. Although mechanically and electrically preferable, these devices necessitate their own individual power source and are consequently extremely inconvenient for wide-scale applications.

Finally, in an effort to provide a more convenient type of solenoid actuated mechanism, A.C. operated solenoid devices were provided with an external rectifier which would convert the alternating current from a convenient power source to the direct current necessary for more eflicient operation. It has been found, however, that the external D.C. rectifiers were often bulky items, a fact which constitutes an extreme disadvantage in systems where space is at a premium. This type ofrnechanism also presented the added complexity of external wirings, some with direct current and others with alternating current. The awkwardness of these designs has often prevented their use in many applications where a solenoid actuated mechanism is desirable.

In contrast to the above, the solenoid actuated mechanism disclosed by this invention presents a compact, durable unit, small in size, convenient for use with any AC. or DC. outlet and extremely eflicient in operation, developing a minimum amount of heat and requiring a minimum amount of insulation.

Basically this solenoid actuated mechanism is composed of a solenoid coil surrounding an iron bar which is displaced in response to magnetic flux developed in the surrounding solenoid. This displacement of the centrally disposed bar may control any associated mechanism. The alternating current fed to the solenoid coil by a standard power supply, passes through a built in, full wave, D.C. rectifier which is composed of four semi-conductor diodes arranged in a bridge circuit within the structure itself. This rectifier circuit is connected to the DC. energized solenoid coil.

3,215,902 Patented Nov. 2, 1965 The compactness and durability of this structure will be quite apparent along with the other objects and advantages of this invention after referring to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of the invention in a valve structure in which:

FIGURE 1 is an exploded view showing all of the parts of a first embodiment of the solenoid valve in an assembly relation to one another;

FIGURE 2 shows a perspective view of an assembled solenoid embodying this invention;

FIGURE 3 shows a cross-sectional elevational view of a first embodiment taken along the plane 33 in FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 4 shows a schematic plan view of the electrical circuit utilized in this invention;

FIGURE 5 showsa cross-sectional elevational view of a second embodiment of the invention; and

FIGURE 6 shows a cross-sectional bottom view of the second embodiment taken along lines 66 in FIGURE 5.

With reference to the drawings, the invention is illustrated as being incorporated into a valve and includes a cylindrical type of container generally designated by the reference character 10. As illustrated, the valve comprises a cylindrical base section 11, the sides of which contain bored inlet passage 12 and bored outlet passage 13. These inlet and outlet passages 12 and 13 are generally of the same diameter and proceed along the same axis from opposite sides of the base 11.

The inlet passage 12 proceeds about one-third of the way through the base 11 and is separated from the longer outlet passage 13 by a well containing two passages 14 which proceed upwardly from the base of inlet 12. These conduit passages 14 communicate with a third recess 17 which is tapped in the upper surface 18 of the base 11. The bottom of recess 17 forms generally a circular depressed area 19 surrounding a small conical protrusion 24. At the apex of this conical protrusion is a narrow aperture 16 proceeding vertically downwardly, parallel to channels 14, into the horizontal outlet passage 13. In this manner, transient fluid is permitted to flow through the valve 10 via inlet channel 12, perpendicular conduits 14, recess chamber 17, vertical aperture 16 and outlet passage 13.

The flow of fluid through recess chamber 17 and into aperture 16 is controlled by magnetically responsive bar 20 which is cylindrical in form and may be made of ferromagnetic material. As shown in FIG. 3, a softer valve sealing substance 21 is positioned within bar 20. It is actually this material 21 which contacts the upper rim of aperture 16 in a tight sealing relation, thereby cutting off the flow of fluid through the solenoid valve mechanism 10. Magnetically responsive bar 20 is held in this sealing position by compression spring 22 as it acts against core support 25. This core support 25 is composed generally of a thin cylindrical longitudinal portion 28 and a relatively thick flange portion 26 at its base which is threaded and is constructed to engage the threaded recess 17 of cylindrical base 11.

The lower surface of the core support also has a recess 27 which is designed to accommodate the magnetically responsive bar 20. The recess 17 in base 11 in combination with the recess 17 forms a chamber within the valve through which transient fluid moves. The recess 27 is generally composed of a series of tapering recesses, the narrowest of which receives the magnetically responsive bar 20. There is thus provided a stationary surface 28 within recess 27, against which the compression spring 22 may react as it forces magnetically responsive bar 20 downwardly into its closing position.

The entire electrical circuitry of the solenoid valve is encased Within the resin bound assembly 40. Electrical power leads 43 and 44 run from an external A.C. power source (not shown) through assembly 40, to the lower rectifier portion 42 wherein are contained four semi-conductor diodes, such as silicon diodes, arranged in a rectifier circuit.

As shown in FIG. 4, an electrical lead 43 proceeds to input terminal C and electrical lead 44 proceeds to input terminal D. A positive signal received at terminal C from line 43, being blocked by diode 49, will be forced through semi-conductor diode 48 to positive output terminal B. The current then flows through line 55, inductance coil 53, and line 54 to negative output terminal A. Inasmuch as terminal C is at a higher voltage than terminal A, the current will not pass through semi-conductor diode 49 but proceeds through diode 50 and line 45 to negative input terminal D.

When the alternating current being received through lines 43 and 44 is reversed, a positive signal is delivered to terminal D and is blocked from entering line 45 by diode 50 with the result that the current proceeds to line 46 and diode 47 to positive output terminal B. As in the case when the positive signal is delivered to input terminal C, the current then passes through coil 53 from positive terminal B to negative terminal A. The voltage at input terminal D being higher than the voltage at terminal A, no current will flow through semi-conductor diode 50, and all the current will flow through diode 49 to negative input terminal C.

The electrical lines 55 and 54 connect the output terminal of the rectifier in lower portion 42 to the coil 53 located in upper portion 41 of electrical assembly 40. Solenoid 53 is composed of a series of multiple windings of relatively thin diameter wire. The current flowing through these windings develops the magnetic flux necessary for raising the bar 20.

The entire electrical assembly 40 in FIG. 3 is placed between lower flux plate 35 and upper flux plate 60. The central apertures 36, 56, 61 of these three elements are then aligned and mounted upon cylindrical protruding portion 28 of core support 25.

' Electrical assembly 40, mounted in a relatively soft resin, is provided with two interior cylindrical guards which protect the coils and the rectifier. Annular guard 39 protects the interior of rectifier portion 42, while cylindrical sleeve 57 surrounds aperture 56 protecting the inner portion of coil 53.

All. of the elements positioned above base 11 are enclosed within a hollow cylindrical cover 65 which has an upper circular surface containing a central aperture 66. The extreme upper end of the thin cylindrical portion 28 of core support 25 extends through aperture 66. A fastener 70 is threaded on the portion 28. By tightening nut 70, cover 65 is mounted firmly against base 11, forming one continuous surface therewith.

The upper surface of cover 65 has two apertures 68 which provide access to the valve for electrical leads 43 and 44.

During operation the solenoid valve 10 moves between an open position occupied when the electrical circuit is energized and a closed position occupied when the system is de-energized as shown in FIG. 3.

When in this latter position the fluid entering inlet passage 12 and flowing through perpendicular conduits 14 will be held within the chamber formed by the recesses 17 and 27. At this point it Will be blocked" from further flow by the intimate contact of surface 23 against outlet aperture 16. In its closing position, the spring 22 tends to force the magnetically responsive bar 20 and the sealingv material 23 downwardly away from fixed inner surface 28 of core support 25.

When fluid flow through the valve 10 is desired, power isv supplied to. lead'lines 43 and 44. In the manner described above current passes alternatively through the diode 48-coil 53--diode 50 path and then through the diode 51-coil 53diode 49 path. Thus current always proceeds through coil 53 in one direction, from the positive terminal B to the negative terminal A, generally simulating a constant D.C. supply and thereby producing in the solenoid coil a continual magnetic flux through the hollow center 56 of assembly 40. The flux draws magnetically responsive bar 20 upwardly, against the urging of spring 22, moving the bar toward the center of the solenoid. The resistance of spring 22 and the limiting sur face 29 with recess 27 eventually stop this upward movement of bar 20 at an uppermost or free flow, energized position.

In the second embodiment of this invention, shown in FIGS. 5 and 6 the structure is generally similar to the first embodiment with the exception that the resin encased solenoid coil 53 is positioned directly between upper flux plate 6t and a lower flux plate 75. Both flux plates are again positioned substantially coaxially with the solenoid coil. However, in this version of the invention the semi-conductors 47, 48, 49 and 50 which form the same rectifier bridge circuit as described in the first embodiment, are not encased in a resin material and are all separated from the coil by the lower fiux plate. In this arrangement the flux plates will tend to concentrate and direct the magnetic flux developed by the energized solenoid through a field closer around the coil.

In this particular embodiment the lower flux plate 75 has a pair of apertures 76 through which the electrical leads 54 and pass connecting coil 53 with the two output terminals A and B, respectively, as shown in the semiconductor bridge circuit in FIG. 6. In addition this lower flux plate 75 has a second pair of apertures 79 through which the leads 43 and 44 from the external power source may be connected to the input terminals C and D of the rectifier bridge circuit. Other embodiments are, of course, envisioned where the entire rectifier bridge circuit is placed adjacent the upper side of the upper flux plate and connected to the coil 53 through apertures in the upper plate. In this latter case the additional apertures 79 would not be necessary.

The components of the rectifier bridge circuit are held in place and protected in this second embodiment by a positioning plate 77 which is formed preferably from a non-conductive material. This plate, as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, has an aperture 78 passing through its center which permits the positioning of the rectifier circuit in a coaxial arrangement around the core support 25. Furthermore, the individual semi-conductors are suspended in a recess directly above on the upper surface 18 of cylindrical base 11 and are thereby free from the forces locking the entire valve assembly together.

In both of the embodiments of the invention described above the valve may be operated. with any convenient AC. power source, although it can be actuated by DC. In addition to providing an actuating unit with much longer life and greatly diminished size, difiiculties produced by heat transfer and the like are minimized.

Although the invention has been described with respect to two specific utilizations, it is understood that the present disclosure is made only by way of example and that numerous changes in the details of constuct'ion and the combination and arrangement of parts may be resorted to and other utilizations apparent to those skilled in the art may be effected without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as. hereafter claimed.

We claim:

1. A diode rectified solenoid actuated mechanism com magnetically responsive cover surrounding and directly adjacent the outer surface of said solenoid,

a first flux plate extending across one end of said solenoid and connected to one end of said magnetically responsive cover,

second flux plate having an aperture through its center for receiving said armature, extending across the other end of said solenoid and connected to the other end of said magnetic cover, said first and second flux plates being substantially coaxial with the 10 axis of said solenoid,

means for urging said armature to a first position relative to said solenoid,

four semi-conductor diodes connected in a rectifier bridge circuit having two power input terminals and two direct current output terminals, said semi-conductor diodes arranged in a plane substantially perpendicular to the axis of said solenoid and placed in a position between one end of said solenoid and one of said adjacent flux plates,

said flux plate adjacent said semi-conductor diodes diodes and the end of said solenoid adjacent said diodes whereby the magnetic flux developed by said solenoid is shielded from said semi-conductor diodes by said flux plate, and

means connecting said two direct current output terminals of said rectifier bridge circuit to said solenoid for moving said armature to a second position toward the center of said solenoid upon energization of said bridge circuit.

2. A diode rectified solenoid mechanism as defined in claim 1, further comprising a plastic substance permeating and encasing the coils of said solenoid to form a cylindrical body having a hollow core.

3. A diode rectified solenoid mechanism as defined 15 in claim 2 wherein a plastic substance encases said four semi-conductor diodes in a position integral with said plastic encased solenoid.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,096,763 10/37 Ray et al. 25114l X 2,528,734 11/50 Brass 317-191 X 2,988,675 6/61 Bancroft 317191 3,023,777 3/62 Collins 251141 3,040,216 6/62 Krebs 3l7--156 3,131,331 4/64 Ray 3l7123 3,134,932 5/64 Ray 317-191 X 0 JOHN F. BURNS, Primary Examiner.



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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3378732 *Apr 15, 1965Apr 16, 1968Penn ControlsElectromagnetic actuator
US3400797 *Jul 5, 1966Sep 10, 1968Bendix CorpElectromagnetic clutch or brake with dual coils
US3441056 *Feb 15, 1967Apr 29, 1969Continental MachinesRemotely controlled prime mover
US3643194 *Dec 10, 1969Feb 15, 1972Eaton Yale & TowneRectifier encapsulated within coil
US3733047 *Jun 10, 1971May 15, 1973Paul P ElectronicsCompensating plunger for solenoid valve and method of making
US4526340 *Jun 28, 1982Jul 2, 1985Imperial Clevite Inc.Solenoid valve
US4790345 *Feb 17, 1988Dec 13, 1988Parker-Hannifin CorporationProportional valve
US4936337 *Nov 19, 1987Jun 26, 1990Emhart Industries, Inc.Armature for a solenoid operated valve
US5610794 *Apr 28, 1995Mar 11, 1997Von Duprin, Inc.Door holder having electromagnetic flux generator and power control circuit
US6597558 *Apr 27, 2000Jul 22, 2003Mtr, Inc.Solenoid system
WO1989004427A1 *Nov 5, 1987May 18, 1989Larry WilliamsonPilot valve cartridge assembly
U.S. Classification361/142, 251/129.15, 335/255
International ClassificationH01F7/08, H01F7/16
Cooperative ClassificationH01F7/1607
European ClassificationH01F7/16A