US 3216413 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1965 J. A. ARECHETA MOTA 3,216,413
PORTABLE ARTIFI C IAL RESPIRATOR Filed Oct. 4, 1962 INVENTOR. JUAN A. AREZCHETA MOTA ATTORNEYS W m M United States Patent 3,216,413 PORTABLE ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATOR Juan Andrs Arecheta Mota, Ercilla 22, Bilbao, Spain Filed Oct. 4, 1962, Ser. No. 228,469 Claims priority, application Spain Oct. 24, 1961 4 Claims. (Cl. 128-29) This invention concerns a portable apparatus consisting of a single assembly for giving by hand and by one person, artificial respiration in open circuit, with positive and negative pressure, adapting it directly by means of a mask or of endotracheal tubing to persons suifering from drowning, electrocution, asphyxiation, etc., it being likewise possible to introduce gaseous mixtures by this means.
The invention responds to the requirements of modern medicine, limiting the maximum pressure and vacuum to something approximating cmS. and 10cms. of a column of water, it being possible to introduce into or extract from the lungs a satisfactory quantity of air, over 500 cc., which is normal. It is possible to handle the portable device with short instruction, and by any person without medical knowledge, at a rate of 12 to 16 times per minute, whilst the victim is in situation of supine decubitus, head inclined backwards, lower maxillary towards the front and mouth half open.
The extraction of air is even more necessary in those cases when it is necessary to alternate artificial respiration with heart massage.
This emergency apparatus, besides being portable, utilizes a group of components which together form one single assembly without hose and are able to be applied directly to the victim.
In accordance with medical requirements laid down, the apparatus must consist of two recipients of variable volume, one for supplying the intake of fresh air and the other for extraction of foul air, without any possibility existing of their being mixed with each other. There must also be a valve for limiting pressure and another for limiting vacuum. A preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing as an example only. The single figure of the drawing is a diagrammatic vertical section view as will now be described in the following description.
Description Essentially speaking, there are two bellows made of elastic material, parts 1 and 2, whose cross-section is illustrated in the diagram. They are concentrically situated, one inside the other, with their end parts held by an upper shelf, part 3, and a lower shelf, part 4, which also carry the corresponding valves.
The variable volume 26 is composed of the interior of the bellows 1 and shelves, or plates 3 and 4, and is to be used for the intake of fresh air.
The volume 27 is made up by the space between the outside of the bellows -1 and the inside of the bellows 2, the same shelves 3 and 4 limiting their extremities. This device is for the extraction of foul air.
The bellows will be of cross-section similar to that shown in the diagram, their upper and lower surfaces finishing in a reinforced section, parts 5, 6, 7, and 8, that will remain situated in the grooving which, for this purpose, is provided on the shelves.
The upper shelf will carry some free-pitch valves for one direction, parts '9, which by means of holes have free communication from the atmosphere to the volume 26. They will also carry other free-pitch valves 10 that allow of free communication from the volume 27 to the atmosphere.
A drilled plate, part 11, is placed on the upper shelf 3,215,413 Patented Nov. 9, 1965 to serve as protection for the valves, and also a breathing filter. Part 12 is a bottom of the T-shaped tubing, closed on the end 13, and open at 14, for the intake of fresh air. Part -12 is preferably mounted above plate 11 by screws.
lThiS T-shaped tubing also has as one of its objectives to serve as a handle for working the apparatus. Its extremity 14, somewhat longer, allows of a hose being plugged in should it be found necessary to introduce gaseous mixtures.
For constructional reasons, due to the over-all dimensions of the apparatus, the front valves, parts 9, and the valve parts 10 have been duplicated for the purpose of reducing as much as possible loss during the passage of air. For the same reasons, the valves that we describe in the following lines have also been duplicated and placed on the lower shelf, part 4.
This shelf, apart from providing space for the extremities of the bellows, has in its central part, corresponding to the space numbered '26, two valves for over pressure, parts 15, in order to communicate the volume 26 with the mask, when the former has a greater pressure than 10 cms. of a column of water.
The shelf also caries the excess-pressure valves 16, that permit the communication of the air from the mask with the volume 27, when its pressure exceeds 10 cms. of a column of water.
Each of these valves placed on the lower shelving has a drilled shield for potection purposes, part 17.
Each excess-pressure valve, 15 and '16 has, at one side of the valve, a stream and a spring mounted thereon, with a nut which allows of the spring being graduated or adjusted to the aforementioned pressure.
Bearing in mind that the extraction of foul air must be done through the medium of the excess-pressure valve parts 16 and that the volume of the collector tube, mask, mouthpiece and trachea is slightly more than 200 cm. the volume 27 will be slightly greater than the volume 26.
A tube collector of semicircular section, part 1 will be screwed under the lower shelf. It collects and sends the air that passes though the valves, and is connected with the mask via the cental tube 19, which is threaded on the outside.
The mask will be aflixed to the apparatus by means of the thead just mentioned and an elastic joint, part 20. Its lower part is adaptable to the face of the victim, will have a thick flange part 21 made of softer or spongy material.
A thin membrane made of elastic material 22 will be placed on the lateral surface and this will allow of controlling the operation of the apparatus, due to its alternative convexity and concavity.
