US 3216053 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 9, 1965 J, FELlX 3,216,053
HINGE Filed Jan. 14, 1965 INVENTOR. JOHN E. FELIX yq a 170g ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,216,053 HINGE John E. Felix, Youngstown, Ohio, assignor to Lake Park Tool and Die, Inc., Youngstown, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Jan. 14, 1963, Ser. No. 251,078 1 Claim. (Cl. 16128) This invention relates to hinges in general and more specifically involves a hinge structure which is adapted particularly for multiple uses.
The novel hinge arrangement herein disclosed is adaptable for use as interior or exterior hardware and may be used on right or left swinging closures. With no particular modification, the novel extending bushing of the instant case can be used to cooperate with a light weight frame member to bear a part of the load of the door, as will be described more fully hereinafter.
In recent years, hinges for internal use have been manufactured of brass and like materials in order to obtain a decorative effect. Such materials, however, are costly, and thus builders have turned to brass-plated hinges and like substitutes. In order to retain the polished lustre, lacquer or a similar type material has been applied. This is somewhat unsatisfactory in that the coating chips or discolors, thereby requiring repeated polishin'g'. Further, the cost of such hinges is quite high.
The novel hinge arrangement with its extended bushing is suitable for use as internal hardware. When used interiorly, the surfaces can be anodized in many colors, such as gold, or merely polished to obtain the decorative effect of low lustre of modern aluminum furniture, which is well known. Such polishing or anodizing would be effected after the forming operation, and would retain its lustrous appearance for many years since oxidation has been virtually complete. The novel bushing trims the pin ends to give a neat finished appearance to the hinge.
Thus, it can be seen that the hinges herein disclosed can be used interiorly and exteriorly and yet can be formed by the same dies, thereby resulting in savings in die costs.
On exterior openings, light weight metal closures and frames have found wide acceptance in the building and remodeling industry in recent years. Frame and closure members being manufactured of light weight metals, which are costly, have been reduced in thickness so as to minimize the quantity of metal used and curtail excessive costs. The reduction in thickness does not impair the rigidity of the closure or frame member, but one of the limiting factors has always been the hinge connection to the frame.
Several attempts have been made in an effort to solve this problem, resulting in solutions of questionable value. Among the several solutions, one involved the use of a piano or extended hinge which ran the length of the closure and frame. For obvious reasons, this was not completely satisfactory because of the increased cost due to the additional material required for the hinge.
A more recent solution was the utilization of a pin which extended beyond the ends of the hinge, with the extended end being deformed by swedging or the like. The deformed ends of the pin were intended to be approximately the size of a cooperating arcuate portion of the framework so that under severe loading conditions, part of the load would be distributed through the pin end. Several disadvantages of such a solution present themselves when viewed in the light of the present invention.
It is evident that the tolerances of the deformed pin end portions would be more diflicult to control than would be the case if the pin were oversized and turned down to approximate the size of the cooperating arcuate frame member. It can be appreciated that if the pin end is "ice oversized, a proper fit in the arcuate bead of the frame member cannot be had. If the deformed pin end is undersized, a substantial movement of the leaf carried by the frame member would be necessary before the deformed pin end would contact the arcuate frame portion to as sume a part of the load. It is apparent that, if move: ment between the hinge and frame member must be had before the pin end can be fully loaded, the hinge to frame connection will become loose with a resultant weakening of the joint.
Another disadvantage of using a deformed pin end is the reduced area of contact between the deformed pin and the arcuate bead. Moreover, the orientation of the pin would have to be proper or the pin would not come in contact with the arcuate bead of the frame member.
One further disadvantage of using a hinge pin with a deformed end is the requirement of swedging with the leaves assembled, which is cumbersome and additive to the cost of manufacture.
The novel bushing herein disclosed obviates the need for deforming the pin end, which is a distinct advantage. In the disclosed novel assembly, the hinge pin is merely cut to length, inserted in the interfitted knuckles and capped on each end by the novel bushings, without requiring further costly modification of the pin ends. This permits a shorter pin to be used, thereby reducing materialcosts. The use of the shortened pin and novel bushing obviates the need for special tools in assembling, which will hereinafter be explained more fully.
One of the more important aspects of the instant invention is the utilization of a turned or cast part, which is cylindrical, to cooperate with the arcuate bead portion of the frame member so that the two parts are in close fitting engagement over the maximum area of loading surface, which in one concrete embodiment is approximately A further important advantage of the novel hinge construction herein disclosed is its ease of assembly. The extending bushing end cap holds the hinge pin in place by a friction fit with the end knuckles of the three-knuckle leaf and trims the hinge to present a neat appearance. As pointed out previously, the simple steps of assembly ob-' viate the need for special tools or a special machine operator. This permits assembly by labor of minimal skills in the field, if such is desirable or necessary.
In view of the foregoing manifestation of the problems presented by prior art devices and their solution residing in the novel hinge arrangement herein disclosed, it is an object of this invention to provide a novel hinge construction having an extended bushing to cooperate with the arcuate bead of a thin metal frame member.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an extended bushing which will cooperate with the frame member throughout the extent of the bead portion.
It is a still further object of this invention to provide a hinge within an extended bushing which may be used reversibly on either right or left swinging closures.
It is a still further object to provide a bushing which will hold the hinge pin in place without modification of the hinge pin end or deformation thereof.
It is a still further object of this invention to provide a hinge which can be easily and conveniently assembled and installed by labor of minimal skills.
Further novel features will become apparent when reference is made to the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a frame and side stile of a closure with portions of the knuckle, and pin assembly in section;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged cross section taken along the line" 22 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross section taken along the line 33 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4. is a perspective view of the novel hinge;
FIG. 5 is an exploded perspective schematic view of the hinge with the pin and bushings below the three-knuckle leaf; and
FIG. 6 is an-elevational view of the hinge assembly with the lower portion cut away to illustrate the knuckle, pin, and bushing assembly.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, wherein like reference characters indicate like parts, therein is shown a frame member 10. A generally Z-shaped frame member 11 overlies the surfaces 12 and 13 of the frame member 10. The Z-shaped member has a leg 14 with web 16, the latter having a leg 17 extending at an approximate right angle thereto. A series of raised portions or ribs 18 .are provided on the inner surface to rigidify the leg 14, as well as providing a weather-tight seal between the frame member and Z member 11. Where the frame member 10 is of wood, such as fir or the like, the ribs dig into the wood to insure a rigid connection as well as a weather-tight fit.
The arcuate bead has an inner arcuate surface 19 which is approximately concentric with the other surface. The web 16 extends tangentially from the arcuate portion of the head 15 at a right angle to the leg 14 and terminates at the leg. A rib 20 extends from the web into engagement with the door surface 13 to space the web 16 from the frame member 10 to provide the proper spacing for the three-knuckle leaf. The rib is coextensive with the outer surface of the leg 17, the latter having a groove 21 to receive a suitable sealing means 22. .The three-knuckle leaf 23 is interposed in the space between the web 16 and the frame member 10. A suitable fastener 25 joins the web and three-knuckle leaf, as is best shown in FIG. 2. A fragmentary portion of a closure member 24 is illustrated with the two-knuckle leaf 26 of the hinge assembly fastened thereto by suitable means 27. The closure member 24 has ribs 28 on the butt or end portion thereof, which provide a recess to receive the two-knuckle leaf 26. In the illustrated embodiment of FIGS. 2 and 3, the two-knuckle leaf 26 has its outer edge in engagement with the rib 28, thereby lending support along the full length of the hingle leaf 26. It is to be understood,however, that the hinge structure herein disclosed is capable ,of being used with any modification of stile, such as a flush or grooved end.
Referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, it will be noted that the two-knuckle leaf has a sharp bend 29 extending at approximately a right angle to the main body of the leaf and another bend 30 which merges into the curled knuckles 31. By the offset of the leaf this permits the stile 24 to be manufactured with the extending rigidifying ribs 28, which, in the illustrated embodiment, serve to trim the hinge. The offset on the two-knuckle leaf can be omitted when the contemplated use is with a flush surface or, alternatively, bent to fit grooved or similarly modified surfaces.
The two knuckle leaf 26 and three-knuckle leaf 23 are joined by a hinge pin 32. As is best seen in FIG. 4, the pin ends are capped by bushings 33, which are lightly press fitted into the upper and lower knuckles of the threeknuckle leaf. The bushings 33 extend beyond the ends of the knuckles and, as is best seen in FIGS. 4 and 6, conform with the internal arcuate portion 19 of the head 15. It is obvious that the ends of the bushing 33 could be made arcuate or dome-shaped, if desirable. The lower bushing could be provided with a small hole or the like to facilitate insertion of a nail to assist in removing the pin. The bushings are made in the preferred embodiment of material such as that sold under the trade name Oilite, but any suitable plastic or metal could be used. With particular reference to FIG. 5, therein is shown an exploded diagram of the novel hinge assembly. The twoknuckle leaf 26 has knuckles 31 which are curled from the raised surface 35 to form a bore 36, which is counterbored as :at to receive bushings 37. The bushings 37 are inserted in the counterbores to provide a suitable hearing surface for reception of the hinge pin 32, with flanged portion 51 of the bushing providing a bearing surface be- 4 tween the knuckles for free swinging movement therebetween. Y
The three-leaf knuckle comprises a planar leaf portion with curled knuckles 38. The central knuckle 39 has a bore 40 which approximates the external diameter of the pin 32. The upper and lower knuckles 38 and 41 respectively have enlarged bores 42 which approximate the external diameter of the bushing 33 to enable a light press fit thereof.
The bushing 33 has :a central bore which terminates short of one end with the diameter thereof approximately the diameter of the pin 32. The external diameter of the bushing 33 is equal to or slightly greater than the bore 42 of the knuckles so that it may be inserted therein with a light press fit.
When the hinge is assembled as shown in FIG. 4, the extended bushing 33 fit into the upper and lower knuckles with a light press fit, so that the three-leaf knuckle, the bushings 33, and the pin 32 all are fixed with respect to each other. The two-knuckle leaf rotates with respect to the pin and the three-leaf knuckle assembly, with the bush ings 37 providing a smooth bearing surface between the knuckles and pin for smooth movement therebetween.
When exterior use is contemplated, the assembled hinge shown in FIG. 4 is inserted into the Z-shaped frame member 11 from the back side thereof through a rectangular slot 44. The slot 44 can best be seen in FIG. 3 as extending from the termination 45 of the leg 14 to the interruption 46 of the Web. The curvature of the knuckle 31 on the external periphery approximates the curvature of the bead 15. Therefore, when viewed longitudinally, the two surfaces are coextensive and present a very neat and trimmed appearance. The length of the slot 44, as seen in FIG. 1, is slightly greater than the length of the three-knuckle leaf 23 to facilitate the easy insertion therethrough. When the hinge is thus assembled, the extended bushing 33 conforms with the arcuate surface 19 of the Z-shaped frame member, as is best seen in FIGS. 1 and 2.
In operation, when the closure 24 swings with respect to the frame member 10, the two-knuckle leaf 26 pivots about the pin 32 which is carried by the three-knuckle leaf '23. Any shocks imparted to the closure member 24 would be normally carried by the hinge alone. However, in the instant case it can be seen that the load is additionally absorbed by the frame member through the novel extended bushing 33.
The attendant advantages of my novel extended bushing present themselves in the form of savings in the amount of metal required in the frame member 11 since the distribution of loading is extended beyond the hinge, thereby allowing greater load to be supported for a given thickness of metal of the frame member. Accordingly, with the use of the novel extended bushing and hinge construction herein disclosed, the metal thickness can be reduced over that normally required with conventional hinge structures. Such reduction in thickness amounts to a considerable saving in material when due consideration is given to the thousands of such units that are manufactured daily.
A still further advantage resides in the fact that the hinge is capable of use on right or left handed closures. This is directly attributable to the symmetrical arrangement of the hinge. By such design, this obviates the need of making separate hinges for right and left handed closures, or exterior or interior use, thereby permitting the use of a single manufacturing process to produce both types of reversible hinges.
As heretofore pointed out, the length of the unmodified hinge pin can be reduced when used with the novel bushing, resulting in a substantial saving in material while giving rise to economical and simple assembly techniques;
The novel bushing results in a sturdy hinge assembly which is capable of supporting loads beyond those normally anticipated without increased cost of the product.
Moreover, it is capable of enduring years of rugged use and abuse, such as that imposed by energetic youths.
For ease of description, the principles of this invention have been set forth in connection with but a single illustrated embodiment. It is not my intention that the illustrated embodiment, nor the terminology employed in describing it be limiting, inasmuch as variation in these may be made without departing from the spirit of the invent-ion. Rather, I desire to be restricted only by the scope of the appended claim.
A hinge construction for use with a frame assembly having an arcuate recess comprising a first leaf portion having a plurality of knuckles thereon, a second leaf portion having at least one knuckle thereon inserted between the knuckles of the first leaf portion, a cylindrical pin inserted through said knuckles, means interposed between the inner bore of the outermost knuckles of the first leaf portion and the pin to retain said pin in place, said means comprising uniformly cylindrical bushings adapted to be frictionally held between an end portion of the pin and an associated outermost knuckle and dimensioned to extend axially through an associated outermost knuckle and project axially therebeyond for loading engagement with the arcuate portion of the frame recess, said second leaf portion having a counterbored portion in each knuckle thereof adjacent the said outermost knuckles, and a flanged bushing inserted into each counterbored portion to serve as a guide for the pin and a seat for an abuttingly disposed uniformly cylindrical bushing.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,000,856 5/35 Lyons 16136 2,010,659 8/35 Ferris 16136 2,209,125 7/40 Lachwitz 16168 X 2,566,872 9/51 Bernhardt 16128 2,701,384 2/55 Barroers 16149 X 2,772,441 12/56 Riser 16169 2,805,740 9/57 Quinn 16135 X 2,989,772 6/61 Parsons 16162 3,002,592 10/61 Quinn 16148 X 3,013,297 12/61 Ferry 16-169 3,015,126 1/62 Ahlgren 16169 X 3,065,496 11/62 Loughlin 16135 3,077,630 2/63 Lipman 16135 X DONLEY J. STOCKING, Primary Examiner.