The mask is crossed in its interior by the bracket 23 which holds the tongue parts 24 which must remain between the upper and lower teeth of the victim.
The mask will have some connecting links whereby two somewhat elastic belts may be fixed that, hugging closely the nape of the neck of the victim, allow of the apparatus being firmly held, so that if one hand should be engaged in the handle 12, the other is free for the purpose of maintaining the lower maxillary of the victim in a forward position, a step that is indispensable in order to establish free means of communication between the mouth and the air tubing.
The mask may be replaced by an adaptor which, threaded into the tube 19 then permits an ordinary endotracheal tube to be plugged in so that, in case the apparatus should be used by a doctor, a minimum degree of performance may be obtained from its use.
Operation The apparatus being in the open position, as shown in the drawing, and probably held over the patient by means mospheric pressure with the formers pressure equal to cms. of a column of water, then valves 16 will be opened which would allow of free travel across the valves 10, so limiting the maximum pressure in the respiratory passages of the patient.
At the same time, the air volume 27 will have escaped by valves 10.
During the following course of extension of the bellows, valves are closed and the volume 26 is fil'led freely by means of valves 9.
Meanwhile, the volume 27 is experiencing a growing lessening of pressure and, when this reaches the fixed value of 10 cms. of a column of water less than the pres sure of the mask, valves 16 are opened, extracting the air from the patient. If the vacuum should exceed the value of 10 cms. of a column of water below the atmospheric pressure, valves -15 should be opened, so limiting this depression. During the next extension movement, the
volume 26 should be filled once more with fresh air,
expelling the foul air from the volume 27 through the medium of valves 10.
The materials to be employed may be of a diverse nature, providing that they can be sterilised in an autoclave without suffering apparent deformation or alteration of characteristics.
The form described of the valves does not affect essentially the invention, as they may well be constructed in varying forms. Nevertheless, the quantity of these valves is independent of the invention, although in the description given, the quantity in respect of each function has been doubled, which means in consequence that the placing of those on the lower shelf is permutable with those on the higher shelf.
The apparatus may also be modified to use the space between the two bellows for the introduction of fresh air :and the enclosure of the interior bellows for the extraction of foul air.
The mask, although not constituting the principal component of the invention, requires the special arrangement described in the foregoing.
What I claim is: 1 I
1. A portable artificial respirator constituting one single unit to be manipulated by hand by one single person and adapted to be directly tied to the face of the person being resuscitated, comprising two tubular bellows having corrugated walls of elastic material both closed at their ends by a single upper and single lower plate, a first free-pitch valve and a first graduated valve in said upper and lower plates respectively for admitting fresh air to 'and from one bellows, a second free-pitch valve and a dish-shaped cover underlying and secured to said lower plate, said cover providing a chamber communicating with said graduated valves, a mask for securement to the mouth 4 of a person to be resuscitated removably secured to said cover without an intervening hose, said mask and cover having communicating passageways, said mask including an elastic thin membrane forming a part of its wall which is rhythmically movable by the air pressure differences to permit observation and control of the working air pressure within the mask, and a handle afiixed to the upper plate for manually pumping the bellows.
2. A portable artificial respirator constituting a single unit to be manipulated by hand by a single person and adapted to be directly tied to the face of the person being resuscitated, comprising two tubular bellows having cor rugated wall-s of elastic material both closed at their ends by a single upper and single lower plate, a first free-pitch valve and a first graduated valve in said upper and lower plates respectively for admitting fresh fluid to and from one bellows, a second free-pitch valve and a second graduated valve in said upper and lower plates respectively for admitting foul fluid to and from said other bellows, said first and second graduated valves serving to limit positive and negative fluid pressure in both bellows, a dishshaped cover underlying and secured to said lower plate, said cover providing a chamber communicating with said graduated valves, a mask for securement to the mouth of a person to be resuscitated removably secured to said cover without an intervening hose, said mask and cover having communicating passageway-s, a handle afilxed to the upper plate for manually pumping the bellows, said handle being hollow and of T-sha-pe to provide a passageway therethrough open at one end for inlet of fresh fluid and communicating at the other end with said free-pitch valve in the upper plate to admit fresh fluid to said one bellows.
3. A portable artificial respirator according to claim 2 wherein said tubular bellows are coaxi-ally mounted between said upper and lower plates, said upper plate having an inward tubular extension adapted to act as a filter holding tube and extending into said one bellows and closed at the bottom except for openings controlled by said free pitch valves, said tubular extension at the top communicating with said hollow handle and forming part of a path for fresh fluid through said handle passageway and free-pitch valve.
4. A portable artificial respirator according to claim 2 wherein each of said bellows at each end is provided with an enlarged, reinforced rim of the same elastic material, said rims fitting under pressure owing to their elasticity within grooves provided in the edges of both upper and lower plates to hermetically seal the bellows.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Re. 24,193 8/56 Emerson 128-29 1,197,232 9/ 16 Pierpont 1-2829 1,266,6'24 5/18 Ramsay 128-29 2,063,043 12/36 McKesson 128--29 2,280,050 4/42 Alexander 12829 2,427,419 9/47 Rausch 128-29 3,091,236 5/63 Delbert 12829 3,106,204 10/63 Paramelle 12-8-29 I FOREIGN PATENTS 1,237,217 6/60 France.
RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner.